Abstract Recent morphological and biochemical investigations of cerebral edema indicate that there are several forms of edematous process. These forms depend upon the agent producing the edema and upon whether gray or white matter is involved. Thus, the electron micrographic and chemical findings in gray and white matter in the generalized edema produced by triethyltin intoxication1-3 differ from the ultrastructural and chemical findings in focal edema produced by intracranial masses.4-6 This paper records the changes in the uptake of S35O4, albumin I131, and Na24 in the gray and the white matter of rat brain with a focal inflammatory edema produced by implantation of purified protein derivative (PPD). In PPD-induced edema, electron micrographs show that the fluid accumulates intracellularly in gray matter and extracellularly in white matter.7 The uptake of S35O4 provides an independent measure of extracellular space.8,9 The uptake References 1. The calculation of water content of edema brain can be obtained from the sodium data as shown below for stained white matter. The blue-stained white matter contained an average of 71.8 mEq per kilogram wet weight. It is assumed that this value for sodium is the sum of the milliequivalents of sodium contained in the edema fluid and the sodium in the "original" nonedematous tissue. The sodium in edema fluid is assumed to be 140×E, where E is the fractional portion of the volume of tissue represented by edema fluid, and 140 represents the milliequivalents per liter of sodium in edema fluid. Since control white matter contained 53 mEq per kilogram of sodium, the contribution from the "original" tissue is 53×(1-E), Then: 71.8=140E+53(1—E) E=0.216 (1-E) =0.784 The dry weight of the total tissue is approximately the dry weight of the "original" tissue or 0.328×0.784, which equals 0.257 × total tissue weight, and water content of total tissue is 1.00-0.257, or 0.743 × total tissue weight. Therefore, there are (0.743÷0.257)×100, or 289, gm of water per 100 gm of dry weight. 2. Torack, R. M.; Terry, R. D.; and Zimmerman, H. M.: The Fine Structure of Cerebral Fluid Accumulation: 2. Swelling Produced by Triethyltin Poisoning and Its Comparison With That in the Human Brain , Amer J Path 36:273, 1960. 3. Aleu, F.; Katzman, R.; and Terry, R. D.: Fine Structure and Electrolyte Analyses of Cerebral Edema Induced by Alkyl Tin Intoxication , J Neuropath Exp Neurol 22:403, 1963.Crossref 4. Katzman, R.; Aleu, F.; and Wilson, C.: Further Observations on Triethyltin Edema , Arch Neurol 9:178, 1963.Crossref 5. Scheinberg, L. C.; Katzman, R.; and Edelman, F.: Studies in Fluid and Electrolyte Relations in Intracranial Mouse Gliomas , Fed Proc 22:317, 1963. 6. Raimondi, A. J.; Evans, J. P.; and Mullan, S.: Studies of Cerebral Edema: 3. Alterations in the White Matter; An Electron Microscopic Study Using Ferritin as a Labeling Compound , Acta Neuropath 2:177, 1962.Crossref 7. Watters, G. V., and Barlow, C. F.: Sulfate Space in Cerebral Edema in Cats, Abstract , J Neuropath Exp Neurol , to be published. 8. Gonatas, N. K.; Zimmerman, H. M.; and Levine, S.: Ultrastructure of Inflammation With Edema in the Rat Brain , Amer J Path 42:455, 1963. 9. Woodbury, D., in discussion, in Biology of Neuroglia , edited by Windle, Springfield, Ill: Charles C Thomas, Publisher, 1958, pp 120-121. 10. Barlow, C. F.; Domek, N. S.; Goldberg, M. A.; and Roth, L. J.: Extracellular Brain Space Measured by S35 Sulfate , Arch Neurol 5:102, 1961.Crossref 11. Levine, S.; Zimmerman, H. M.; Wenk, R.; and Gonatas, N.: Leucoencephalopathies Due to Inflammatory Agents , Amer J Path 42:97, 1962. 12. Magee, P. N.; Stoner, H. B.; and Barnes, J. M.: Poisoning With Triethyltin Compounds , J Path Bact 73:125, 1957.Crossref 13. Katzman, R.: Electrolyte Distribution in Mammalian Central Nervous System: Are Glia High Sodium Cells? Neurology (Minneap) 11:27, 1961.Crossref 14. Penfield, W., and Cone, W.: Acute Swelling of Oligodendroglia: A Specific Type Neuroglia Change , Arch Neurol Psychiat 16:131, 1926.Crossref 15. Greenfield, J. G.: The Histology of Cerebral Edema Associated With Intracranial Tumors (With Special Reference to Changes in the Nerve Fibers of the Centrum Ovale) , Brain 62:129, 1939.Crossref 16. Scheinker, I.: Cerebral Swelling and Edema Associated With Cerebral Tumor: A Histogenetic and Histopathologic Study , Arch Neurol Psychiat 45:117, 1941.Crossref 17. Perret, G. E., and Kernohan, J. W.: Histopathologic Changes of the Brain Caused by Intracranial Tumors (So-Called Edema or Swelling of the Brain) , J Neuropath Exp Neurol 2:341, 1943.Crossref 18. Torack, R. M.; Terry, R. D.; and Zimmerman, H. M.: The Fine Structure of Cerebral Fluid Accumulation: 1. Swelling Secondary to Cold Injury , Amer J Path 35:1135, 1959. 19. Luse, S.: The Ultrastructure of Normal and Abnormal Oligodendroglia , Anat Rec 138:461, 1960.Crossref 20. Farquhar, M., and Hartman, J. F.: Neuroglial Structure and Relationship as Revealed by Electron Microscopy , J Neuropath Exp Neurol 16:18, 1957.Crossref 21. King, L. S.: Some Aspects of the Hemato-Encephalic Barrier , Res Publ Ass Res Nerv Ment Dis 18:150, 1938. 22. Tschirgi, R. D.: Protein Complexes and the Impermeability of the Blood-Brain Barrier to Dyes , Amer J Physiol 163:756, 1950. 23. Dziewiatkowski, D. D.: Effect of Age on Some Aspects of Sulfate Metabolism in the Rat , J Exp Med 99:283, 1954.Crossref 24. Woodbury, D. M.; Timiras, P. S.; Koch, A.; and Ballard, A.: Distribution of Radiochloride, Radiosulfate and Inulin in the Brain of Rats , Fed Proc 15:501, 1956. 25. Horstman, E., and Meves, H.: Die Feinstruktur des molecularen Rindengraues und ihre physiologische Bedeutung , Z Zellforsch 49:569, 1959.Crossref 26. Aleu, F. P.; Edelman, F. L.; Katzman, R.; and Scheinberg, L. C.: Ultrastructural and Biochemical Analysis in Cerebral Edema Associated With Experimental Mouse Gliomas , J Neuropath Exp Neurol , to be published. 27. Katzman, R.; Gonatas, N.; and Levine, S.: Fluid Distribution in PPD Induced Edema: Measurement of S35O4, Albumin I131, and Na24 , Arch Neurol , to be published.
Archives of Neurology – American Medical Association
Published: Jan 1, 1964
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