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Electroencephalographic Sleep of Adolescents With Major Depression and Normal Controls

Electroencephalographic Sleep of Adolescents With Major Depression and Normal Controls Abstract • Forty-nine, mostly outpatient (86%), nonbipolar adolescents, aged Tanner stage III to 18 years, with a current diagnosis of major depressive disorder and 40 adolescents without current presence or history of psychiatric disorder were studied polysomnographically for three consecutive nights. Sleep latency was significantly longer in the depressive groups. The nonendogenous depressive patients exhibited significantly more awake time and lower sleep efficiency during the sleep period. No significant group differences were found for first rapid eye movement (REM) period latency, REM density, or any other REM sleep measures. Age correlated significantly with REM latency and delta sleep time, especially among depressive patients. No significant correlations between sleep measures and severity of illness were found. It appears that the classic REM sleep findings associated with the adult depressive syndrome are not present among depressive adolescents, indicating a later ontogeny for these abnormalities. References 1. Puig-Antich J, Goetz R, Hanlon C, Tabrizi MA, Davies M, Weitzman ED: Sleep architecture and REM sleep measures in prepubertal major depressives during an episode . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1982;39:932-939.Crossref 2. Kupfer DJ, Foster FG: EEG sleep and depression , in Williams RL, Karacan I (eds): Sleep Disorders . New York, John Wiley & Sons Inc, 1979, pp 163-203. 3. Kupfer D: REM latency: A psychobiological marker for primary depressive disease . Biol Psychiatry 1976;11:159-174. 4. Vogel G: A review of REM sleep deprivation . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1975;36:749-760.Crossref 5. Spiker DG, Coble P, Cofsky J, Foster FG, Kupfer DJ: EEG sleep and severity of depression . Biol Psychiatry 1978;13:485-488. 6. Gillin JC, Duncan W, Pettigrew KD, Frankel BJ, Snyder F: Successful separation of depressed, normal and insomniac subjects by EEG sleep data . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1979;36:85-90.Crossref 7. Young W, Knowles J, MacLean A, Boag L, McConville BJ: The sleep of childhood depressives: Comparison with age matched controls . Biol Psychiatry 1982;17:1163-1168. 8. Williams RL, Karacan I, Hursch C: EEG of Human Sleep: Clinical Applications . New York, John Wiley & Sons Inc, 1974. 9. Gillin JC, Duncan WC, Murphy DL, Post RM, Wehr TA, Goodwin FK, Wyatt RJ, Bunney WE: Age related changes in sleep in depressed and normal subjects . Psychiatry Res 1981;4:73-78.Crossref 10. Miles LE, Dement WC: Sleep and aging . Sleep 1980;3:119-220. 11. Ulrich RF, Shaw DH, Kupfer DJ: Aging, depression and sleep . Sleep 1980;3:31-40. 12. Lahmeyer HW, Poznanski EO, Bellur SN: EEG sleep in depressed adolescents . Am J Psychiatry 1983;140:1150-1153. 13. Chambers WJ, Puig-Antich J, Hirsch M, Paez P, Ambrosini P, Tabrizi MA, Davies M: The assessment of affective disorders in children and adolescents by semi-structured interview . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1985;42:696-702.Crossref 14. Orvaschel H, Puig-Antich J, Chambers WJ, Tabriti MA, Johnson R: Retrospective assessment of child psychopathology with the K-SADS-E . J Am Acad Child Psychiatry 1982;21:392-397.Crossref 15. Marshall WA, Tanner JM: Variations in patterns of pubertal changes in girls . Arch Dis Child 1969;44:291-303.Crossref 16. Marshall WA, Tanner JM: Variations in pattern of pubertal changes in boys . Arch Dis Child 1970;45:13-23.Crossref 17. Spitzer RL, Endicott J, Robins E: Research Diagnostic Criteria: Rationale and reliability . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1978;35:773-782.Crossref 18. American Psychiatric Association Committee on Nomenclature and Statistics: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , ed 3. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 1980. 19. Rechtschaffen A, Kales A (eds): A Manual of Standardized Terminology, Techniques and Scoring System for Sleep Stages of Human Subjects . Los Angeles, Brain Information Service, Brain Research Institute, UCLA, 1968. 20. Hollingshead AB: Four Factor Index of Social Status: Working Paper . New Haven, Conn, Yale University, 1976. 21. Puig-Antich J, Perel JM, Lupatkin W, Chambers W, Tabrizi MA, Stiller R: Plasma levels of imipramine (IMI) and desmethylimipramine (DMI) and clinical response in prepubertal major depressive disorder: A preliminary report . J Am Acad Child Psychiatry 1979;18:616-627.Crossref 22. Strober M: Familial aspects of depressive disorders in early adolescence , in Weller ED, Weller RA (eds): Major Depressive Disorders in Children . Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Press, 1984, pp 37-48. 23. Strober M, Carlson G: Bipolar illness in adolescents with major depression . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1982;39:549-555.Crossref 24. Kovacs M, Feinberg TL, Crouse-Novak MA, Paulauskas S, Finkelstein R: Depressive disorders in childhood: I. A longitudinal prospective study of characteristics and recovery . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1984;41:219-239. 25. Kovacs M, Feinberg TL, Crouse-Novak MA, Pollack M, Finkelstein R: Depressive disorders in childhood: II. A longitudinal study of the risk for a subsequent major depression . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1984;41:643-649.Crossref 26. Kovacs M: Bipolar outcome in childhood depression. Read before the World Congress of Biology and Psychiatry, Philadelphia, October 1985. 27. Strober M: Follow-up of affective disorder patients. Read before the annual meeting of the American Psychiatric Association, New York, May 1983. 28. Puig-Antich J, Goetz R, Hanlon C, Tabrizi MA, Davies M, Weitzman ED: Sleep architecture and REM sleep measures in prepubertal major depressives: Studies during recovery from a major depressive episode in a drug-free state . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1983;40:187-192.Crossref 29. Hawkins D, Taub J, Van de Castle R: Extended sleep (hypersomnia) in young depressed patients . Am J Psychiatry 1985;142:905-910. 30. Coble P, Kupfer DJ, Taska LS, Kane J: EEG sleep of normal healthy children: I. Findings using standard measurement methods . Sleep 1984;7:289-303. 31. Quitkin F, Rabkin J, Stewart J, McGrath P, Harrison W, Davies M, Goetz R, Puig-Antich J: Sleep of atypical depressives . J Affective Disord 1985;8:61-67.Crossref 32. Kerkhofs M, Hoffman G, DeMartelare V, Linkowski P, Mendlewicz J: Sleep EEG recordings in depressive disorder . J Affective Disord 1985;9:47-53.Crossref 33. Akiskal H, Lemmi H, Dickson H, King D, Yerevanian B, Van Valkenburg C: Chronic depressions: II. Sleep EEG differentiation of primary dysthymic disorders from anxious depressions . J Affective Disord 1984;6:287-295.Crossref 34. Adam K: Sleep is changed by blood sampling through an indwelling venous catheter . Sleep 1982;5:154-158. 35. Jarrett DB, Greenhouse JB, Thompson SB, McEachron A, Coble P, Kupfer DJ: Effect of nocturnal intravenous cannulation upon sleep-EEG measures . Biol Psychiatry 1984;19:1537-1550. 36. Vogel G, Vogel F, McAbee R, Thurmond A: Improvement of depression by REM sleep deprivation . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1980;3:247-253.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of General Psychiatry American Medical Association

Electroencephalographic Sleep of Adolescents With Major Depression and Normal Controls

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1987 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-990X
eISSN
1598-3636
DOI
10.1001/archpsyc.1987.01800130069009
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract • Forty-nine, mostly outpatient (86%), nonbipolar adolescents, aged Tanner stage III to 18 years, with a current diagnosis of major depressive disorder and 40 adolescents without current presence or history of psychiatric disorder were studied polysomnographically for three consecutive nights. Sleep latency was significantly longer in the depressive groups. The nonendogenous depressive patients exhibited significantly more awake time and lower sleep efficiency during the sleep period. No significant group differences were found for first rapid eye movement (REM) period latency, REM density, or any other REM sleep measures. Age correlated significantly with REM latency and delta sleep time, especially among depressive patients. No significant correlations between sleep measures and severity of illness were found. It appears that the classic REM sleep findings associated with the adult depressive syndrome are not present among depressive adolescents, indicating a later ontogeny for these abnormalities. References 1. Puig-Antich J, Goetz R, Hanlon C, Tabrizi MA, Davies M, Weitzman ED: Sleep architecture and REM sleep measures in prepubertal major depressives during an episode . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1982;39:932-939.Crossref 2. Kupfer DJ, Foster FG: EEG sleep and depression , in Williams RL, Karacan I (eds): Sleep Disorders . New York, John Wiley & Sons Inc, 1979, pp 163-203. 3. Kupfer D: REM latency: A psychobiological marker for primary depressive disease . Biol Psychiatry 1976;11:159-174. 4. Vogel G: A review of REM sleep deprivation . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1975;36:749-760.Crossref 5. Spiker DG, Coble P, Cofsky J, Foster FG, Kupfer DJ: EEG sleep and severity of depression . Biol Psychiatry 1978;13:485-488. 6. Gillin JC, Duncan W, Pettigrew KD, Frankel BJ, Snyder F: Successful separation of depressed, normal and insomniac subjects by EEG sleep data . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1979;36:85-90.Crossref 7. Young W, Knowles J, MacLean A, Boag L, McConville BJ: The sleep of childhood depressives: Comparison with age matched controls . Biol Psychiatry 1982;17:1163-1168. 8. Williams RL, Karacan I, Hursch C: EEG of Human Sleep: Clinical Applications . New York, John Wiley & Sons Inc, 1974. 9. Gillin JC, Duncan WC, Murphy DL, Post RM, Wehr TA, Goodwin FK, Wyatt RJ, Bunney WE: Age related changes in sleep in depressed and normal subjects . Psychiatry Res 1981;4:73-78.Crossref 10. Miles LE, Dement WC: Sleep and aging . Sleep 1980;3:119-220. 11. Ulrich RF, Shaw DH, Kupfer DJ: Aging, depression and sleep . Sleep 1980;3:31-40. 12. Lahmeyer HW, Poznanski EO, Bellur SN: EEG sleep in depressed adolescents . Am J Psychiatry 1983;140:1150-1153. 13. Chambers WJ, Puig-Antich J, Hirsch M, Paez P, Ambrosini P, Tabrizi MA, Davies M: The assessment of affective disorders in children and adolescents by semi-structured interview . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1985;42:696-702.Crossref 14. Orvaschel H, Puig-Antich J, Chambers WJ, Tabriti MA, Johnson R: Retrospective assessment of child psychopathology with the K-SADS-E . J Am Acad Child Psychiatry 1982;21:392-397.Crossref 15. Marshall WA, Tanner JM: Variations in patterns of pubertal changes in girls . Arch Dis Child 1969;44:291-303.Crossref 16. Marshall WA, Tanner JM: Variations in pattern of pubertal changes in boys . Arch Dis Child 1970;45:13-23.Crossref 17. Spitzer RL, Endicott J, Robins E: Research Diagnostic Criteria: Rationale and reliability . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1978;35:773-782.Crossref 18. American Psychiatric Association Committee on Nomenclature and Statistics: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , ed 3. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 1980. 19. Rechtschaffen A, Kales A (eds): A Manual of Standardized Terminology, Techniques and Scoring System for Sleep Stages of Human Subjects . Los Angeles, Brain Information Service, Brain Research Institute, UCLA, 1968. 20. Hollingshead AB: Four Factor Index of Social Status: Working Paper . New Haven, Conn, Yale University, 1976. 21. Puig-Antich J, Perel JM, Lupatkin W, Chambers W, Tabrizi MA, Stiller R: Plasma levels of imipramine (IMI) and desmethylimipramine (DMI) and clinical response in prepubertal major depressive disorder: A preliminary report . J Am Acad Child Psychiatry 1979;18:616-627.Crossref 22. Strober M: Familial aspects of depressive disorders in early adolescence , in Weller ED, Weller RA (eds): Major Depressive Disorders in Children . Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Press, 1984, pp 37-48. 23. Strober M, Carlson G: Bipolar illness in adolescents with major depression . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1982;39:549-555.Crossref 24. Kovacs M, Feinberg TL, Crouse-Novak MA, Paulauskas S, Finkelstein R: Depressive disorders in childhood: I. A longitudinal prospective study of characteristics and recovery . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1984;41:219-239. 25. Kovacs M, Feinberg TL, Crouse-Novak MA, Pollack M, Finkelstein R: Depressive disorders in childhood: II. A longitudinal study of the risk for a subsequent major depression . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1984;41:643-649.Crossref 26. Kovacs M: Bipolar outcome in childhood depression. Read before the World Congress of Biology and Psychiatry, Philadelphia, October 1985. 27. Strober M: Follow-up of affective disorder patients. Read before the annual meeting of the American Psychiatric Association, New York, May 1983. 28. Puig-Antich J, Goetz R, Hanlon C, Tabrizi MA, Davies M, Weitzman ED: Sleep architecture and REM sleep measures in prepubertal major depressives: Studies during recovery from a major depressive episode in a drug-free state . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1983;40:187-192.Crossref 29. Hawkins D, Taub J, Van de Castle R: Extended sleep (hypersomnia) in young depressed patients . Am J Psychiatry 1985;142:905-910. 30. Coble P, Kupfer DJ, Taska LS, Kane J: EEG sleep of normal healthy children: I. Findings using standard measurement methods . Sleep 1984;7:289-303. 31. Quitkin F, Rabkin J, Stewart J, McGrath P, Harrison W, Davies M, Goetz R, Puig-Antich J: Sleep of atypical depressives . J Affective Disord 1985;8:61-67.Crossref 32. Kerkhofs M, Hoffman G, DeMartelare V, Linkowski P, Mendlewicz J: Sleep EEG recordings in depressive disorder . J Affective Disord 1985;9:47-53.Crossref 33. Akiskal H, Lemmi H, Dickson H, King D, Yerevanian B, Van Valkenburg C: Chronic depressions: II. Sleep EEG differentiation of primary dysthymic disorders from anxious depressions . J Affective Disord 1984;6:287-295.Crossref 34. Adam K: Sleep is changed by blood sampling through an indwelling venous catheter . Sleep 1982;5:154-158. 35. Jarrett DB, Greenhouse JB, Thompson SB, McEachron A, Coble P, Kupfer DJ: Effect of nocturnal intravenous cannulation upon sleep-EEG measures . Biol Psychiatry 1984;19:1537-1550. 36. Vogel G, Vogel F, McAbee R, Thurmond A: Improvement of depression by REM sleep deprivation . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1980;3:247-253.Crossref

Journal

Archives of General PsychiatryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Jan 1, 1987

References