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ELECTRICAL STIMULATION OF THE CORTEX CEREBRI OF CATS: RESPONSES ELICITABLE IN CHRONIC EXPERIMENTS THROUGH IMPLANTED ELECTRODES

ELECTRICAL STIMULATION OF THE CORTEX CEREBRI OF CATS: RESPONSES ELICITABLE IN CHRONIC EXPERIMENTS... Abstract Although much has been done to advance knowledge of the effect of electrical stimulation of the cortex cerebri in various species of animals since the primary work in this field, interpretation of the results has been difficult because of the multiple factors for variation which appear in every experiment. One of the most potent influences for variation of responses to cortical stimulation is the state of anesthesia. During the exploration of cortices of normal cats we frequently observed that a state of lightness of anesthesia was accompanied by a lowered threshold to stimulation and, conversely, that when the cat began to make spontaneous movements because of the lightness of anesthesia and the ether supply was increased, it was immediately necessary to increase the strength of stimulus to produce the usual response from a point. The depth of narcosis could be made so great that the cortex failed to respond to References 1. Ward, James W., and Clark, Sam L.: Specific Responses Elicitable from Subdivisions of the Motor Cortex of the Cerebrum of the Cat , J. Comp. Neurol. 63:49, 1935.Crossref 2. Loucks, R. B.: Preliminary Report of a Technique for Stimulation or Destruction of Tissues Beneath the Integument and the Establishing of Conditioned Reactions with Faradization of the Cerebral Cortex , J. Comp. Psychol. 16:439, 1933.Crossref 3. Chaffee, E. Leon, and Light, Richard U.: A Method for the Remote Control of Electrical Stimulation of the Nervous System , Yale J. Biol. & Med. 7:83, 1934. 4. Cooper, S., and Denny-Brown, D. E.: Responses to Stimulation of the Motor Area of the Cerebral Cortex , Proc. Roy. Soc. , London, s.B 102:222, 1927. 5. Ferrier, David: Experimental Researches in Cerebral Physiology and Pathology , West Riding Lun. Asyl. Rep. 3:30, 1873. 6. Leyton, A. S. F., and Sherrington, C. S.: Observations of the Excitable Cortex of the Chimpanzee, Orang-Utang, and Gorilla , Quart. J. Exper. Physiol. 11:135, 1917. 7. Franz, Shepherd I.: Variations in the Distribution of the Motor Centers , Psychological Monograph, no. 81, Princeton, N. J., Psychological Review Company, 1915, pt. 2. 8. Lashley, K. S.: Temporal Variation in the Function of the Gyrus Precentralis in Primates , Am. J. Physiol. 65:585, 1923. 9. Derbyshire, A. S.; Rempel, B.; Forbes, A., and Lambert, E. F.: The Effects of Anaesthetics on Action Potentials in the Cerebral Cortex of the Cat , Am. J. Physiol. 116:577, 1936. 10. Dusser de Barenne, J. G.: The Disturbance After Laminar Thermocoagulation of the Motor Cerebral Cortex , Brain 57:517, 1934. 11. Boynton, E. P., and Hines, Marion: On the Question of Threshold in Stimulation of the Motor Cortex , Am. J. Physiol. 106:175, 1933. 12. Tower, S. S., and Hines, M.: Dissociation of Pyramidal and Extrapyramidal Functions of Frontal Lobe , Science 82:376 ( (Oct. 18) ) 1935. 13. Magoun, H. W.; Ranson, S. W., and Fisher, C.: Corticifugal Pathways for Mastication, Lapping and Other Motor Functions in the Cat , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 30:292 ( (Aug.) ) 1933. 14. Bard, P., and Brooks, C. M.: Localized Cortical Control of Some Postural Reactions in the Cat and Rat Together with Evidence That Small Cortical Remnants May Function Normally , A. Research Nerv. & Ment. Dis., Proc. 13: 107, 1932. 15. Notkin, J.; Coombs, H. C., and Pike, F. H.: Clinical and Experimental Observations on the Babinski Reversal, Cardiovascular Reactions, Respiratory and Pupillary Changes During the Convulsive and Post-Convulsive Stages of General and Experimental Epilepsy , Am. J. Psychiat. 11:679, 1932. 16. Dusser de Barenne, J. G.: Experimental Researches on Sensory Localizations in the Cerebral Cortex , Quart. J. Exper. Physiol. 9:355, 1916. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry American Medical Association

ELECTRICAL STIMULATION OF THE CORTEX CEREBRI OF CATS: RESPONSES ELICITABLE IN CHRONIC EXPERIMENTS THROUGH IMPLANTED ELECTRODES

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1937 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0096-6754
DOI
10.1001/archneurpsyc.1937.02260230025002
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract Although much has been done to advance knowledge of the effect of electrical stimulation of the cortex cerebri in various species of animals since the primary work in this field, interpretation of the results has been difficult because of the multiple factors for variation which appear in every experiment. One of the most potent influences for variation of responses to cortical stimulation is the state of anesthesia. During the exploration of cortices of normal cats we frequently observed that a state of lightness of anesthesia was accompanied by a lowered threshold to stimulation and, conversely, that when the cat began to make spontaneous movements because of the lightness of anesthesia and the ether supply was increased, it was immediately necessary to increase the strength of stimulus to produce the usual response from a point. The depth of narcosis could be made so great that the cortex failed to respond to References 1. Ward, James W., and Clark, Sam L.: Specific Responses Elicitable from Subdivisions of the Motor Cortex of the Cerebrum of the Cat , J. Comp. Neurol. 63:49, 1935.Crossref 2. Loucks, R. B.: Preliminary Report of a Technique for Stimulation or Destruction of Tissues Beneath the Integument and the Establishing of Conditioned Reactions with Faradization of the Cerebral Cortex , J. Comp. Psychol. 16:439, 1933.Crossref 3. Chaffee, E. Leon, and Light, Richard U.: A Method for the Remote Control of Electrical Stimulation of the Nervous System , Yale J. Biol. & Med. 7:83, 1934. 4. Cooper, S., and Denny-Brown, D. E.: Responses to Stimulation of the Motor Area of the Cerebral Cortex , Proc. Roy. Soc. , London, s.B 102:222, 1927. 5. Ferrier, David: Experimental Researches in Cerebral Physiology and Pathology , West Riding Lun. Asyl. Rep. 3:30, 1873. 6. Leyton, A. S. F., and Sherrington, C. S.: Observations of the Excitable Cortex of the Chimpanzee, Orang-Utang, and Gorilla , Quart. J. Exper. Physiol. 11:135, 1917. 7. Franz, Shepherd I.: Variations in the Distribution of the Motor Centers , Psychological Monograph, no. 81, Princeton, N. J., Psychological Review Company, 1915, pt. 2. 8. Lashley, K. S.: Temporal Variation in the Function of the Gyrus Precentralis in Primates , Am. J. Physiol. 65:585, 1923. 9. Derbyshire, A. S.; Rempel, B.; Forbes, A., and Lambert, E. F.: The Effects of Anaesthetics on Action Potentials in the Cerebral Cortex of the Cat , Am. J. Physiol. 116:577, 1936. 10. Dusser de Barenne, J. G.: The Disturbance After Laminar Thermocoagulation of the Motor Cerebral Cortex , Brain 57:517, 1934. 11. Boynton, E. P., and Hines, Marion: On the Question of Threshold in Stimulation of the Motor Cortex , Am. J. Physiol. 106:175, 1933. 12. Tower, S. S., and Hines, M.: Dissociation of Pyramidal and Extrapyramidal Functions of Frontal Lobe , Science 82:376 ( (Oct. 18) ) 1935. 13. Magoun, H. W.; Ranson, S. W., and Fisher, C.: Corticifugal Pathways for Mastication, Lapping and Other Motor Functions in the Cat , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 30:292 ( (Aug.) ) 1933. 14. Bard, P., and Brooks, C. M.: Localized Cortical Control of Some Postural Reactions in the Cat and Rat Together with Evidence That Small Cortical Remnants May Function Normally , A. Research Nerv. & Ment. Dis., Proc. 13: 107, 1932. 15. Notkin, J.; Coombs, H. C., and Pike, F. H.: Clinical and Experimental Observations on the Babinski Reversal, Cardiovascular Reactions, Respiratory and Pupillary Changes During the Convulsive and Post-Convulsive Stages of General and Experimental Epilepsy , Am. J. Psychiat. 11:679, 1932. 16. Dusser de Barenne, J. G.: Experimental Researches on Sensory Localizations in the Cerebral Cortex , Quart. J. Exper. Physiol. 9:355, 1916.

Journal

Archives of Neurology & PsychiatryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Nov 1, 1937

References