Get 20M+ Full-Text Papers For Less Than $1.50/day. Start a 14-Day Trial for You or Your Team.

Learn More →

ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY OF THE CAT'S BRAIN

ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY OF THE CAT'S BRAIN Abstract These experiments on the electrical activity of the brain, begun at the close of 1932, were planned in part to observe the types of potential that appear and the influence of various chemical and other conditions on them; in part to establish an "electrical atlas" relating activity to anatomic regions. The latter end was furthered by introducing the Horsley-Clarke stereotaxic apparatus into our armamentarium during work continued in the first half of 1934. At this time research had to be interrupted for over a year. Although preliminary reports (Gerard, Marshall and Saul1) covering our essential observations have appeared, the full description was withheld in the hope of securing a more complete set of photographic records than we had accumulated. Since much interest in this field is now evident and our atlas may aid other investigators, we now report our findings in detail. Many of our observations have been obtained References 1. Gerard, R. W.; Marshall, W. H., and Saul, L. J.: Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 30:1123, 1933 2. Am. J. Physiol. 109:38, 1934. 3. Horsley, V., and Clarke, R. H.: Brain 31:45, 1908. 4. Clarke, R. H., and Henderson, E. E.: J. f. Psychol. u. Neurol. 21:391, 1911. 5. Ingram, W. R.; Ranson, S. W.; Hannett, F. I.; Zeiss, F. R., and Terwilliger, E. H.: Results of Stimulation of the Tegmentum with the Horsley-Clarke Stereotaxic Apparatus , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 28:513 ( (Sept.) ) 1932. 6. Mr. R. Kittel, of the department of chemistry of the University of Chicago, constructed a slightly modified and satisfactory instrument for us, and since then for a dozen others. The price is $150, without special accessories. 7. Adrian, E. D., and Bronk, D. W.: J. Physiol. 67:119, 1929. 8. Audubert, R.: Phénoménes photoélectrochemique , Actualités scien. et indust. 1934, vol. 91. 9. Fry, G. A., and Bartley, S. H.: J. Cell. & Comp. Physiol. 5:291, 1934. 10. Gerard, R. W., and Marshall, W. H.: Am. J. Physiol. 104:575, 1933. 11. Offner, F., and Gerard, R. W.: Science 84:209, 1936. 12. Saul, L. J., and Davis, H.: Action Currents in the Central Nervous System: I. Action Currents of the Auditory Tracts , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 28:1104 ( (Nov.) ) 1932. 13. Davis, H., and Derbyshire, A. J.: Am. J. Physiol. 113:476, 1935. 14. Gerard, R. W., and Young, J. E., to be published. 15. Over thirteen points in six cats, located well within the cornu ammonis, according to the Horsley-Clarke coordinates, gave strong optic responses and often optic rhythms. In view of the heterodoxy of attributing optic activity to this structure, however, a special experiment was made as a control. The needle was inserted at A2, L8 to a depth of + 3.5 mm., with the usual observations of activity, and the brain was then perfused in situ with a solution of formaldehyde. Subsequent anatomic examination showed the needle track exactly in the correct position (chart for figure 13). Optic responses were present above the position + 8 (optic radiations), showed a slight change in character below the position + 8 (top of the cornu ammonis) and a marked change at the position + 6 (center of the cornu) and disappeared at the position +4 (bottom of the cornu ammonis). Since the optic tract, the geniculate body and the rediations are anterior, superior or lateral to the cornu ammonis, the position in the ventromedial aspect and near the posterior margin of this structure minimizes the possibility of the electric spread Furthermore, the change in the character of response in the center of the cornu ammonis speaks against a diffuse pick-up, as does other evidence previously indicated. Spread from the optic radiations along the grounded shank of the needle, which passes through them, is also excluded, for if it were present responses would not disappear sharply when the needle tip is advanced from the position + 4 to the position + 3.5 after spreading from + 8 to + 4. Tactile responses from the contralateral nares were also obtained in the cornu. 16. Poljak, S.: J. Comp. Neurol. 44:197, 1927. 17. Dusser de Barenne, J. G., and McCulloch, W. S.: Am. J. Physiol. 114: 692, 1936. 18. Wang, G. H.: Chinese J. Physiol. 8:121, 1934. 19. Bartley, S. H.: Am. J. Physiol. 110:666, 1935. 20. Hartline, H. K.: Am. J. Physiol. 113:59, 1935. 21. Adrian, E. D., and Yamagiwa, K.: Brain 58:323, 1935. 22. Gerard and Serota ( Am. J. Physiol. 116:59, 1936) 23. Gerard, R. W., and Magoun, H. W., to be published. 24. Ectors, L., and Brookens, N.: Am. J. Physiol. 116:42, 1936. 25. Gerard, R. W.: Tr. Am. Neurol. A. , to be published 26. Cold Spring Harbor Symp., Quant. Biol., to be published. 27. Kornmüller, A. E.: (a) Biol. Rev. 10:383, 1935 28. Fortschr. d. Neurol., Psychiat. 7:391 ( (Sept.) ) 29. 414 (Oct.) 1935. 30. Lashley, K.: Brain Mechanisms and Intelligence , Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1929. 31. Berger, H.: Naturwissenschaften 23:122, 1935. 32. Dubner, H.; Gerard, R. W., and Kobrak, H.: Am. J. Physiol. 116:38, 1936. 33. Berger, H.: Arch. f. Psychiat. 101:452, 1933.Crossref 34. Forbes, A.; Derbyshire, A. J.; Remple, B., and Lambert, E.: Am. J. Physiol. 113:43, 1935. 35. Bremer, F.: Bruxelles-méd. 16:330 ( (Dec. 29) ) 1935. 36. Adrian, E. D., and Buytendijk, F. J. J.: J. Physiol. 71:121, 1931. 37. Adrian, E. D., and Matthews, B. H. C.: J. Physiol. 81:440, 1934. 38. Brevée, J. F. G., and Dusser de Barenne, J. G.: J. Physiol. 61:81, 1926. 39. Adrian, E. D., and Matthews, R.: J. Physiol. 65:273, 1928. 40. Bartley, S. H., and Bishop, G.: Am. J. Physiol. 103:159, 1933. 41. Loomis, A. L.; Harvey, E. N., and Hobart, G.: J. Exper. Psychol. 19: 249, 1936.Crossref 42. Gasser, H. S., and Newcomer, H. S.: Am. J. Physiol. 57:1, 1921. 43. Bronk, D. W.: The Nervous Mechanism of Cardio-Vascular Control, Harvey Lectures, 1933-1934 , Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Company, 1935, p. 245. 44. Herrick, C. J.: Brains of Rats and Men , Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1926, p. 317. 45. Kubie, L. S.: Brain 53:166, 1930.Crossref 46. Ranson, S. W., and Hinsey, J. C.: Am. J. Physiol. 94:471, 1930. 47. Lorente de Nó, R.: J. f. Psychol. u. Neurol. 45:381, 1934. 48. Weiss, P. A.: J. Comp. Neurol. 61:135, 1935.Crossref 49. Lillie, R. S.: Protoplasmic Action and Nervous Action , Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1932. 50. Adrian, E. D.: Proc. Roy. Soc., London, s.B 106:596, 1930.Crossref 51. Barron, D. H., and Matthews, B. H. C.: J. Physiol. 85:73, 1935. 52. Child, C. M.: The Origin and Development of the Nervous System , Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1921. 53. Dusser de Barenne, J. G.: Central Levels of Sensory Integration , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 34:768 ( (Oct.) ) 1935. 54. Stopford, J. S. B.: Sensation and the Sensory Pathway , New York, Longmans, Green & Co., 1930. 55. Hoagland, H.: Pacemakers in Relation to Aspects of Behavior , New York, The Macmillan Company, 1935. 56. Gerard, R. W., and Magoun, H. W.: Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 34: 755, 1936. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry American Medical Association

ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY OF THE CAT'S BRAIN

Loading next page...
 
/lp/american-medical-association/electrical-activity-of-the-cat-s-brain-TOdPonfM8G
Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1936 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0096-6754
DOI
10.1001/archneurpsyc.1936.02260100002001
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract These experiments on the electrical activity of the brain, begun at the close of 1932, were planned in part to observe the types of potential that appear and the influence of various chemical and other conditions on them; in part to establish an "electrical atlas" relating activity to anatomic regions. The latter end was furthered by introducing the Horsley-Clarke stereotaxic apparatus into our armamentarium during work continued in the first half of 1934. At this time research had to be interrupted for over a year. Although preliminary reports (Gerard, Marshall and Saul1) covering our essential observations have appeared, the full description was withheld in the hope of securing a more complete set of photographic records than we had accumulated. Since much interest in this field is now evident and our atlas may aid other investigators, we now report our findings in detail. Many of our observations have been obtained References 1. Gerard, R. W.; Marshall, W. H., and Saul, L. J.: Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 30:1123, 1933 2. Am. J. Physiol. 109:38, 1934. 3. Horsley, V., and Clarke, R. H.: Brain 31:45, 1908. 4. Clarke, R. H., and Henderson, E. E.: J. f. Psychol. u. Neurol. 21:391, 1911. 5. Ingram, W. R.; Ranson, S. W.; Hannett, F. I.; Zeiss, F. R., and Terwilliger, E. H.: Results of Stimulation of the Tegmentum with the Horsley-Clarke Stereotaxic Apparatus , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 28:513 ( (Sept.) ) 1932. 6. Mr. R. Kittel, of the department of chemistry of the University of Chicago, constructed a slightly modified and satisfactory instrument for us, and since then for a dozen others. The price is $150, without special accessories. 7. Adrian, E. D., and Bronk, D. W.: J. Physiol. 67:119, 1929. 8. Audubert, R.: Phénoménes photoélectrochemique , Actualités scien. et indust. 1934, vol. 91. 9. Fry, G. A., and Bartley, S. H.: J. Cell. & Comp. Physiol. 5:291, 1934. 10. Gerard, R. W., and Marshall, W. H.: Am. J. Physiol. 104:575, 1933. 11. Offner, F., and Gerard, R. W.: Science 84:209, 1936. 12. Saul, L. J., and Davis, H.: Action Currents in the Central Nervous System: I. Action Currents of the Auditory Tracts , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 28:1104 ( (Nov.) ) 1932. 13. Davis, H., and Derbyshire, A. J.: Am. J. Physiol. 113:476, 1935. 14. Gerard, R. W., and Young, J. E., to be published. 15. Over thirteen points in six cats, located well within the cornu ammonis, according to the Horsley-Clarke coordinates, gave strong optic responses and often optic rhythms. In view of the heterodoxy of attributing optic activity to this structure, however, a special experiment was made as a control. The needle was inserted at A2, L8 to a depth of + 3.5 mm., with the usual observations of activity, and the brain was then perfused in situ with a solution of formaldehyde. Subsequent anatomic examination showed the needle track exactly in the correct position (chart for figure 13). Optic responses were present above the position + 8 (optic radiations), showed a slight change in character below the position + 8 (top of the cornu ammonis) and a marked change at the position + 6 (center of the cornu) and disappeared at the position +4 (bottom of the cornu ammonis). Since the optic tract, the geniculate body and the rediations are anterior, superior or lateral to the cornu ammonis, the position in the ventromedial aspect and near the posterior margin of this structure minimizes the possibility of the electric spread Furthermore, the change in the character of response in the center of the cornu ammonis speaks against a diffuse pick-up, as does other evidence previously indicated. Spread from the optic radiations along the grounded shank of the needle, which passes through them, is also excluded, for if it were present responses would not disappear sharply when the needle tip is advanced from the position + 4 to the position + 3.5 after spreading from + 8 to + 4. Tactile responses from the contralateral nares were also obtained in the cornu. 16. Poljak, S.: J. Comp. Neurol. 44:197, 1927. 17. Dusser de Barenne, J. G., and McCulloch, W. S.: Am. J. Physiol. 114: 692, 1936. 18. Wang, G. H.: Chinese J. Physiol. 8:121, 1934. 19. Bartley, S. H.: Am. J. Physiol. 110:666, 1935. 20. Hartline, H. K.: Am. J. Physiol. 113:59, 1935. 21. Adrian, E. D., and Yamagiwa, K.: Brain 58:323, 1935. 22. Gerard and Serota ( Am. J. Physiol. 116:59, 1936) 23. Gerard, R. W., and Magoun, H. W., to be published. 24. Ectors, L., and Brookens, N.: Am. J. Physiol. 116:42, 1936. 25. Gerard, R. W.: Tr. Am. Neurol. A. , to be published 26. Cold Spring Harbor Symp., Quant. Biol., to be published. 27. Kornmüller, A. E.: (a) Biol. Rev. 10:383, 1935 28. Fortschr. d. Neurol., Psychiat. 7:391 ( (Sept.) ) 29. 414 (Oct.) 1935. 30. Lashley, K.: Brain Mechanisms and Intelligence , Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1929. 31. Berger, H.: Naturwissenschaften 23:122, 1935. 32. Dubner, H.; Gerard, R. W., and Kobrak, H.: Am. J. Physiol. 116:38, 1936. 33. Berger, H.: Arch. f. Psychiat. 101:452, 1933.Crossref 34. Forbes, A.; Derbyshire, A. J.; Remple, B., and Lambert, E.: Am. J. Physiol. 113:43, 1935. 35. Bremer, F.: Bruxelles-méd. 16:330 ( (Dec. 29) ) 1935. 36. Adrian, E. D., and Buytendijk, F. J. J.: J. Physiol. 71:121, 1931. 37. Adrian, E. D., and Matthews, B. H. C.: J. Physiol. 81:440, 1934. 38. Brevée, J. F. G., and Dusser de Barenne, J. G.: J. Physiol. 61:81, 1926. 39. Adrian, E. D., and Matthews, R.: J. Physiol. 65:273, 1928. 40. Bartley, S. H., and Bishop, G.: Am. J. Physiol. 103:159, 1933. 41. Loomis, A. L.; Harvey, E. N., and Hobart, G.: J. Exper. Psychol. 19: 249, 1936.Crossref 42. Gasser, H. S., and Newcomer, H. S.: Am. J. Physiol. 57:1, 1921. 43. Bronk, D. W.: The Nervous Mechanism of Cardio-Vascular Control, Harvey Lectures, 1933-1934 , Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Company, 1935, p. 245. 44. Herrick, C. J.: Brains of Rats and Men , Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1926, p. 317. 45. Kubie, L. S.: Brain 53:166, 1930.Crossref 46. Ranson, S. W., and Hinsey, J. C.: Am. J. Physiol. 94:471, 1930. 47. Lorente de Nó, R.: J. f. Psychol. u. Neurol. 45:381, 1934. 48. Weiss, P. A.: J. Comp. Neurol. 61:135, 1935.Crossref 49. Lillie, R. S.: Protoplasmic Action and Nervous Action , Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1932. 50. Adrian, E. D.: Proc. Roy. Soc., London, s.B 106:596, 1930.Crossref 51. Barron, D. H., and Matthews, B. H. C.: J. Physiol. 85:73, 1935. 52. Child, C. M.: The Origin and Development of the Nervous System , Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1921. 53. Dusser de Barenne, J. G.: Central Levels of Sensory Integration , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 34:768 ( (Oct.) ) 1935. 54. Stopford, J. S. B.: Sensation and the Sensory Pathway , New York, Longmans, Green & Co., 1930. 55. Hoagland, H.: Pacemakers in Relation to Aspects of Behavior , New York, The Macmillan Company, 1935. 56. Gerard, R. W., and Magoun, H. W.: Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 34: 755, 1936.

Journal

Archives of Neurology & PsychiatryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Oct 1, 1936

References