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ELECTRIC CONVULSIVE THERAPY, WITH EMPHASIS ON IMPORTANCE OF ADEQUATE TREATMENT

ELECTRIC CONVULSIVE THERAPY, WITH EMPHASIS ON IMPORTANCE OF ADEQUATE TREATMENT Abstract The value of shock treatment of mental disease is still disputed. At present electric convulsive therapy is probably the most widely used method. With some disorders indiscriminate use is favored because of its simplicity, whereas with others inadequate application is responsible for failures. This paper represents an endeavor to give indications for the application of this therapy, on the basis of experience with more than 1,500 patients treated by the same physician in two parallel series: the one, at the New York State Psychiatric Institute and Hospital, and the other, representing institutional material, at the Pilgrim State Hospital. Discrepancies in reports on the value of shock treatment demand a clear definition of the material from which conclusions are drawn. Statistical work on diagnostically doubtful and borderline cases is valueless at the present experimental stage. There are, however, clearcut cases of the various major psychoses in which disagreement as to diagnosis References 1. Bini, L.: La tecnica e le manifestazioni dell'elettroshock , Riv. sper. di freniat. 64: 361, 1940. 2. Hemphill, R. E., and Walter, W. G.: The Treatment of Mental Disorders by Electrically Induced Convulsions , J. Ment. Sc. 87:256, 1941. 3. Kalinowsky, L.; Barrera, S. E., and Horwitz, W. A.: The "Petit Mal" Response in Electric Shock Therapy , Am. J. Psychiat. 98:708, 1942. 4. Cerletti, U.: L'elettroshock , Riv. sper. di freniat. 64:209, 1940. 5. Zeifert, M.: Results Obtained from the Administration of 12,000 Doses of Metrazol to Mental Patients , Psychiatric Quart. 15:772, 1941.Crossref 6. Neymann, C. A.; Urse, V. G., and Madden, J.: Electric Shock in the Treatment of Schizophrenia and Other Mental Disorders , J. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. , to be published. 7. Kalinowsky, L., and Worthing, H. J.: Results with Electric Convulsive Treatment in Two Hundred Cases of Schizophrenia , Psychiatric Quart. 17:144, 1943.Crossref 8. Reznikoff, L.: Comparison of Metrazol Convulsive Therapy with Electric Shock in Treatment of Schizophrenia , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 49:587 ( (April) ) 1943. 9. Lewis, N. D. C.: The Present Status of Shock Therapy of Mental Disorders , Bull. New York Acad. Med. 19:227, 1943. 10. Guttmann, E.; Mayer-Gross, W., and Slater, E. T. O.: Short Distance Prognosis of Schizophrenia , J. Neurol. & Psychiat. 2:25, 1939. 11. Pacella, B. L., and Barrera, S. E.: Follow-Up Study of a Series of Patients Treated by Electrically Induced Convulsions and by Metrazol Convulsions , Am. J. Psychiat. 99:513, 1943. 12. Malzberg, B.: The Outcome of Electric Shock Therapy in the New York Civil State Hospitals , Psychiatric Quart. 17:154, 1943. 13. Kalinowsky, L.; Barrera, S. E., and Horwitz, W. A.: The Question of the Usefulness of Electric Convulsive Therapy in the Psychoneuroses, to be published. 14. Selinsky, H.: Selective Use of Electro-Shock Therapy as an Adjuvant to Psychotherapy , Bull. New York Acad. Med. 19:245, 1943. 15. Brill, H., and Kalinowsky, L.: Asphyxial Episodes and Their Prevention in Electric and Other Convulsive Therapies , Psychiatric Quart. 16:351, 1942. 16. Worthing, H. J., and Kalinowsky, L.: The Question of Vertebral Fractures in Convulsive Therapy and in Epilepsy , Am. J. Psychiat. 98:533, 1941. 17. Cash, P. T., and Hoekstra, C. S.: Preliminary Curarization in Electric Convulsive Therapy , Psychiatric Quart. 17:20, 1943. 18. Impastato, D. J.; Bak, R.; Frosch, J., and Wortis, S. B.: Modification of the Electrofit (Electroshock) by Various Drugs: I. Sodium Amytal, paper read at the Ninety-Ninth Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association, Detroit, 1943. 19. Zubin, J., and Barrera, S. E.: Effect of Electric Convulsive Therapy on Memory , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 48:596, 1941. 20. Sherman, J.; Mergener, J., and Levitin, D.: Effect of Convulsive Treatment on Memory , Am. J. Psychiat. 98:401, 1941. 21. Pacella, B. L.; Barrera, S. E., and Kalinowsky, L.: Variations in Electroencephalogram Associated with Electric Shock Therapy of Patients with Mental Disorders , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 47:367 ( (March) ) 1942. 22. Alpers, B. J., and Hughes, J.: Changes in the Brain After Electrically Induced Convulsions in Cats , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 47:385 ( (March) ) 1942. 23. Barrera, S. E.; Lewis, N. D. C.; Pacella, B. L., and Kalinowsky, L.: Brain Changes Associated with Electrically Induced Seizures , Tr. Am. Neurol. A. 68:31, 1942. 24. Kalinowsky, L. B., and Kennedy, F.: Observations in Electric Shock Therapy Applied to Problems of Epilepsy , J. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. 98:56, 1943 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry American Medical Association

ELECTRIC CONVULSIVE THERAPY, WITH EMPHASIS ON IMPORTANCE OF ADEQUATE TREATMENT

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1943 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0096-6754
DOI
10.1001/archneurpsyc.1943.02290240036002
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract The value of shock treatment of mental disease is still disputed. At present electric convulsive therapy is probably the most widely used method. With some disorders indiscriminate use is favored because of its simplicity, whereas with others inadequate application is responsible for failures. This paper represents an endeavor to give indications for the application of this therapy, on the basis of experience with more than 1,500 patients treated by the same physician in two parallel series: the one, at the New York State Psychiatric Institute and Hospital, and the other, representing institutional material, at the Pilgrim State Hospital. Discrepancies in reports on the value of shock treatment demand a clear definition of the material from which conclusions are drawn. Statistical work on diagnostically doubtful and borderline cases is valueless at the present experimental stage. There are, however, clearcut cases of the various major psychoses in which disagreement as to diagnosis References 1. Bini, L.: La tecnica e le manifestazioni dell'elettroshock , Riv. sper. di freniat. 64: 361, 1940. 2. Hemphill, R. E., and Walter, W. G.: The Treatment of Mental Disorders by Electrically Induced Convulsions , J. Ment. Sc. 87:256, 1941. 3. Kalinowsky, L.; Barrera, S. E., and Horwitz, W. A.: The "Petit Mal" Response in Electric Shock Therapy , Am. J. Psychiat. 98:708, 1942. 4. Cerletti, U.: L'elettroshock , Riv. sper. di freniat. 64:209, 1940. 5. Zeifert, M.: Results Obtained from the Administration of 12,000 Doses of Metrazol to Mental Patients , Psychiatric Quart. 15:772, 1941.Crossref 6. Neymann, C. A.; Urse, V. G., and Madden, J.: Electric Shock in the Treatment of Schizophrenia and Other Mental Disorders , J. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. , to be published. 7. Kalinowsky, L., and Worthing, H. J.: Results with Electric Convulsive Treatment in Two Hundred Cases of Schizophrenia , Psychiatric Quart. 17:144, 1943.Crossref 8. Reznikoff, L.: Comparison of Metrazol Convulsive Therapy with Electric Shock in Treatment of Schizophrenia , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 49:587 ( (April) ) 1943. 9. Lewis, N. D. C.: The Present Status of Shock Therapy of Mental Disorders , Bull. New York Acad. Med. 19:227, 1943. 10. Guttmann, E.; Mayer-Gross, W., and Slater, E. T. O.: Short Distance Prognosis of Schizophrenia , J. Neurol. & Psychiat. 2:25, 1939. 11. Pacella, B. L., and Barrera, S. E.: Follow-Up Study of a Series of Patients Treated by Electrically Induced Convulsions and by Metrazol Convulsions , Am. J. Psychiat. 99:513, 1943. 12. Malzberg, B.: The Outcome of Electric Shock Therapy in the New York Civil State Hospitals , Psychiatric Quart. 17:154, 1943. 13. Kalinowsky, L.; Barrera, S. E., and Horwitz, W. A.: The Question of the Usefulness of Electric Convulsive Therapy in the Psychoneuroses, to be published. 14. Selinsky, H.: Selective Use of Electro-Shock Therapy as an Adjuvant to Psychotherapy , Bull. New York Acad. Med. 19:245, 1943. 15. Brill, H., and Kalinowsky, L.: Asphyxial Episodes and Their Prevention in Electric and Other Convulsive Therapies , Psychiatric Quart. 16:351, 1942. 16. Worthing, H. J., and Kalinowsky, L.: The Question of Vertebral Fractures in Convulsive Therapy and in Epilepsy , Am. J. Psychiat. 98:533, 1941. 17. Cash, P. T., and Hoekstra, C. S.: Preliminary Curarization in Electric Convulsive Therapy , Psychiatric Quart. 17:20, 1943. 18. Impastato, D. J.; Bak, R.; Frosch, J., and Wortis, S. B.: Modification of the Electrofit (Electroshock) by Various Drugs: I. Sodium Amytal, paper read at the Ninety-Ninth Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association, Detroit, 1943. 19. Zubin, J., and Barrera, S. E.: Effect of Electric Convulsive Therapy on Memory , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 48:596, 1941. 20. Sherman, J.; Mergener, J., and Levitin, D.: Effect of Convulsive Treatment on Memory , Am. J. Psychiat. 98:401, 1941. 21. Pacella, B. L.; Barrera, S. E., and Kalinowsky, L.: Variations in Electroencephalogram Associated with Electric Shock Therapy of Patients with Mental Disorders , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 47:367 ( (March) ) 1942. 22. Alpers, B. J., and Hughes, J.: Changes in the Brain After Electrically Induced Convulsions in Cats , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 47:385 ( (March) ) 1942. 23. Barrera, S. E.; Lewis, N. D. C.; Pacella, B. L., and Kalinowsky, L.: Brain Changes Associated with Electrically Induced Seizures , Tr. Am. Neurol. A. 68:31, 1942. 24. Kalinowsky, L. B., and Kennedy, F.: Observations in Electric Shock Therapy Applied to Problems of Epilepsy , J. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. 98:56, 1943

Journal

Archives of Neurology & PsychiatryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Dec 1, 1943

References

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