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EFFECTS ON THE BREAST OF REMOVAL OF THE NIPPLE OR SEVERING OF THE DUCTS

EFFECTS ON THE BREAST OF REMOVAL OF THE NIPPLE OR SEVERING OF THE DUCTS Abstract IS IT dangerous to remove a nipple and leave the glandular tissue of the breast without any duct opening to the exterior for drainage of secretions? What will happen if pregnancy and lactation occur later? Will stasis in the ducts and acini produce chronic inflammation, cysts or cancer? Obstruction of the lactiferous ducts in the nipple produced by tying them off or burning them has been used in mice and rats to produce carcinoma experimentally. On the other hand, most textbooks, in discussing lesions of the nipple, advise simple removal of that structure, but none of them state whether there is any danger regarding inflammation, galactocele or carcinoma developing later in the breast. EXPERIMENTS ON ANIMALS An evaluation of the effect of one type of chronic irritation—milk stagnation—on the incidence of mammary carcinoma has been attempted experimentally in mice. Bagg1 ligated the mammary ducts on one side in pregnant References 1. Bagg, H. J.: The Functional Activity of the Breast in Relation to Mammary Carcinoma in Mice , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 22:419-421, 1925. 2. Bogen, E.: The Cause of Breast Cancer , Am. J. Pub. Health 25:245-250 ( (March) ) 1935. 3. Fekete, E., and Green, C. V.: The Influence of Complete Blockage of the Nipple on the Incidence and Location of Spontaneous Mammary Tumors in Mice , Am. J. Cancer 27:513-515 ( (July) ) 1936. 4. Bagg, H. J., and Hagopian, F.: The Functional Activity of the Mammary Gland of the Rat in Relation to Mammary Carcinoma , Am. J. Cancer 35:175-187 ( (Feb.) ) 1939. 5. Adair, F. E., and Bagg, H. J.: Breast Stasis as the Cause of Mammary Cancer , Internat. Clin. 4:19-26 ( (Dec.) ) 1925. 6. Adair, F. E.: Etiological Factors of Mammary Cancer in Two Hundred Women , New York State J. Med. 34:61-68 ( (Jan. 15) ) 1934. 7. Tice, G. I.; Dockerty, M. B., and Harrington, S. W.: Comedomastitis , Surg., Gynec. & Obst. 87:525-540 ( (Nov.) ) 1948. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Surgery American Medical Association

EFFECTS ON THE BREAST OF REMOVAL OF THE NIPPLE OR SEVERING OF THE DUCTS

Archives of Surgery , Volume 58 (6) – Jun 1, 1949

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1949 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0004-0010
eISSN
1538-3644
DOI
10.1001/archsurg.1949.01240030801007
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract IS IT dangerous to remove a nipple and leave the glandular tissue of the breast without any duct opening to the exterior for drainage of secretions? What will happen if pregnancy and lactation occur later? Will stasis in the ducts and acini produce chronic inflammation, cysts or cancer? Obstruction of the lactiferous ducts in the nipple produced by tying them off or burning them has been used in mice and rats to produce carcinoma experimentally. On the other hand, most textbooks, in discussing lesions of the nipple, advise simple removal of that structure, but none of them state whether there is any danger regarding inflammation, galactocele or carcinoma developing later in the breast. EXPERIMENTS ON ANIMALS An evaluation of the effect of one type of chronic irritation—milk stagnation—on the incidence of mammary carcinoma has been attempted experimentally in mice. Bagg1 ligated the mammary ducts on one side in pregnant References 1. Bagg, H. J.: The Functional Activity of the Breast in Relation to Mammary Carcinoma in Mice , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 22:419-421, 1925. 2. Bogen, E.: The Cause of Breast Cancer , Am. J. Pub. Health 25:245-250 ( (March) ) 1935. 3. Fekete, E., and Green, C. V.: The Influence of Complete Blockage of the Nipple on the Incidence and Location of Spontaneous Mammary Tumors in Mice , Am. J. Cancer 27:513-515 ( (July) ) 1936. 4. Bagg, H. J., and Hagopian, F.: The Functional Activity of the Mammary Gland of the Rat in Relation to Mammary Carcinoma , Am. J. Cancer 35:175-187 ( (Feb.) ) 1939. 5. Adair, F. E., and Bagg, H. J.: Breast Stasis as the Cause of Mammary Cancer , Internat. Clin. 4:19-26 ( (Dec.) ) 1925. 6. Adair, F. E.: Etiological Factors of Mammary Cancer in Two Hundred Women , New York State J. Med. 34:61-68 ( (Jan. 15) ) 1934. 7. Tice, G. I.; Dockerty, M. B., and Harrington, S. W.: Comedomastitis , Surg., Gynec. & Obst. 87:525-540 ( (Nov.) ) 1948.

Journal

Archives of SurgeryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Jun 1, 1949

References