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Effects of Obesity on Aerobic Fitness in Adolescent Females

Effects of Obesity on Aerobic Fitness in Adolescent Females Abstract • Obesity impairs performance in most athletic events, but the influence of increased body fat on cardiopulmonary function has not been clearly delineated. An understanding of the fatness-fitness relationship is important in the optimal design of exercise programs for obese subjects. In this study, 27 adolescent females with body fat levels ranging from normal to gross obesity were evaluated to determine the impact of adiposity on physiologic factors during maximal and submaximal treadmill walking. Increased skinfold measures correlated significantly with absolute maximal oxygen uptake throughout the range of body fat levels (r=.72), and oxygen consumption per kilogram of body weight and treadmill endurance time both declined as fatness increased (r= −.49 and −.42, respectively). Obesity did not affect submaximal walking economy. These findings indicate that increased fat levels are associated with increased cardiopulmonary exercise capacity, but that functional fitness declines because of the inert load created by excess body fat. Therefore, therapeutic exercise programs for obese adolescents are best designed to increase caloric expenditure and decrease body fat rather than to improve aerobic fitness. (AJDC. 1991;145:764-768) References 1. Wilmore JH. Body composition in sport and exercise: direction for future research . Med Sci Sports Exerc . 1983;15:21-31. 2. Watson AWS. Quantification of the influence of body fat content on selected physical performance variables in adolescent boys . Ir J Med Sci . 1988;157:383-384.Crossref 3. Boileau RA, Lohman TG. The measurement of human physique and its effect on physical performance . Orthop Clin North Am . 1977;8:563-572. 4. Slaughter MH, Lohman TG, Misner JE. Association of somatotype and body composition to physical performance in 7-12 year old girls . J Sports Med . 1980;20:189-198. 5. Cureton KJ, Boileau RA, Lohman TG. Relationship between body composition measures and AAHPER test performances in young boys . Res Q . 1975;46:218-223. 6. Buskirk E, Taylor HL. Maximum oxygen uptake and its relation to body composition, with special reference to chronic physical activity and obesity . J Appl Physiol . 1951;11:72-78. 7. Welch BE, Riendeau RP, Crisp CE, Isenstein RS. Relationship of maximal oxygen consumption to various components of body composition . J Appl Physiol . 1958;12:395-398. 8. Davies CTM, Godfrey S, Light M, Sargeant AJ, Zeidifard E. Cardiopulmonary responses to exercise in obese girls and young women . J Appl Physiol . 1975;38:373-376. 9. Dempsey JA, Redden W, Balke B, Rankin J. Work capacity determinants and physiologic cost of weight supported work in obesity . J Appl Physiol . 1966;21:1815-1820. 10. Whipp BJ, Davis JA. The ventilatory stress of exercise in obesity . Am Rev Respir Dis . 1984;129( (suppl) ):S90-S92. 11. Farebrother MJB. Respiratory function and cardiorespiratory response to exercise in obesity . Br J Dis Chest . 1979;73:211-225.Crossref 12. Bar-Or O. Pediatric Sports Medicine for the Practitioner: From Physiologic Principles to Clinical Applications . New York, NY: Springer-Verlag NY Inc; 1983:66-75. 13. American College of Sports Medicine. The recommended quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness in healthy adults . Med Sci Sports Exerc . 1990;22:265-274. 14. Rowland TW. Exercise and Children's Health . Champaign, Ill: Human Kinetics Publishers; 1990:131-159. 15. Rowland TW, Varzeas M, Walsh CA. Aerobic responses to walking training in sedentary adolescents . J Adolesc Health Care . 1991;12:30-34.Crossref 16. Thomas AE, McKay DA, Cutlip MB. A nomograph method for assessing body weight . Am J Clin Nutr . 1976;29:302-304. 17. Tanner JM, Whitehouse RH. Revised standards for triceps and subscapular skinfolds in British children . Arch Dis Child . 1975;50:142-145.Crossref 18. Hoerr SL, Nelson RA, Lohman TG, Steiger D. Relation of skinfolds to body fatness in a population of obese adolescent girls . Med Sci Sports Exerc . 1984;16:135.Crossref 19. Parizkova J. Body Fat and Physical Fitness . The Hague, the Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers; 1977:37. 20. Ekblom B, Astrand P-O, Saltin B, Stenberg J, Wallstrom B. Effect of training on circulatory response to exercise . J Appl Physiol . 1968;24:518-528. 21. Weymans ML, Reybrouck T, Stijns HJ, Knops J. Influence of age and sex on the ventilatory threshold in children . In: Binkhorst RA, Kemper HCG, Saris WHM, eds. Children and Exercise XI . Champaign, Ill: Human Kinetics Publishers; 1985;114-118. 22. Ross JD, Dotson CO, Gilbert GC, Katz SJ. New standards for fitness measurement . JOPERD . 1985;56:62-66. 23. Krahenbuhl GS, Skinner JS, Kohrt WM. Developmental aspects of maximal aerobic power in children . Exerc Sport Sci Rev . 1985;13:503-538.Crossref 24. Bray GA. Obesity and the heart . Mod Concepts Cardiovasc Dis . 1987;56:67-71. 25. Alexander JK. The cardiomyopathy of obesity . Prog Cardiovasc Dis . 1985;27:325-334.Crossref 26. Messerli FH. Cardiomyopathy of obesity: a not-so-Victorian disease . N Engl J Med . 1986;314:378-379.Crossref 27. Vaughn RW, Conahan TJ. Cardiopulmonary consequences of morbid obesity . Life Sci . 1980;26:2119-2127.Crossref 28. DeDivitiis O, Fazio S, Petitto M, Maddalena G, Contaldo F, Mancini M. Obesity and cardiac function . Circulation . 1981;64:477-482.Crossref 29. Romano M, Carella G, Cotecchia MR, et al. Abnormal systolic time intervals in obesity and their relationship with the amount of overweight . Am Heart J . 1986;112:356-360.Crossref 30. Carabello BA, Gittens L. Cardiac mechanics and function in obese normotensive persons with normal coronary arteries . Am J Cardiol . 1987;59:469-473.Crossref 31. Kaltman AJ, Goldring RM. Role of circulatory congestion in the cardiorespiratory failure of obesity . Am J Med . 1976;60:645-653.Crossref 32. Zanconato S, Baraldi E, Santuz P, et al. Gas exchange during exercise in obese children . Eur J Pediatr . 1989;148:614-617.Crossref 33. Huttunen NP, Knip M, Paavilainen T. Physical activity and fitness in obese children . Int J Obesity . 1986;10:519-525. 34. Hayashi T, Fujino M, Shindo M, Hiroki T, Arakawa K. Echocardiographic and electrocardiographic measures in obese children after an exercise program . Int J Obesity . 1987;11:465-472. 35. Farebrother MJB. Respiratory function and cardiorespiratory response to exercise in obesity . Br J Dis Chest . 1979;73:211-225.Crossref 36. Sprynarova S, Parizkova J. Changes in the aerobic capacity and body composition in obese boys after reduction . J Appl Physiol . 1965;20:934-937. 37. Katch V, Becque MD, Marks C, Moorehead C, Rocchini A. Oxygen uptake and energy output during walking of obese male and female adolescents . Am J Clin Nutr . 1988;47:26-32. 38. Cooper DM, Poage J, Barstow TJ, Springer C. Are obese children truly unfit?: minimizing the confounding effect of body size on the exercise response . J Pediatr . 1990;116:223-230.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png American Journal of Diseases of Children American Medical Association

Effects of Obesity on Aerobic Fitness in Adolescent Females

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1991 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0002-922X
DOI
10.1001/archpedi.1991.02160070060022
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract • Obesity impairs performance in most athletic events, but the influence of increased body fat on cardiopulmonary function has not been clearly delineated. An understanding of the fatness-fitness relationship is important in the optimal design of exercise programs for obese subjects. In this study, 27 adolescent females with body fat levels ranging from normal to gross obesity were evaluated to determine the impact of adiposity on physiologic factors during maximal and submaximal treadmill walking. Increased skinfold measures correlated significantly with absolute maximal oxygen uptake throughout the range of body fat levels (r=.72), and oxygen consumption per kilogram of body weight and treadmill endurance time both declined as fatness increased (r= −.49 and −.42, respectively). Obesity did not affect submaximal walking economy. These findings indicate that increased fat levels are associated with increased cardiopulmonary exercise capacity, but that functional fitness declines because of the inert load created by excess body fat. Therefore, therapeutic exercise programs for obese adolescents are best designed to increase caloric expenditure and decrease body fat rather than to improve aerobic fitness. (AJDC. 1991;145:764-768) References 1. Wilmore JH. Body composition in sport and exercise: direction for future research . Med Sci Sports Exerc . 1983;15:21-31. 2. Watson AWS. Quantification of the influence of body fat content on selected physical performance variables in adolescent boys . Ir J Med Sci . 1988;157:383-384.Crossref 3. Boileau RA, Lohman TG. The measurement of human physique and its effect on physical performance . Orthop Clin North Am . 1977;8:563-572. 4. Slaughter MH, Lohman TG, Misner JE. Association of somatotype and body composition to physical performance in 7-12 year old girls . J Sports Med . 1980;20:189-198. 5. Cureton KJ, Boileau RA, Lohman TG. Relationship between body composition measures and AAHPER test performances in young boys . Res Q . 1975;46:218-223. 6. Buskirk E, Taylor HL. Maximum oxygen uptake and its relation to body composition, with special reference to chronic physical activity and obesity . J Appl Physiol . 1951;11:72-78. 7. Welch BE, Riendeau RP, Crisp CE, Isenstein RS. Relationship of maximal oxygen consumption to various components of body composition . J Appl Physiol . 1958;12:395-398. 8. Davies CTM, Godfrey S, Light M, Sargeant AJ, Zeidifard E. Cardiopulmonary responses to exercise in obese girls and young women . J Appl Physiol . 1975;38:373-376. 9. Dempsey JA, Redden W, Balke B, Rankin J. Work capacity determinants and physiologic cost of weight supported work in obesity . J Appl Physiol . 1966;21:1815-1820. 10. Whipp BJ, Davis JA. The ventilatory stress of exercise in obesity . Am Rev Respir Dis . 1984;129( (suppl) ):S90-S92. 11. Farebrother MJB. Respiratory function and cardiorespiratory response to exercise in obesity . Br J Dis Chest . 1979;73:211-225.Crossref 12. Bar-Or O. Pediatric Sports Medicine for the Practitioner: From Physiologic Principles to Clinical Applications . New York, NY: Springer-Verlag NY Inc; 1983:66-75. 13. American College of Sports Medicine. The recommended quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness in healthy adults . Med Sci Sports Exerc . 1990;22:265-274. 14. Rowland TW. Exercise and Children's Health . Champaign, Ill: Human Kinetics Publishers; 1990:131-159. 15. Rowland TW, Varzeas M, Walsh CA. Aerobic responses to walking training in sedentary adolescents . J Adolesc Health Care . 1991;12:30-34.Crossref 16. Thomas AE, McKay DA, Cutlip MB. A nomograph method for assessing body weight . Am J Clin Nutr . 1976;29:302-304. 17. Tanner JM, Whitehouse RH. Revised standards for triceps and subscapular skinfolds in British children . Arch Dis Child . 1975;50:142-145.Crossref 18. Hoerr SL, Nelson RA, Lohman TG, Steiger D. Relation of skinfolds to body fatness in a population of obese adolescent girls . Med Sci Sports Exerc . 1984;16:135.Crossref 19. Parizkova J. Body Fat and Physical Fitness . The Hague, the Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers; 1977:37. 20. Ekblom B, Astrand P-O, Saltin B, Stenberg J, Wallstrom B. Effect of training on circulatory response to exercise . J Appl Physiol . 1968;24:518-528. 21. Weymans ML, Reybrouck T, Stijns HJ, Knops J. Influence of age and sex on the ventilatory threshold in children . In: Binkhorst RA, Kemper HCG, Saris WHM, eds. Children and Exercise XI . Champaign, Ill: Human Kinetics Publishers; 1985;114-118. 22. Ross JD, Dotson CO, Gilbert GC, Katz SJ. New standards for fitness measurement . JOPERD . 1985;56:62-66. 23. Krahenbuhl GS, Skinner JS, Kohrt WM. Developmental aspects of maximal aerobic power in children . Exerc Sport Sci Rev . 1985;13:503-538.Crossref 24. Bray GA. Obesity and the heart . Mod Concepts Cardiovasc Dis . 1987;56:67-71. 25. Alexander JK. The cardiomyopathy of obesity . Prog Cardiovasc Dis . 1985;27:325-334.Crossref 26. Messerli FH. Cardiomyopathy of obesity: a not-so-Victorian disease . N Engl J Med . 1986;314:378-379.Crossref 27. Vaughn RW, Conahan TJ. Cardiopulmonary consequences of morbid obesity . Life Sci . 1980;26:2119-2127.Crossref 28. DeDivitiis O, Fazio S, Petitto M, Maddalena G, Contaldo F, Mancini M. Obesity and cardiac function . Circulation . 1981;64:477-482.Crossref 29. Romano M, Carella G, Cotecchia MR, et al. Abnormal systolic time intervals in obesity and their relationship with the amount of overweight . Am Heart J . 1986;112:356-360.Crossref 30. Carabello BA, Gittens L. Cardiac mechanics and function in obese normotensive persons with normal coronary arteries . Am J Cardiol . 1987;59:469-473.Crossref 31. Kaltman AJ, Goldring RM. Role of circulatory congestion in the cardiorespiratory failure of obesity . Am J Med . 1976;60:645-653.Crossref 32. Zanconato S, Baraldi E, Santuz P, et al. Gas exchange during exercise in obese children . Eur J Pediatr . 1989;148:614-617.Crossref 33. Huttunen NP, Knip M, Paavilainen T. Physical activity and fitness in obese children . Int J Obesity . 1986;10:519-525. 34. Hayashi T, Fujino M, Shindo M, Hiroki T, Arakawa K. Echocardiographic and electrocardiographic measures in obese children after an exercise program . Int J Obesity . 1987;11:465-472. 35. Farebrother MJB. Respiratory function and cardiorespiratory response to exercise in obesity . Br J Dis Chest . 1979;73:211-225.Crossref 36. Sprynarova S, Parizkova J. Changes in the aerobic capacity and body composition in obese boys after reduction . J Appl Physiol . 1965;20:934-937. 37. Katch V, Becque MD, Marks C, Moorehead C, Rocchini A. Oxygen uptake and energy output during walking of obese male and female adolescents . Am J Clin Nutr . 1988;47:26-32. 38. Cooper DM, Poage J, Barstow TJ, Springer C. Are obese children truly unfit?: minimizing the confounding effect of body size on the exercise response . J Pediatr . 1990;116:223-230.Crossref

Journal

American Journal of Diseases of ChildrenAmerican Medical Association

Published: Jul 1, 1991

References