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Effects of Long-Term Systemic Steroids on Ocular Pressure and Tonographic Values

Effects of Long-Term Systemic Steroids on Ocular Pressure and Tonographic Values Abstract Introduction With the increasing use of long-term systemic steroid therapy, reports on its possible ocular effects have been sporadically appearing in the literature. Recently cataract formation has been noted.1 However, the majority of these reports have concerned themselves with the relationship of steroids to intraocular pressure.There is suggestive evidence that steroids may play a role in the normal physiological control of intraocular pressure. Hill et al.2 showed that the normal production of endogenous steroids follows a diurnal curve, similar to the ocular tension diurnal curve in the majority of individuals.3,4 Because of these parallel diurnal fluctuations, Linnér5 investigated their possible relationship by measuring intraocular pressure and aqueous flow in a small group of patients without endogenous steroid production because of hypophysectomy or adrenalectomy. These patients were receiving exogenous steroids and presumably had a relatively constant level of steroids throughout the day and night. He found References 1. Black, R. L.; Oglesby, R. B.; von Sallmann, L., and Bunim, J. J.: Posterior Subcapsular Cataracts Induced by Corticosteroids in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis , J.A.M.A. 174:166, 1960.Crossref 2. Hill, S. R., Jr.; Holley, H. L.; Ulloa, A.; Starnes, W. R.; Hibbitt, L. L., and McNeil, J. H.: Studies on Adrenal Cortical Activity in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: The Diurnal Pattern and 24-Hour Levels of Urinary Total 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids and 17-Ketosteroids , Arthritis Rheum. 2:114, 1959.Crossref 3. Hager, H.: Die Behandlung des Glaukoms mit Miotika: Grundlagen, Einstellungstechnik und Erfolgsaussichten, (Suppl. 29) Klin. Mbl. Augenheilk. 1958. 4. Drance, S. M.: The Significance of Diurnal Tension Variations in Normal and Glaucomatous Eyes , Arch. Ophthal. 64:494, 1960.Crossref 5. Linnér, E.: The Rate of Aqueous Flow and the Adrenals , Trans. Ophthal. Soc. U.K. 79:27, 1959. 6. Linnér, E.: Adrenocortical Steroids and Aqueous Humour Dynamics , Docum. Ophthal. 13: 210, 1959.Crossref 7. Becker, B., in Glaucoma: Transactions of the First Conference , New York, Josiah Macy, Jr., Foundation, 1955, p. 193. 8. Stern, J. J.: Acute Glaucoma During Cortisone Therapy , Amer. J. Ophthal. 36:389, 1953. 9. Covell, L. L.: Glaucoma Induced by Systemic Steroid Therapy , Amer. J. Ophthal. 45:108, 1958. 10. Harris, J. L.: Glaucoma Associated with Steroid Therapy and Atopic Dermatitis , Amer. J. Ophthal. 49:351, 1960. 11. Lee, P.: The Influence of Systemic Steroid Therapy on the Intraocular Pressure , Amer. J. Ophthal. 46:328 (Sept., (Pt. 3) ), 1958. 12. Tillett, C. W.: Effect of ACTH on Normal Ocular Tension , Amer. J. Ophthal. 35:659, 1952. 13. Kosaki, H.; Nakatani, and Azuma, I.: Adrenocortical Hormone and the Intraocular Pressure , Acta Soc. Ophthal. Jap. 62:1445, 1958 14. Abstract, Ophthal. Lit. 12:2432, 1958. 15. von Sallmann, L.; Pillat, B., and Powers, M. M.: Further Studies on Influence of ACTH on Reactivity of Terminal Vascular Bed in Eye , Amer. J. Ophthal. 38:655, 1954. 16. Becker, B., and Constant, M.: Experimental Tonography , A.M.A. Arch. Ophthal. 54:321, 1955.Crossref 17. Chandler, P., in Glaucoma: Transactions of the First Conference , New York, Josiah Macy, Jr., Foundation, 1955, p. 193. 18. Blake, E. M.; Fasanella, R. M., and Wong, A. S.: Effect of ACTH in Glaucoma , Amer. J. Ophthal. 33:1231, 1950. 19. Becker, B.: Annual Review: Glaucoma, 1957-1958 , A.M.A. Arch. Ophthal. 60:1112, 1958.Crossref 20. McLean, J. M. Discussion of paper by A. C. Woods: Use of ACTH and Cortisone , Trans. Amer. Ophthal. Soc. 48:259, 1960. 21. Woods, A. C.: The Present Status of the ACTH and Cortisone in Clinical Ophthalmology , Amer. J. Ophthal. 34:945, 1951. 22. François, J.: Cortisone et tension oculaire , Ann. Oculist. 187:805, 1954. 23. Laval, J., and Collier, R., Jr.: Elevation of Intraocular Pressure Due to Hormonal Steroid Therapy in Uveitis , Amer. J. Ophthal. 39:175, 1955. 24. Orma, H. : A Case of Increased Intraocular Pressure During Treatment with Corticosteroids , Acta Ophthal. (Kbh.) 39:429, 1961.Crossref 25. Grant, W. M.: Physiological and Pharmacological Influences upon Intraocular Pressure , Pharmacol. Rev. 17:143, 1955. 26. François, J.: Glaucome apparemment simple, secondaire à la cortisonothérapie locale , Ophthalmologica (Suppl.) 142:517, 1961. 27. Becker, B.: Tonography in the Diagnosis of Simple (Open Angle) Glaucoma , Trans. Amer. Acad. Ophthal. Otolaryng. 65:156, 1961. 28. Steel, R. G. D., and Torrie, J. H.: Principles and Procedures of Statistics , New York, McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1960, p. 114. 29. Siegel, S.: Nonparametric Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences , McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York, 1956, p. 127. 30. Levene, R. Z.: Tonometry and Tonography in a Group Health Population , A.M.A. Arch. Ophthal. 66:68, 1961. 31. Drance, S. M.: The Coefficient of Scleral Rigidity in Normal and Glaucomatous Eyes , A.M.A. Arch. Ophthal. 63:668, 1960.Crossref 32. Boneau, C. A.: The Effects of Violations of Assumptions Underlying the t-Test , Psychol. Bull. 57:49, 1960.Crossref 33. Becker, B.; Kolker, A., and Roth, F.: Glaucoma Family Study , Amer. J. Ophthal. 50:557, 1960. 34. Armaly, M. F.: Lessons to be Learned from a Glaucoma Survey , J. Iowa Med. Soc. 50:501, 1960. 35. Armaly, M. F.: Schiötz Tonometer Calibration and Applanation Tonometry , Arch. Ophthal. 64:426, 1960.Crossref 36. Asboe-Hansen, G. : Effect of the Adrenocorticotropic Hormone of the Pituitary on Mesenchymal Tissues , Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. 2:271, 1950.Crossref 37. Asboe-Hansen, G. : Mast Cell, Cortisone Action on Connective Tissue , Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 80:677, 1952.Crossref 38. Larsen, G.: The Viscosity of the Vitreous Humor Influenced by Hormones , A.M.A. Arch. Ophthal. 59:712, 1958.Crossref 39. Kulonen, E.: Studies on Hyaluronic Acid and Hyaluronidase in the Animal Organism , Acta Physiol. (Scand.) ( (Suppl. 88) ) 24:1, 1951.Crossref 40. Smelser, G. K., and Ozanics, V.: Further Studies on Nature of Exophthalmos-Producing Principles in Pituitary Extracts , Amer. J. Ophthal. 39:146, 1955. 41. Báránay, E. H., and Scotchbrook, S.: Influence of Testicular Hyaluronidase on the Resistance to Flow Through the Angle of the Anterior Chamber , Acta Physiol. (Scand.) 30:240, 1954.Crossref 42. Zimmerman, L.: Demonstration of Hyaluronidase-Sensitive Acid Mucopolysaccharide in Trabecula and Iris in Routine Paraffin Sections of Adult Human Eyes , Amer. J. Ophthal. 44:1, 1957. 43. Berggren, L., and Vrabec, F.: Demonstration of a Coating Substance in the Trabecular Meshwork of the Eye and Its Decrease After Perfusion Experiments with Different Kinds of Hyaluronidase , Amer. J. Ophthal. 44:200, 1957. 44. Ashton, N.: The Exit Pathway of the Aqueous , Trans. Ophth. Soc. U.K. 80:397, 1961. 45. Ruiz Barranco, F., and Montero Marchena, J.: The Effect of Hyaluronidase on the Tension of Glaucomatous Eyes , Arch. Soc. Oftal. Hisp-Amer. 18:848, 1958 46. Abstract, Amer. J. Ophthal. 47:921, 1959. 47. Landesberg, J.: Primary Glaucoma: Open-Angle Type: An Experimental Investigation of a New Therapeutic Approach in the Treatment of Simple Chronic Glaucoma , Amer. J. Ophthal. 48: 81, 1959. 48. Vanni, V., and Lepri, L.: A Clinical Study of the Influence of Hyaluronidase on the Intraocular Pressure , Boll. Oculist. 38:114, 1959 49. Abstract, Amer. J. Ophthal. 49:1075 (May, (Pt. 1) ), 1960. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Ophthalmology American Medical Association

Effects of Long-Term Systemic Steroids on Ocular Pressure and Tonographic Values

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American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1962 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-9950
eISSN
1538-3687
DOI
10.1001/archopht.1962.00960030746009
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Abstract

Abstract Introduction With the increasing use of long-term systemic steroid therapy, reports on its possible ocular effects have been sporadically appearing in the literature. Recently cataract formation has been noted.1 However, the majority of these reports have concerned themselves with the relationship of steroids to intraocular pressure.There is suggestive evidence that steroids may play a role in the normal physiological control of intraocular pressure. Hill et al.2 showed that the normal production of endogenous steroids follows a diurnal curve, similar to the ocular tension diurnal curve in the majority of individuals.3,4 Because of these parallel diurnal fluctuations, Linnér5 investigated their possible relationship by measuring intraocular pressure and aqueous flow in a small group of patients without endogenous steroid production because of hypophysectomy or adrenalectomy. These patients were receiving exogenous steroids and presumably had a relatively constant level of steroids throughout the day and night. He found References 1. Black, R. L.; Oglesby, R. B.; von Sallmann, L., and Bunim, J. J.: Posterior Subcapsular Cataracts Induced by Corticosteroids in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis , J.A.M.A. 174:166, 1960.Crossref 2. Hill, S. R., Jr.; Holley, H. L.; Ulloa, A.; Starnes, W. R.; Hibbitt, L. L., and McNeil, J. H.: Studies on Adrenal Cortical Activity in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: The Diurnal Pattern and 24-Hour Levels of Urinary Total 17-Hydroxycorticosteroids and 17-Ketosteroids , Arthritis Rheum. 2:114, 1959.Crossref 3. Hager, H.: Die Behandlung des Glaukoms mit Miotika: Grundlagen, Einstellungstechnik und Erfolgsaussichten, (Suppl. 29) Klin. Mbl. Augenheilk. 1958. 4. Drance, S. M.: The Significance of Diurnal Tension Variations in Normal and Glaucomatous Eyes , Arch. Ophthal. 64:494, 1960.Crossref 5. Linnér, E.: The Rate of Aqueous Flow and the Adrenals , Trans. Ophthal. Soc. U.K. 79:27, 1959. 6. Linnér, E.: Adrenocortical Steroids and Aqueous Humour Dynamics , Docum. Ophthal. 13: 210, 1959.Crossref 7. Becker, B., in Glaucoma: Transactions of the First Conference , New York, Josiah Macy, Jr., Foundation, 1955, p. 193. 8. Stern, J. J.: Acute Glaucoma During Cortisone Therapy , Amer. J. Ophthal. 36:389, 1953. 9. Covell, L. L.: Glaucoma Induced by Systemic Steroid Therapy , Amer. J. Ophthal. 45:108, 1958. 10. Harris, J. L.: Glaucoma Associated with Steroid Therapy and Atopic Dermatitis , Amer. J. Ophthal. 49:351, 1960. 11. Lee, P.: The Influence of Systemic Steroid Therapy on the Intraocular Pressure , Amer. J. Ophthal. 46:328 (Sept., (Pt. 3) ), 1958. 12. Tillett, C. W.: Effect of ACTH on Normal Ocular Tension , Amer. J. Ophthal. 35:659, 1952. 13. Kosaki, H.; Nakatani, and Azuma, I.: Adrenocortical Hormone and the Intraocular Pressure , Acta Soc. Ophthal. Jap. 62:1445, 1958 14. Abstract, Ophthal. Lit. 12:2432, 1958. 15. von Sallmann, L.; Pillat, B., and Powers, M. M.: Further Studies on Influence of ACTH on Reactivity of Terminal Vascular Bed in Eye , Amer. J. Ophthal. 38:655, 1954. 16. Becker, B., and Constant, M.: Experimental Tonography , A.M.A. Arch. Ophthal. 54:321, 1955.Crossref 17. Chandler, P., in Glaucoma: Transactions of the First Conference , New York, Josiah Macy, Jr., Foundation, 1955, p. 193. 18. Blake, E. M.; Fasanella, R. M., and Wong, A. S.: Effect of ACTH in Glaucoma , Amer. J. Ophthal. 33:1231, 1950. 19. Becker, B.: Annual Review: Glaucoma, 1957-1958 , A.M.A. Arch. Ophthal. 60:1112, 1958.Crossref 20. McLean, J. M. Discussion of paper by A. C. Woods: Use of ACTH and Cortisone , Trans. Amer. Ophthal. Soc. 48:259, 1960. 21. Woods, A. C.: The Present Status of the ACTH and Cortisone in Clinical Ophthalmology , Amer. J. Ophthal. 34:945, 1951. 22. François, J.: Cortisone et tension oculaire , Ann. Oculist. 187:805, 1954. 23. Laval, J., and Collier, R., Jr.: Elevation of Intraocular Pressure Due to Hormonal Steroid Therapy in Uveitis , Amer. J. Ophthal. 39:175, 1955. 24. Orma, H. : A Case of Increased Intraocular Pressure During Treatment with Corticosteroids , Acta Ophthal. (Kbh.) 39:429, 1961.Crossref 25. Grant, W. M.: Physiological and Pharmacological Influences upon Intraocular Pressure , Pharmacol. Rev. 17:143, 1955. 26. François, J.: Glaucome apparemment simple, secondaire à la cortisonothérapie locale , Ophthalmologica (Suppl.) 142:517, 1961. 27. Becker, B.: Tonography in the Diagnosis of Simple (Open Angle) Glaucoma , Trans. Amer. Acad. Ophthal. Otolaryng. 65:156, 1961. 28. Steel, R. G. D., and Torrie, J. H.: Principles and Procedures of Statistics , New York, McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1960, p. 114. 29. Siegel, S.: Nonparametric Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences , McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York, 1956, p. 127. 30. Levene, R. Z.: Tonometry and Tonography in a Group Health Population , A.M.A. Arch. Ophthal. 66:68, 1961. 31. Drance, S. M.: The Coefficient of Scleral Rigidity in Normal and Glaucomatous Eyes , A.M.A. Arch. Ophthal. 63:668, 1960.Crossref 32. Boneau, C. A.: The Effects of Violations of Assumptions Underlying the t-Test , Psychol. Bull. 57:49, 1960.Crossref 33. Becker, B.; Kolker, A., and Roth, F.: Glaucoma Family Study , Amer. J. Ophthal. 50:557, 1960. 34. Armaly, M. F.: Lessons to be Learned from a Glaucoma Survey , J. Iowa Med. Soc. 50:501, 1960. 35. Armaly, M. F.: Schiötz Tonometer Calibration and Applanation Tonometry , Arch. Ophthal. 64:426, 1960.Crossref 36. Asboe-Hansen, G. : Effect of the Adrenocorticotropic Hormone of the Pituitary on Mesenchymal Tissues , Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. 2:271, 1950.Crossref 37. Asboe-Hansen, G. : Mast Cell, Cortisone Action on Connective Tissue , Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 80:677, 1952.Crossref 38. Larsen, G.: The Viscosity of the Vitreous Humor Influenced by Hormones , A.M.A. Arch. Ophthal. 59:712, 1958.Crossref 39. Kulonen, E.: Studies on Hyaluronic Acid and Hyaluronidase in the Animal Organism , Acta Physiol. (Scand.) ( (Suppl. 88) ) 24:1, 1951.Crossref 40. Smelser, G. K., and Ozanics, V.: Further Studies on Nature of Exophthalmos-Producing Principles in Pituitary Extracts , Amer. J. Ophthal. 39:146, 1955. 41. Báránay, E. H., and Scotchbrook, S.: Influence of Testicular Hyaluronidase on the Resistance to Flow Through the Angle of the Anterior Chamber , Acta Physiol. (Scand.) 30:240, 1954.Crossref 42. Zimmerman, L.: Demonstration of Hyaluronidase-Sensitive Acid Mucopolysaccharide in Trabecula and Iris in Routine Paraffin Sections of Adult Human Eyes , Amer. J. Ophthal. 44:1, 1957. 43. Berggren, L., and Vrabec, F.: Demonstration of a Coating Substance in the Trabecular Meshwork of the Eye and Its Decrease After Perfusion Experiments with Different Kinds of Hyaluronidase , Amer. J. Ophthal. 44:200, 1957. 44. Ashton, N.: The Exit Pathway of the Aqueous , Trans. Ophth. Soc. U.K. 80:397, 1961. 45. Ruiz Barranco, F., and Montero Marchena, J.: The Effect of Hyaluronidase on the Tension of Glaucomatous Eyes , Arch. Soc. Oftal. Hisp-Amer. 18:848, 1958 46. Abstract, Amer. J. Ophthal. 47:921, 1959. 47. Landesberg, J.: Primary Glaucoma: Open-Angle Type: An Experimental Investigation of a New Therapeutic Approach in the Treatment of Simple Chronic Glaucoma , Amer. J. Ophthal. 48: 81, 1959. 48. Vanni, V., and Lepri, L.: A Clinical Study of the Influence of Hyaluronidase on the Intraocular Pressure , Boll. Oculist. 38:114, 1959 49. Abstract, Amer. J. Ophthal. 49:1075 (May, (Pt. 1) ), 1960.

Journal

Archives of OphthalmologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Dec 1, 1962

References