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EFFECTS OF LESIONS IN THE RED NUCLEI IN CATS

EFFECTS OF LESIONS IN THE RED NUCLEI IN CATS Abstract The function of any part of the brain may be investigated experimentally by observing the effects of a stimulus applied to it directly, by noting the impairment of function caused by its destruction or by comparison of the reactions of an animal from which all the brain rostral to the part under investigation has been removed, with the reactions obtained when that portion has also been removed. The latter method has been used extensively in studying the rôle played by the red nucleus and subthalamus in the complex reaction patterns involved in standing and walking. The literature related to such investigations has been reviewed by Hinsey, Ranson and McNattin.1 These authors found that a cat, from which all of the brain in front of a plane transecting the brain stem just rostral to the superior colliculi and mammillary bodies had been removed, could stand and walk. If such an References 1. Hinsey, J. C.; Ranson, S. W., and McNattin, R. F.: The Rôle of the Hypothalamus and Mesencephalon in Locomotion , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 23:1 ( (Jan.) ) 1930. 2. Magnus, R.: Körperstellung , Berlin, Julius Springer, 1924. 3. Rademaker, G. G. J.: Die Bedeutung der roten Kerne und des übrigen Mittelhirns für Muskeltonus, Körperstellung, und Labyrinthreflexe , Berlin, Julius Springer, 1926. 4. Ranson, S. W.; Muir, J. C., and Zeiss, F. R.: Extensor Tonus After Spinal Cord Lesions in the Cat , J. Comp. Neurol. 54:13, 1932. 5. Ranson, S. W.: Rigidity Caused by Pyramidal Lesions in the Cat , J. Comp. Neurol. , to be published. 6. Ranson, S. W., and Hinsey, J. C.: Extensor Tonus After Transection of the Brain Stem at Varying Levels , J. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. 70:584, 1929. 7. Bremer, F.: La fonction inhibitrice du paléo-cérébellum , Arch. internat. de physiol. 19:189, 1922. 8. Bernis, W. J., and Spiegel, E. A.: Die Zentren der statischen Innervation und ihre Beeinflussung durch Klein- und Grosshirn , Arb. a. d. neurol. Inst. a. d. Wien. Univ. 27:197, 1925. 9. Rademaker, G. G. J.: Das Stehen , Berlin, Julius Springer, 1931. 10. Spitzer, A.: Anatomie und Physiologie der zentralen Bahnen des Vestibularis , Arb. a. d. Neurol. Inst. a. d. Wien. Univ. 25:422, 1924. 11. Lorente de Nó, R.: Labyrinthreflexe auf die Augenmuskeln nach einseitiger Labyrinthextirpation , Berlin, Urban & Schwarzenberg, 1928. 12. Gray, L. P.: Some Experimental Evidence on the Connections of the Vestibular Mechanism in the Cat , J. Comp. Neurol. 41:319, 1926. 13. Langworthy, O. R.: The Area Frontalis of the Cerebral Cortex of the Cat, Its Minute Structure, and Physiological Evidence of Its Control of the Postural Reflex , Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 42:20, 1928. 14. Fulton, J. F.; Liddell, E. G. T., and Rioch, D. McK.: The Influence of Unilateral Destruction of the Vestibular Nuclei upon Posture and the Knee-Jerk , Brain 53:327, 1930. 15. Fulton, J. F.; Liddell, E. G. T., and Rioch, D. McK.: The Influence of Experimental Lesions of the Spinal Cord upon the Knee-Jerk: I. Acute Lesions , Brain 53:311, 1930. 16. Ingram, W. R.; Ranson, S. W., and Hannett, F. I.: The Direct Stimulation of the Red Nucleus in Cats , J. Neurol. & Psychopath. 12:219, 1932. 17. Mussen, A. T.: Experimental Investigations on the Cerebellum , Brain 50:313, 1927. 18. Ingram, W. R.; Ranson, S. W.; Hannett, F. I.; Zeiss, F. R., and Terwilliger, E. H.: Results of Stimulation of the Tegmentum with the Horsley-Clarke Stereotaxic Apparatus , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. , this issue, p. 513. 19. Ingram, W. R.; Hannett, F. I., and Ranson, S. W.: The Topography of the Nuclei of the Diencephalon in the Cat , J. Comp. Neurol. , to be published. 20. Horsley, V., and Clarke, R. H.: The Structure and Functions of the Cerebellum Examined by a New Method , Brain 31:45, 1908. 21. In expressing the coordinates of the stereotaxic instrument, the following symbols are used: A indicates the number of millimeters rostral to the transverse interaural plane; R, the number of millimeters to the right of the midsagittal plane; L, the number of millimeters to the left of the midsagittal plane, and H, the number of millimeters ventral to the zero horizontal plane. 22. von Monakow, C.: Der rote Kern der Säugetiere und des Menschen , Neurol. Zentralbl. 13:724, 1910. 23. Winkler, C., and Potter, A.: An Anatomical Guide to Experimental Researches on the Cat's Brain , Amsterdam, Versluys, 1914. 24. Davenport, H. A., and Ranson, S. W.: The Red Nucleus and Adjacent Cell Groups , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 24:257 ( (Aug.) ) 1930. 25. Mella, Hugo: The Diencephalic Centers Controlling Associated Locomotor Movements , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 10:141 ( (Aug.) ) 1923. 26. King, W. T.: Observations on the Rôle of the Cerebral Cortex in the Control of the Postural Reflex , Am. J. Physiol. 80:311, 1927. 27. Olmsted, J. M. D., and Logan, H. P.: Lesions in the Cerebral Cortex and Extension Rigidity in Cats , Am. J. Physiol. 72:570, 1925. 28. Warner, W. P., and Olmsted, J. M. D.: The Influence of the Cerebrum and Cerebellum on Extensor Rigidity , Brain 46:189, 1923. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry American Medical Association

EFFECTS OF LESIONS IN THE RED NUCLEI IN CATS

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1932 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0096-6754
DOI
10.1001/archneurpsyc.1932.02240030003001
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Abstract

Abstract The function of any part of the brain may be investigated experimentally by observing the effects of a stimulus applied to it directly, by noting the impairment of function caused by its destruction or by comparison of the reactions of an animal from which all the brain rostral to the part under investigation has been removed, with the reactions obtained when that portion has also been removed. The latter method has been used extensively in studying the rôle played by the red nucleus and subthalamus in the complex reaction patterns involved in standing and walking. The literature related to such investigations has been reviewed by Hinsey, Ranson and McNattin.1 These authors found that a cat, from which all of the brain in front of a plane transecting the brain stem just rostral to the superior colliculi and mammillary bodies had been removed, could stand and walk. If such an References 1. Hinsey, J. C.; Ranson, S. W., and McNattin, R. F.: The Rôle of the Hypothalamus and Mesencephalon in Locomotion , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 23:1 ( (Jan.) ) 1930. 2. Magnus, R.: Körperstellung , Berlin, Julius Springer, 1924. 3. Rademaker, G. G. J.: Die Bedeutung der roten Kerne und des übrigen Mittelhirns für Muskeltonus, Körperstellung, und Labyrinthreflexe , Berlin, Julius Springer, 1926. 4. Ranson, S. W.; Muir, J. C., and Zeiss, F. R.: Extensor Tonus After Spinal Cord Lesions in the Cat , J. Comp. Neurol. 54:13, 1932. 5. Ranson, S. W.: Rigidity Caused by Pyramidal Lesions in the Cat , J. Comp. Neurol. , to be published. 6. Ranson, S. W., and Hinsey, J. C.: Extensor Tonus After Transection of the Brain Stem at Varying Levels , J. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. 70:584, 1929. 7. Bremer, F.: La fonction inhibitrice du paléo-cérébellum , Arch. internat. de physiol. 19:189, 1922. 8. Bernis, W. J., and Spiegel, E. A.: Die Zentren der statischen Innervation und ihre Beeinflussung durch Klein- und Grosshirn , Arb. a. d. neurol. Inst. a. d. Wien. Univ. 27:197, 1925. 9. Rademaker, G. G. J.: Das Stehen , Berlin, Julius Springer, 1931. 10. Spitzer, A.: Anatomie und Physiologie der zentralen Bahnen des Vestibularis , Arb. a. d. Neurol. Inst. a. d. Wien. Univ. 25:422, 1924. 11. Lorente de Nó, R.: Labyrinthreflexe auf die Augenmuskeln nach einseitiger Labyrinthextirpation , Berlin, Urban & Schwarzenberg, 1928. 12. Gray, L. P.: Some Experimental Evidence on the Connections of the Vestibular Mechanism in the Cat , J. Comp. Neurol. 41:319, 1926. 13. Langworthy, O. R.: The Area Frontalis of the Cerebral Cortex of the Cat, Its Minute Structure, and Physiological Evidence of Its Control of the Postural Reflex , Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 42:20, 1928. 14. Fulton, J. F.; Liddell, E. G. T., and Rioch, D. McK.: The Influence of Unilateral Destruction of the Vestibular Nuclei upon Posture and the Knee-Jerk , Brain 53:327, 1930. 15. Fulton, J. F.; Liddell, E. G. T., and Rioch, D. McK.: The Influence of Experimental Lesions of the Spinal Cord upon the Knee-Jerk: I. Acute Lesions , Brain 53:311, 1930. 16. Ingram, W. R.; Ranson, S. W., and Hannett, F. I.: The Direct Stimulation of the Red Nucleus in Cats , J. Neurol. & Psychopath. 12:219, 1932. 17. Mussen, A. T.: Experimental Investigations on the Cerebellum , Brain 50:313, 1927. 18. Ingram, W. R.; Ranson, S. W.; Hannett, F. I.; Zeiss, F. R., and Terwilliger, E. H.: Results of Stimulation of the Tegmentum with the Horsley-Clarke Stereotaxic Apparatus , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. , this issue, p. 513. 19. Ingram, W. R.; Hannett, F. I., and Ranson, S. W.: The Topography of the Nuclei of the Diencephalon in the Cat , J. Comp. Neurol. , to be published. 20. Horsley, V., and Clarke, R. H.: The Structure and Functions of the Cerebellum Examined by a New Method , Brain 31:45, 1908. 21. In expressing the coordinates of the stereotaxic instrument, the following symbols are used: A indicates the number of millimeters rostral to the transverse interaural plane; R, the number of millimeters to the right of the midsagittal plane; L, the number of millimeters to the left of the midsagittal plane, and H, the number of millimeters ventral to the zero horizontal plane. 22. von Monakow, C.: Der rote Kern der Säugetiere und des Menschen , Neurol. Zentralbl. 13:724, 1910. 23. Winkler, C., and Potter, A.: An Anatomical Guide to Experimental Researches on the Cat's Brain , Amsterdam, Versluys, 1914. 24. Davenport, H. A., and Ranson, S. W.: The Red Nucleus and Adjacent Cell Groups , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 24:257 ( (Aug.) ) 1930. 25. Mella, Hugo: The Diencephalic Centers Controlling Associated Locomotor Movements , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 10:141 ( (Aug.) ) 1923. 26. King, W. T.: Observations on the Rôle of the Cerebral Cortex in the Control of the Postural Reflex , Am. J. Physiol. 80:311, 1927. 27. Olmsted, J. M. D., and Logan, H. P.: Lesions in the Cerebral Cortex and Extension Rigidity in Cats , Am. J. Physiol. 72:570, 1925. 28. Warner, W. P., and Olmsted, J. M. D.: The Influence of the Cerebrum and Cerebellum on Extensor Rigidity , Brain 46:189, 1923.

Journal

Archives of Neurology & PsychiatryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Sep 1, 1932

References