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Effects of In Utero Drug Exposure on Children's Development: Review and Recommendations

Effects of In Utero Drug Exposure on Children's Development: Review and Recommendations Abstract Effects of of in utero drug exposure on pregnancy outcome, infant development, and preschool functioning are reviewed. Six possible mechanisms underlying possible negative outcomes seen in children exposed to drugs in utero are considered. Recommendations and opportunities for future research focus on process-oriented assessments, methodological and procedural issues, research design, and interventions. (Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1994;148:33-39) References 1. Gomby D, Shiuno P. Estimating the number of substance-exposed infants . Future Child . 1991;1:17-25.Crossref 2. Frank D, Zuckerman BS, Amaro H, et al. Cocaine use during pregnancy: prevalence and correlates . Pediatrics . 1988;82:888-895. 3. Zuckerman B, Frank DA, Hingson R, et al. Effects of maternal marijuana and cocaine use on fetal growth . N Engl J Med . 1989;320:762-768.Crossref 4. Ostrea EM, Brady M, Gause S, Raymundo AL, Stevens M. Drug screening of newborns by meconium analysis: a large-scale, prospective epidemiological study . Pediatrics . 1992;89:107-113. 5. Chasnoff IJ, Landress HJ, Barrett ME. The prevalence of illicit-drug or alcohol use during pregnancy and discrepancies in mandatory reporting in Pinellas County, Florida . N Engl J Med . 1990;332:1202-1206.Crossref 6. Schutsman DL, Frankenfield-Chernicoff M, Clatterbaugh HE, Singer J. Incidence of intrauterine cocaine exposure in a suburban setting . Pediatrics . 1991;88:825-827. 7. Day NL, Richardson GA. Prenatal marijuana use: epidemiology, methodologic issues, and infant outcome . Clin Perinatol . 1991;18:77-91. 8. Pietrantoni M, Knuppel RA. Alcohol use in pregnancy . Chem Depend Pregnancy . 1991;18:93-111. 9. Burkett G, Yasin S, Palow D. Perinatal implications of cocaine exposure . J Reprod Med . 1990:35:35-42. 10. Chouteau M, Namerow PB, Leppert P. The effect of cocaine abuse on birth weight and gestational age . Obstet Gynecol . 1988;72:351-354. 11. Fulroth R, Phillips B, Durand DJ. Perinatal outcome of infants exposed to cocaine and/or heroin in utero . AJDC . 1989;143:905-910. 12. Neuspiel DR, Hamel SC. Cocaine and infant behavior . J Dev Behav Pediatr . 1991;12:55-64.Crossref 13. Little BB, Snell LM, Klein VR, Gilstrap LC. Cocaine abuse during pregnancy: maternal and fetal implications . Obstet Gynecol . 1989;73:157-160. 14. Neerhof MG, MacGregor SN, Retzky SS, Sullivan TP. Cocaine abuse during pregnancy: peripartum prevalence and perinatal outcome . Am J Obstet Gynecol . 1989;161:633-638.Crossref 15. Oro AS, Dixon SD. Perinatal cocaine and methamphetamine exposure: maternal and neonatal correlates . J Pediatr . 1987;111:571-578.Crossref 16. Petitti DB, Coleman C. Cocaine and the risk of low birth weight . Am J Public Health . 1990;80:25-28.Crossref 17. Ryan L, Ehrlich S, Finnegan L. Cocaine abuse in pregnancy: effects on the fetus and newborn . Neurotoxicol Teratol . 1987;9:295-299.Crossref 18. Hoy EA, Bill JM, Sykes DH. Very low birthweight: a long-term developmental impairment? Int J Behav Dev . 1988;11:37-67.Crossref 19. Kopp CB. Risk factors in development . In: Campos JJ, Haith M, eds. Handbook of Child Psychology . New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc; 1983;2: 1081-1188. 20. McCormick MC. The contribution of low birth weight to infant mortality and childhood morbidity . N Engl J Med . 1985;312:82-90.Crossref 21. McCormick MC. Long-term follow-up of infants discharged from neonatal intensive care units . JAMA . 1989;261:24-31.Crossref 22. National Institute of Medicine. Preventing Low Birthweight . Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 1985. 23. Chasnoff IJ, Burns WJ, Schnoll SH, Burns KA. Cocaine use in pregnancy . N Engl J Med . 1985;313:666-669.Crossref 24. Madden JD, Payne TF, Miller S. Maternal cocaine abuse and effect on the newborn . Pediatrics . 1986;77:209-211. 25. Singer LT, Garber R, Kliegman R. Neurobehavioral sequelae of fetal cocaine exposure . J Pediatr . 1991;119:667-672.Crossref 26. Wilson GS. Clinical studies of infants and children exposed prenatally to heroin . Ann N Y Acad Sci . 1989;562:183-194.Crossref 27. Chasnoff IJ, Burns KA, Burns WJ. Cocaine use in pregnancy: perinatal morbidity and mortality . Neurotoxicol Teratol . 1987;9:291-293.Crossref 28. Chasnoff IJ, Griffith DR. Cocaine-exposed infants: two-year follow-up . Pediatr Res . 1989;25:249A. 29. Brazelton TB. Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale . 2nd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: JB Lippincott; 1984. 30. Coles CD, Platzman K, Smith I, James M. Effects of maternal use of cocaine and alcohol on neonatal behavior . Infant Behav Dev . 1990;13:321.Crossref 31. Eisen L, Field T, Bandstra E, et al. Perinatal cocaine effects on neonatal stress behavior and performance on the Brazelton scale . Pediatrics . 1991;88:448-477. 32. Mayes LC, Granger RH, Frank MA, Schottenfeld R, Bornstein MH. Neurobehavioral profiles of neonates exposed to cocaine prenatally . Pediatrics . 1993; 91:778-783. 33. Neuspiel DR, Hamel SC, Hochberg E, Greene J, Campbell D. Maternal cocaine use and infant behavior . Neurotoxicol Teratol . 1990;13:229-233.Crossref 34. Woods N, Eyler F, Behnke M. Neonatal behavior in cocaine-exposed infants and maternal depression . Infant Behav Dev . 1990;13:631. 35. Lester B, Cowin M, Sepkoski C, et al. Neurobehavioral syndromes in cocaine-exposed newborns . Child Dev . 1991;62:694-705.Crossref 36. Karmel BZ, Gardner JM, Magnano CL. Neurofunctional consequences of in utero cocaine exposure. In: Harris L, ed. Problems of Drug Dependence 1990: Proceedings of the 52nd Annual Scientific Meeting, The Committee on Problems of Drug Dependence, Inc. Washington, DC: National Institute of Drug Abuse; 1990:105. 37. Doberczak TM, Shanzer S, Senie RT, Kandall S. Neonatal neurologic and electroencephalographic effects of intrauterine cocaine exposure . J Pediatr . 1988; 113:354-358.Crossref 38. Dixon S, Bejar R. Echoenceplalographic findings in neonates associated with maternal cocaine and methamphetamine use: incidence and findings . J Pediatr . 1989;115:770-778.Crossref 39. Link EA, Weese-Mayer DW, Byrd SE. Magnetic resonance imaging in infants exposed to cocaine prenatally: a preliminary report . Clin Pediatr . 1991;30:506-508.Crossref 40. Schneider JW, Chasnoff IJ. Motor assessment of cocaine/polydrug exposed infants at age 4 months . Neurotoxicol Teratol . 1992;14:97-101.Crossref 41. Griffith D, Chasnoff IJ, Gillogley K, Frier C. Developmental follow-up of cocaine-exposed infants through age three years . Infant Behav Dev . 1990;13:126A. 42. Strauss ME, Lessen-Firestone JK, Chavez CJ, Stryher JC. Children of methadone-treated women at five years of age . Pharmacol Biochem Behav Suppl . 1979; 11:3-6. 43. Kaltenbach K, Finnegan LP. Children exposed to methadone in utero . Ann N Y Acad Sci . 1989;562:360-362.Crossref 44. Hans SL. Developmental consequences of prenatal exposure to methodone . Ann N Y Acad Sci . 1989;562:195-207.Crossref 45. Fagan JF, McGrath SK. Infant recognition memory and late intelligence . Intelligence . 1981;5:121-130.Crossref 46. Delaney-Black V, Roumell N, Shankaran S, Bedard M. Maternal cocaine use and infant outcome . Pediatr Res . 1990;25:242A. 47. Struthers JM, Hansen RL. Visual recognition memory in drug-exposed infants . J Dev Behav Pediatr . 1992;13:108-111.Crossref 48. Rodning C, Beckwith L, Howard J. Characteristics of attachment organization and play organization in prenatally drug exposured toddlers . Dev Psychopathol . 1989;1:277-289.Crossref 49. van Barr A. Development of infants of drug-dependent mothers . J Child Psychol Psychiatry . 1990;31:911-920.Crossref 50. Davis E, Fennoy I, Laraque D, Kanem N, Brown G, Mitchell J. Autism and developmental abnormalities in children with prenatal cocaine exposure . J Natl Med Assoc . 1992;84:315-319. 51. Rodning C, Beckwith L, Howard J. Quality of attachment and home environments in children prenatally exposed to PCP and cocaine . Dev Psychopathol . 1991;3:277-289.Crossref 52. Woods JR, Plessinger MA, Clark KE. Effect of cocaine on uterine blood flow and fetal oxygenation . JAMA . 1987;257:957-961.Crossref 53. Singer LT, Arendt R, Mines S. Neurodevelopmental effects of cocaine . In: Kliegman R, Walsh-Sukys M, eds. Clinics and Perinatology . Philadelphia. Pa: WB Saunders Co; 1993;20:245-262. 54. Cherukuri R, Minkoff H, Feldman J, Parenkh AE, Glass L. A cohort study of alkalocdal cocaine ('crack') in pregnancy . Obstet Gynecol . 1988;72:147-151. 55. Bateman DA, Heagarty MC. Passive freebase cocaine ('crack') inhalation by infants and toddlers . AJDC . 1989;143:25-27. 56. Shannon M, Lacouture PG, Roa J, Woolf A. Cocaine exposure among children seen at a pediatric hospital . Pediatrics . 1989;83:337-342. 57. Rivkin M, Gilmore HE. Generalized seizures in an infant due to environmentally acquired cocaine . Pediatrics . 1989;84:1100-1102. 58. Davis SK. Chemical dependency in women: a description of its effects and outcome on adequate parenting . J Subst Abuse Treat . 1990;7:225-232.Crossref 59. Zuckerman B, Parker S, Hingson R, et al. Maternal psychoactive use and its effect on the neonate . In: Milunsky A, Friedman EA, Gluck L, eds. Advances in Perinatology . New York, NY: Plenum Press; 1986;5:125-170. 60. Field T, Healy B, Goldstein S, et al. Infants of depressed mothers show 'depressed' behavior even with non-depressed adults . Child Dev . 1988;59:1569-1579.Crossref 61. Field TM. Affective and interactive disturbances in infants . In: Osofsky JD, ed. Handbook of Infant Development . Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 1987. 62. Sigman M, Parmelee AH. Longitudinal evaluation of the preterm infant . In: Field T, Sostek A, Goldberg S, Sherman H, eds. Infants Born at Risk: Behavior and Development . New York, NY: SP Medical & Scientific Books; 1979. 63. United States General Accounting Office. Drug Exposed Infants: A Generation at Risk . Washington, DC; 1990. 64. Howard J, Beckwith L, Rodning C, Kropenske V. The development of young children of substance-abusing parents . Zero to Three . 1989;9:8-12. 65. Burton LM, Dilworth-Anderson P. The intergenerational family roles of aged black Americans . Marriage Fam Rev . 1991;16:311-330.Crossref 66. Brooks-Gunn J, Chase-Lansdale PL. Children having children: effects on the family system . Pediatr Ann . 1991;20:467-481.Crossref 67. Streissguth AP, Barr HM, Sampson PD, Parrish-Johnson JC, Kirchner GL, Martin DC. Attention, distraction and reaction time at age 7 years and prenatal alcohol exposure . Neurobehav Toxicol Teratol . 1986;8:717-725. 68. Streissguth AP, Sampson PD, Barr HM, Darby BL, Martin DC. IQ at age 4 in relation to maternal alcohol use and smoking during pregnancy . Dev Psychol . 1989;25:3-11.Crossref 69. Duncan GJ, Klebanov PK, Brooks-Gunn J. Economic deprivation and early-childhood development. Child Dev. In press. 70. Brooks-Gunn J, Duncan GJ, Klebanov PK, Sealand N. Do neighborhoods influence child and adolescent behavior? Am J Sociol. In press. 71. Sameroff AJ, Seifer R, Barocas R, Zax M, Greenspan S. Intelligence quotient scores of 4-year-old children: social environment risk factors . Pediatrics . 1987; 79:343-350. 72. Furstenberg FF Jr, Brooks-Gunn J, Morgan SP. Adolescent mothers in latter life . Fam Plann Perspect . 1987;19:142-151.Crossref 73. Sameroff AJ, Chandler MJ. Reproductive risks and the continuum of care-taking casualty . In: Horowitz FD, Hetherington M, Scarr-Salapatek S, Siegel G, eds. Review of Child Development Research . Chicago, III: Society for Research in Child Development; 1975;4:187-244. 74. Parker S, Greer S, Zuckerman B. Double jeopardy: the impact of poverty on early child-development . Pediatr Clin North Am . 1988;35:1227-1240. 75. Werner EE, Smith RS. Vulnerable but Invincible: A Longitudinal Study of Resilient Children and Youth . New York, NY: McGraw-Hill International Book Co; 1982. 76. Brooks-Gunn J, Weinraub M. Origins of infant intelligence testing . In: Lewis M, ed. Origins of Intelligence . 2nd ed. New York, NY: Plenum Press; 1983: 25-66. 77. McCall RB. Nature-nurture and the two realms of development: a proposed integration with respect to mental development . Child Dev . 1981;52:1-12.Crossref 78. Finnegan LP. Neonatal abstinence . In: Nelson M, ed. Current Therapy in Neonatal and Perinatal Medicine . Ontario: BC Decker; 1984. 79. Finnegan L, Kaltenbach K, Weiner S, Haney B. Neonatal cocaine exposure: assessment of risk scale . Pediatr Res . 1990;25:10A. 80. Osofsky J, Danziger B. Relationships between neonatal characteristics and mother-infant interaction . Dev Psychol . 1974;10:124-130.Crossref 81. Osofsky J. Neonatal characteristics and mother-infant interactions in two observational situations . Child Dev . 1976;47:1138-1147.Crossref 82. Lester B. Behavioral assessment of the neonate . In: Fell EJ, ed. Follow-up of the High Risk Newborn: A Practical Approach . Springfield, III: Charles C. Thomas Publisher; 1979. 83. Brazelton TB. Touchpoints: Your Child's Emotional and Behavioral Development . Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co; 1992. 84. Ruff HA, Lawson HR. The development of sustained focused attention in young children during free play . Dev Psychol . 1990;26:85-93.Crossref 85. Mesulam MM. A cortical network for directed attention and unilateral neglect . Am Neurol Assoc . 1981;10:309-325.Crossref 86. Bornstein MH, Sigman MD. Continuity in mental development from infancy . Child Dev . 1986;57:251-274.Crossref 87. Rose SA, Feldman JF, Wallace IF, McCarton C. Infant visual attention: relation to birth status and developmental outcome during the first 5 years . Dev Psychol . 1989;25:560-576.Crossref 88. Lewis M, Brooks-Gunn J. Visual attention at three months as a predictor of cognitive functioning at two years of age . Intelligence . 1981;5:131-140.Crossref 89. Posner Ml, Peterson SE. The attention system of the human brain . Annu Rev Neurosci . 1990;13:25-42.Crossref 90. Friedman SL, Sigman MD. The Psychological Development of Low Birth Weight Children: Advances in Applied Developmental Psychology . Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Corp; 1992. 91. Spiker D, Ferguson J, Brooks-Gunn J. Enhancing maternal interactive behavior and child social competence in low-birth-weight, premature infants . Child Dev . 1993;65:754-768.Crossref 92. Brooks-Gunn J. Identifying the vulnerable young child . In: Rogers DE, Ginzberg E, eds. Improving the Life Chances of Children at Risk . Boulder, Colo: Westview Press; 1990:104-124. 93. Brooks-Gunn J. Promoting healthy development in young children: what educational interventions work? In: Rogers DE, Ginzberg E, eds. Improving the Life Chances of Children at Risk . Boulder, Colo: Westview Press; 1990:125-145. 94. Brooks-Gunn J, Liaw F, Kato P. Effects of early intervention on low birth-weight, premature infants: what aspects of cognitive functioning are enhanced? J Pediatr . 1992;120:350-359.Crossref 95. Levine MD. Neurodevelopmental dysfunction during childhood: the high impacts and policy implications of insiduous handicaps . In: Rogers DE, Ginzberg E, eds. Improving the Life Chances of Children at Risk . Boulder, Colo: Westview Press; 1990:54-62. 96. Zuckerman B, Amaro H, Bauchner H, Cabral H. Depressive symptoms during pregnancy: relationship to poor health behaviors . Am J Obstet Gynecol . 1989; 160:1107-1111.Crossref 97. Graham JM Jr, Hanson JW, Darby BL, Barr HM, Streissguth AP. Independent dysmorphology evaluations at birth and 4 years of age for children exposed to varying amounts of alcohol in utero . Pediatrics . 1988;81:772-778. 98. Ostrea EM, Brady MJ, Parks PM. Drug screening of meconium in infants of drug-dependent mothers: an alternative to urine testing . Pediatrics . 1989; 115:474-477.Crossref 99. Gillogley K, Evans A, Hansen R, Samuels S, Batra K. The prenatal impact of cocaine amphetamine and opiate use detected by universal intrapartum screening . Am J Obstet Gynecol . 1990;163:1535-1542.Crossref 100. The Infant Health and Development Program. Enhancing the outcomes of low birthweight, premature infants: a multisite, randomized trial . JAMA . 1990; 263:3035-3042.Crossref 101. Chase-Lansdale L, Mott F, Brooks-Gunn J, Phillips D. Children of the NLSY: a unique research opportunity . Dev Psychol . 1991;27:918-931.Crossref 102. Lester BM. Infants and their families at risk: assessment and intervention . Infant Ment Health J . 1992;13:54-66.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine American Medical Association

Effects of In Utero Drug Exposure on Children's Development: Review and Recommendations

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American Medical Association
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Copyright © 1994 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
1072-4710
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1538-3628
DOI
10.1001/archpedi.1994.02170010035007
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Abstract

Abstract Effects of of in utero drug exposure on pregnancy outcome, infant development, and preschool functioning are reviewed. Six possible mechanisms underlying possible negative outcomes seen in children exposed to drugs in utero are considered. Recommendations and opportunities for future research focus on process-oriented assessments, methodological and procedural issues, research design, and interventions. (Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1994;148:33-39) References 1. Gomby D, Shiuno P. Estimating the number of substance-exposed infants . Future Child . 1991;1:17-25.Crossref 2. Frank D, Zuckerman BS, Amaro H, et al. Cocaine use during pregnancy: prevalence and correlates . Pediatrics . 1988;82:888-895. 3. Zuckerman B, Frank DA, Hingson R, et al. Effects of maternal marijuana and cocaine use on fetal growth . N Engl J Med . 1989;320:762-768.Crossref 4. Ostrea EM, Brady M, Gause S, Raymundo AL, Stevens M. Drug screening of newborns by meconium analysis: a large-scale, prospective epidemiological study . Pediatrics . 1992;89:107-113. 5. Chasnoff IJ, Landress HJ, Barrett ME. The prevalence of illicit-drug or alcohol use during pregnancy and discrepancies in mandatory reporting in Pinellas County, Florida . N Engl J Med . 1990;332:1202-1206.Crossref 6. Schutsman DL, Frankenfield-Chernicoff M, Clatterbaugh HE, Singer J. Incidence of intrauterine cocaine exposure in a suburban setting . Pediatrics . 1991;88:825-827. 7. Day NL, Richardson GA. Prenatal marijuana use: epidemiology, methodologic issues, and infant outcome . Clin Perinatol . 1991;18:77-91. 8. Pietrantoni M, Knuppel RA. Alcohol use in pregnancy . Chem Depend Pregnancy . 1991;18:93-111. 9. Burkett G, Yasin S, Palow D. Perinatal implications of cocaine exposure . J Reprod Med . 1990:35:35-42. 10. Chouteau M, Namerow PB, Leppert P. The effect of cocaine abuse on birth weight and gestational age . Obstet Gynecol . 1988;72:351-354. 11. Fulroth R, Phillips B, Durand DJ. Perinatal outcome of infants exposed to cocaine and/or heroin in utero . AJDC . 1989;143:905-910. 12. Neuspiel DR, Hamel SC. Cocaine and infant behavior . J Dev Behav Pediatr . 1991;12:55-64.Crossref 13. Little BB, Snell LM, Klein VR, Gilstrap LC. Cocaine abuse during pregnancy: maternal and fetal implications . Obstet Gynecol . 1989;73:157-160. 14. Neerhof MG, MacGregor SN, Retzky SS, Sullivan TP. Cocaine abuse during pregnancy: peripartum prevalence and perinatal outcome . Am J Obstet Gynecol . 1989;161:633-638.Crossref 15. Oro AS, Dixon SD. Perinatal cocaine and methamphetamine exposure: maternal and neonatal correlates . J Pediatr . 1987;111:571-578.Crossref 16. Petitti DB, Coleman C. Cocaine and the risk of low birth weight . Am J Public Health . 1990;80:25-28.Crossref 17. Ryan L, Ehrlich S, Finnegan L. Cocaine abuse in pregnancy: effects on the fetus and newborn . Neurotoxicol Teratol . 1987;9:295-299.Crossref 18. Hoy EA, Bill JM, Sykes DH. Very low birthweight: a long-term developmental impairment? Int J Behav Dev . 1988;11:37-67.Crossref 19. Kopp CB. Risk factors in development . In: Campos JJ, Haith M, eds. Handbook of Child Psychology . New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc; 1983;2: 1081-1188. 20. McCormick MC. The contribution of low birth weight to infant mortality and childhood morbidity . N Engl J Med . 1985;312:82-90.Crossref 21. McCormick MC. Long-term follow-up of infants discharged from neonatal intensive care units . JAMA . 1989;261:24-31.Crossref 22. National Institute of Medicine. Preventing Low Birthweight . Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 1985. 23. Chasnoff IJ, Burns WJ, Schnoll SH, Burns KA. Cocaine use in pregnancy . N Engl J Med . 1985;313:666-669.Crossref 24. Madden JD, Payne TF, Miller S. Maternal cocaine abuse and effect on the newborn . Pediatrics . 1986;77:209-211. 25. Singer LT, Garber R, Kliegman R. Neurobehavioral sequelae of fetal cocaine exposure . J Pediatr . 1991;119:667-672.Crossref 26. Wilson GS. Clinical studies of infants and children exposed prenatally to heroin . Ann N Y Acad Sci . 1989;562:183-194.Crossref 27. Chasnoff IJ, Burns KA, Burns WJ. Cocaine use in pregnancy: perinatal morbidity and mortality . Neurotoxicol Teratol . 1987;9:291-293.Crossref 28. Chasnoff IJ, Griffith DR. Cocaine-exposed infants: two-year follow-up . Pediatr Res . 1989;25:249A. 29. Brazelton TB. Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale . 2nd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: JB Lippincott; 1984. 30. Coles CD, Platzman K, Smith I, James M. Effects of maternal use of cocaine and alcohol on neonatal behavior . Infant Behav Dev . 1990;13:321.Crossref 31. Eisen L, Field T, Bandstra E, et al. Perinatal cocaine effects on neonatal stress behavior and performance on the Brazelton scale . Pediatrics . 1991;88:448-477. 32. Mayes LC, Granger RH, Frank MA, Schottenfeld R, Bornstein MH. Neurobehavioral profiles of neonates exposed to cocaine prenatally . Pediatrics . 1993; 91:778-783. 33. Neuspiel DR, Hamel SC, Hochberg E, Greene J, Campbell D. Maternal cocaine use and infant behavior . Neurotoxicol Teratol . 1990;13:229-233.Crossref 34. Woods N, Eyler F, Behnke M. Neonatal behavior in cocaine-exposed infants and maternal depression . Infant Behav Dev . 1990;13:631. 35. Lester B, Cowin M, Sepkoski C, et al. Neurobehavioral syndromes in cocaine-exposed newborns . Child Dev . 1991;62:694-705.Crossref 36. Karmel BZ, Gardner JM, Magnano CL. Neurofunctional consequences of in utero cocaine exposure. In: Harris L, ed. Problems of Drug Dependence 1990: Proceedings of the 52nd Annual Scientific Meeting, The Committee on Problems of Drug Dependence, Inc. Washington, DC: National Institute of Drug Abuse; 1990:105. 37. Doberczak TM, Shanzer S, Senie RT, Kandall S. Neonatal neurologic and electroencephalographic effects of intrauterine cocaine exposure . J Pediatr . 1988; 113:354-358.Crossref 38. Dixon S, Bejar R. Echoenceplalographic findings in neonates associated with maternal cocaine and methamphetamine use: incidence and findings . J Pediatr . 1989;115:770-778.Crossref 39. Link EA, Weese-Mayer DW, Byrd SE. Magnetic resonance imaging in infants exposed to cocaine prenatally: a preliminary report . Clin Pediatr . 1991;30:506-508.Crossref 40. Schneider JW, Chasnoff IJ. Motor assessment of cocaine/polydrug exposed infants at age 4 months . Neurotoxicol Teratol . 1992;14:97-101.Crossref 41. Griffith D, Chasnoff IJ, Gillogley K, Frier C. Developmental follow-up of cocaine-exposed infants through age three years . Infant Behav Dev . 1990;13:126A. 42. Strauss ME, Lessen-Firestone JK, Chavez CJ, Stryher JC. Children of methadone-treated women at five years of age . Pharmacol Biochem Behav Suppl . 1979; 11:3-6. 43. Kaltenbach K, Finnegan LP. Children exposed to methadone in utero . Ann N Y Acad Sci . 1989;562:360-362.Crossref 44. Hans SL. Developmental consequences of prenatal exposure to methodone . Ann N Y Acad Sci . 1989;562:195-207.Crossref 45. Fagan JF, McGrath SK. Infant recognition memory and late intelligence . Intelligence . 1981;5:121-130.Crossref 46. Delaney-Black V, Roumell N, Shankaran S, Bedard M. Maternal cocaine use and infant outcome . Pediatr Res . 1990;25:242A. 47. Struthers JM, Hansen RL. Visual recognition memory in drug-exposed infants . J Dev Behav Pediatr . 1992;13:108-111.Crossref 48. Rodning C, Beckwith L, Howard J. Characteristics of attachment organization and play organization in prenatally drug exposured toddlers . Dev Psychopathol . 1989;1:277-289.Crossref 49. van Barr A. Development of infants of drug-dependent mothers . J Child Psychol Psychiatry . 1990;31:911-920.Crossref 50. Davis E, Fennoy I, Laraque D, Kanem N, Brown G, Mitchell J. Autism and developmental abnormalities in children with prenatal cocaine exposure . J Natl Med Assoc . 1992;84:315-319. 51. Rodning C, Beckwith L, Howard J. Quality of attachment and home environments in children prenatally exposed to PCP and cocaine . Dev Psychopathol . 1991;3:277-289.Crossref 52. Woods JR, Plessinger MA, Clark KE. Effect of cocaine on uterine blood flow and fetal oxygenation . JAMA . 1987;257:957-961.Crossref 53. Singer LT, Arendt R, Mines S. Neurodevelopmental effects of cocaine . In: Kliegman R, Walsh-Sukys M, eds. Clinics and Perinatology . Philadelphia. Pa: WB Saunders Co; 1993;20:245-262. 54. Cherukuri R, Minkoff H, Feldman J, Parenkh AE, Glass L. A cohort study of alkalocdal cocaine ('crack') in pregnancy . Obstet Gynecol . 1988;72:147-151. 55. Bateman DA, Heagarty MC. Passive freebase cocaine ('crack') inhalation by infants and toddlers . AJDC . 1989;143:25-27. 56. Shannon M, Lacouture PG, Roa J, Woolf A. Cocaine exposure among children seen at a pediatric hospital . Pediatrics . 1989;83:337-342. 57. Rivkin M, Gilmore HE. Generalized seizures in an infant due to environmentally acquired cocaine . Pediatrics . 1989;84:1100-1102. 58. Davis SK. Chemical dependency in women: a description of its effects and outcome on adequate parenting . J Subst Abuse Treat . 1990;7:225-232.Crossref 59. Zuckerman B, Parker S, Hingson R, et al. Maternal psychoactive use and its effect on the neonate . In: Milunsky A, Friedman EA, Gluck L, eds. Advances in Perinatology . New York, NY: Plenum Press; 1986;5:125-170. 60. Field T, Healy B, Goldstein S, et al. Infants of depressed mothers show 'depressed' behavior even with non-depressed adults . Child Dev . 1988;59:1569-1579.Crossref 61. Field TM. Affective and interactive disturbances in infants . In: Osofsky JD, ed. Handbook of Infant Development . Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 1987. 62. Sigman M, Parmelee AH. Longitudinal evaluation of the preterm infant . In: Field T, Sostek A, Goldberg S, Sherman H, eds. Infants Born at Risk: Behavior and Development . New York, NY: SP Medical & Scientific Books; 1979. 63. United States General Accounting Office. Drug Exposed Infants: A Generation at Risk . Washington, DC; 1990. 64. Howard J, Beckwith L, Rodning C, Kropenske V. The development of young children of substance-abusing parents . Zero to Three . 1989;9:8-12. 65. Burton LM, Dilworth-Anderson P. The intergenerational family roles of aged black Americans . Marriage Fam Rev . 1991;16:311-330.Crossref 66. Brooks-Gunn J, Chase-Lansdale PL. Children having children: effects on the family system . Pediatr Ann . 1991;20:467-481.Crossref 67. Streissguth AP, Barr HM, Sampson PD, Parrish-Johnson JC, Kirchner GL, Martin DC. Attention, distraction and reaction time at age 7 years and prenatal alcohol exposure . Neurobehav Toxicol Teratol . 1986;8:717-725. 68. Streissguth AP, Sampson PD, Barr HM, Darby BL, Martin DC. IQ at age 4 in relation to maternal alcohol use and smoking during pregnancy . Dev Psychol . 1989;25:3-11.Crossref 69. 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Journal

Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent MedicineAmerican Medical Association

Published: Jan 1, 1994

References