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Effects of Hexavalent and Trivalent Chromium Compounds on the Skin

Effects of Hexavalent and Trivalent Chromium Compounds on the Skin Abstract This report is a continuation of previous investigations dealing with the effects of chromium compounds on the skin.1-3 The purpose of the present study is to report the effects of hexavalent and trivalent chromium compounds in clinical and laboratory studies of the role of chromium compounds in shoe leather dermatitis, of absorption of hexavalent and trivalent chromium compounds in the skin of guinea pigs, and of conjugation between chromium salts with various proteins and the inactivation of chromium reactions. I. Chromium Compounds in the Causation of Shoe Leather Dermatitis In the most recent study,4 we demonstrated the capacity of human sweat to extract chromium from chrome-tanned leathers. The findings support the observations reported by leather chemists. The chromium compounds extracted were both hexavalent and trivalent, as shown by polarographic studies. The nature of the chromium extracted was determined by spectrophotometric analyses; the trivalent chromium is in the form References 1. Supplied through the courtesy of George E. Morris, M.D. 2. Polarographic studies performed by S. Katz. 3. Samitz, M. H.: Some Dermatologic Aspects of the Chromate Problem , A.M.A. Arch. Industr. Health 11:361-367 ( (May) ) 1955. 4. Samitz, M. H.: Studies of Chromate Dermatitis , A.M.A. Arch. Industr. Health 14:269-271 ( (Sept.) ) 1956. 5. Samitz, M. H., and Pomerantz, H.: Studies of the Effects on the Skin of Nickel and Chromium Salts , A.M.A. Arch. Industr. Health 18:473-479 ( (Dec.) ) 1958. 6. Samitz, M. H., and Gross, S.: Extraction by Sweat of Chromium from Chrome Tanned Leathers , J. Occup. Med. 2:12-14 ( (Jan.) ) 1960. 7. Samitz, M. H.; Katz, S., and Gross, S.: Nature of the Chromium Extracted from Leather by Sweat , J. Occup. Med. 2:435-436 ( (Sept.) ) 1960. 8. Morris, G. E.: Cross-Sensitization of the Feet and Hands Due to Chrome-Tanned Leather Shoes and Gloves , New Engl. J. Med. 257:567 ( (Sept. 19) ) 1957.Crossref 9. Walsh, E. N.: Report of the Council on Industrial Health: Chromate Hazards in Industry , J.A.M.A. 153:1305-1308 ( (Dec. 5) ) 1953.Crossref 10. Denton, C. R.; Keenan, R. G., and Birmingham, D. J.: The Chromium Content of Cement and Its Significance in Cement Dermatitis , J. Invest. Derm. 3:189-191 ( (Sept.) ) 1954.Crossref 11. Bett, D. C. G.: The Potassium Dichromate Patch Test , Trans. St. John's Hosp. Derm. Soc. No. (40) pp. 40-48, 1958. 12. Samitz, M. H.: Unpublished data. 13. Shatin, H., and Reisch, M.: Dermatitis of Feet Due to Shoes , A.M.A. Arch. Derm. Syph. 69:651-666 ( (June) ) 1954.Crossref 14. Fisher, A. A.: Some Practical Aspects of the Diagnosis and Management of Shoe Dermatitis , A.M.A. Arch. Derm. 79:267-274 ( (March) ) 1959.Crossref 15. Loewenthal, L. J. A.: Reactions in Green Tattoos , Arch. Derm. 82:237-243 ( (Aug.) ) 1960.Crossref 16. Samitz, M. H.; Gross, S., and Flesch, P.: Studies of the Concentrations of Chromium Salts in the Skin of Guinea Pigs , J. Occup. Med. , to be published. 17. MacKenzie, R. D.; Byerrum, R. U.; Decker, C. F.; Hoppert, C. A., and Langham, R. F.: Chronic Toxicity Studies: II. Hexavalent and Trivalent Chromium Administered in Drinking Water to Rats , A.M.A. Arch. Industr. Health , 18:232-234 ( (Sept.) ) 1958. 18. Hueper, W. C., and Payne, W. W.: Experimental Cancers in Rats Produced by Chromium Compounds and Their Significance to Industry and Public Health , Industr. Hyg. J. 20:274-280 ( (Aug.) ) 1959.Crossref 19. Szakall, A.: Über die Eigenschaften, Herkunft und physiologischen Funktionen der die H-Ionenkonzentration bestimmenden Wirkstoffe in der verhornten Epidermis , Arch. Klin. Exp. Derm. 201:331-360, 1955.Crossref 20. Röckl, H.; Spier, H. W., and Pascher, G.: Der Einfluss wasserlöslicher Bestandteile der Hornschicht auf Bakterien , Arch. Klin. Exp. Derm. 205:420-434, 1957.Crossref 21. Samitz, M. H.; Gross, S., and Katz, S.: Chromium Protein Complexes, Unpublished data. 22. Magnus, I. A.: The Conjugation of Nickel, Cobalt, Hexavalent Chromium, and Eosin with Protein as Shown by Paper Electrophoresis , Acta. Dermatovener. (Stockh.) 38:20-31, 1958. 23. Samitz, M. H.; Gross, S., and Katz, S.: Inactivation of Chromate Ion in Allergic Eczematous Dermatitis , J. Invest. Dermat. , to be published. 24. Jaeger, H., and Pelloni, E.: Tests epicutanes aux bichromates, positifs dans l'eczema au ciment , Dermatologica (Basel) 100:207-216, 1950.Crossref 25. Hilt, G.: La dermite du chrome hexavalent dans le cadre des dermites eczémateuses par sensibilisation aux metaux , Dermatologica (Basel) 109:143-174 ( (Sept.) ) 1954.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Dermatology American Medical Association

Effects of Hexavalent and Trivalent Chromium Compounds on the Skin

Archives of Dermatology , Volume 84 (3) – Sep 1, 1961

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1961 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-987X
eISSN
1538-3652
DOI
10.1001/archderm.1961.01580150050009
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract This report is a continuation of previous investigations dealing with the effects of chromium compounds on the skin.1-3 The purpose of the present study is to report the effects of hexavalent and trivalent chromium compounds in clinical and laboratory studies of the role of chromium compounds in shoe leather dermatitis, of absorption of hexavalent and trivalent chromium compounds in the skin of guinea pigs, and of conjugation between chromium salts with various proteins and the inactivation of chromium reactions. I. Chromium Compounds in the Causation of Shoe Leather Dermatitis In the most recent study,4 we demonstrated the capacity of human sweat to extract chromium from chrome-tanned leathers. The findings support the observations reported by leather chemists. The chromium compounds extracted were both hexavalent and trivalent, as shown by polarographic studies. The nature of the chromium extracted was determined by spectrophotometric analyses; the trivalent chromium is in the form References 1. Supplied through the courtesy of George E. Morris, M.D. 2. Polarographic studies performed by S. Katz. 3. Samitz, M. H.: Some Dermatologic Aspects of the Chromate Problem , A.M.A. Arch. Industr. Health 11:361-367 ( (May) ) 1955. 4. Samitz, M. H.: Studies of Chromate Dermatitis , A.M.A. Arch. Industr. Health 14:269-271 ( (Sept.) ) 1956. 5. Samitz, M. H., and Pomerantz, H.: Studies of the Effects on the Skin of Nickel and Chromium Salts , A.M.A. Arch. Industr. Health 18:473-479 ( (Dec.) ) 1958. 6. Samitz, M. H., and Gross, S.: Extraction by Sweat of Chromium from Chrome Tanned Leathers , J. Occup. Med. 2:12-14 ( (Jan.) ) 1960. 7. Samitz, M. H.; Katz, S., and Gross, S.: Nature of the Chromium Extracted from Leather by Sweat , J. Occup. Med. 2:435-436 ( (Sept.) ) 1960. 8. Morris, G. E.: Cross-Sensitization of the Feet and Hands Due to Chrome-Tanned Leather Shoes and Gloves , New Engl. J. Med. 257:567 ( (Sept. 19) ) 1957.Crossref 9. Walsh, E. N.: Report of the Council on Industrial Health: Chromate Hazards in Industry , J.A.M.A. 153:1305-1308 ( (Dec. 5) ) 1953.Crossref 10. Denton, C. R.; Keenan, R. G., and Birmingham, D. J.: The Chromium Content of Cement and Its Significance in Cement Dermatitis , J. Invest. Derm. 3:189-191 ( (Sept.) ) 1954.Crossref 11. Bett, D. C. G.: The Potassium Dichromate Patch Test , Trans. St. John's Hosp. Derm. Soc. No. (40) pp. 40-48, 1958. 12. Samitz, M. H.: Unpublished data. 13. Shatin, H., and Reisch, M.: Dermatitis of Feet Due to Shoes , A.M.A. Arch. Derm. Syph. 69:651-666 ( (June) ) 1954.Crossref 14. Fisher, A. A.: Some Practical Aspects of the Diagnosis and Management of Shoe Dermatitis , A.M.A. Arch. Derm. 79:267-274 ( (March) ) 1959.Crossref 15. Loewenthal, L. J. A.: Reactions in Green Tattoos , Arch. Derm. 82:237-243 ( (Aug.) ) 1960.Crossref 16. Samitz, M. H.; Gross, S., and Flesch, P.: Studies of the Concentrations of Chromium Salts in the Skin of Guinea Pigs , J. Occup. Med. , to be published. 17. MacKenzie, R. D.; Byerrum, R. U.; Decker, C. F.; Hoppert, C. A., and Langham, R. F.: Chronic Toxicity Studies: II. Hexavalent and Trivalent Chromium Administered in Drinking Water to Rats , A.M.A. Arch. Industr. Health , 18:232-234 ( (Sept.) ) 1958. 18. Hueper, W. C., and Payne, W. W.: Experimental Cancers in Rats Produced by Chromium Compounds and Their Significance to Industry and Public Health , Industr. Hyg. J. 20:274-280 ( (Aug.) ) 1959.Crossref 19. Szakall, A.: Über die Eigenschaften, Herkunft und physiologischen Funktionen der die H-Ionenkonzentration bestimmenden Wirkstoffe in der verhornten Epidermis , Arch. Klin. Exp. Derm. 201:331-360, 1955.Crossref 20. Röckl, H.; Spier, H. W., and Pascher, G.: Der Einfluss wasserlöslicher Bestandteile der Hornschicht auf Bakterien , Arch. Klin. Exp. Derm. 205:420-434, 1957.Crossref 21. Samitz, M. H.; Gross, S., and Katz, S.: Chromium Protein Complexes, Unpublished data. 22. Magnus, I. A.: The Conjugation of Nickel, Cobalt, Hexavalent Chromium, and Eosin with Protein as Shown by Paper Electrophoresis , Acta. Dermatovener. (Stockh.) 38:20-31, 1958. 23. Samitz, M. H.; Gross, S., and Katz, S.: Inactivation of Chromate Ion in Allergic Eczematous Dermatitis , J. Invest. Dermat. , to be published. 24. Jaeger, H., and Pelloni, E.: Tests epicutanes aux bichromates, positifs dans l'eczema au ciment , Dermatologica (Basel) 100:207-216, 1950.Crossref 25. Hilt, G.: La dermite du chrome hexavalent dans le cadre des dermites eczémateuses par sensibilisation aux metaux , Dermatologica (Basel) 109:143-174 ( (Sept.) ) 1954.Crossref

Journal

Archives of DermatologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Sep 1, 1961

References