Abstract Introduction Cancer of the gallbladder and gallstones have been considered for many years to be in some way related. There is still, however, no exact knowledge of the relationships which prevail. Because the sequence of formation is unknown, both have been considered precursors of the other, while some have suggested a simultaneous development.With the belief in the etiological relationship between biliary calculi and carcinoma, many authors1,4,12,16,19,37,38 have advocated cholecystectomy in cases of cholelithiasis as a prophylactic measure. This reasoning seems to be borne out by the high percentage of gallbladders with carcinoma that are found to contain gallstones, the reported percentage varying from 54% to 91%.* When studies were made of gallbladders removed because of cholelithiasis, however, only 10% were found to show carcinoma.† It is on the basis of this low percentage that Kramer22 states that if calculi were a causative factor in carcinoma of the References 1. References 13, 16, 17, 22, 30, 34-37, 39-41. 2. References 4, 5, 8, 11, 17, 19, 21, 30, 39, 41. 3. Arner, O., and Von Schreeb, T.: Carcinoma of the Gallbladder , Acta Chir Scand 116:477-483, 1959. 4. Bairn, G. O.; Allen, P. B. R.; Silbermann, O.; and Kowalewski, K.: Induction in Hamsters of Biliary Carcinoma by Intracholecystic Methylcholanthrene Pellets , Cancer Res 19:93-96, 1959. 5. Bridges, J. B.: Experimental Heterotopic Ossification , Int Rev Cytol 8:253-278, 1959. 6. Brown, P. F., Jr. and Dixon, P. K., Jr.: Complications of Gallstones , J Med Ass Georgia 48:455, 1959. 7. Burdette, W. J.: Carcinoma of the Gallbladder , Ann Surg 145:832-847, 1957.Crossref 8. Burrows, H.: An Experimental Inquiry Into the Association Between Gallstones and Primary Cancer of the Gallbladder , Brit J Surg 20:607-629, 1932-1933.Crossref 9. Cohrs, P.; Jaffe, R.; and Meessen, H., editors: Pathologic der Laboratoriumstiere , Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1958, vol 2, p 493. 10. Derman, H.; Gerbarg, D. S.; Kelly, J H.; Pauker, S.; and Singer, J.: Are Gallstones and Gallbladder Carcinoma Related? JAMA 176:450-451, 1961.Crossref 11. Desaive, P.: Observations cliniques en faveur de l'existence de relations entre la fonction thyroïdienne et le comportement de cancers hétérologues , Acta Chir Belg 55:25-49, 1956. 12. Desforges, G.; Desforges, J.; and Robbins, S. L.: Carcinoma of the Gallbladder: An Attempt at Experimental Production , Cancer , 3:1088-1096, 1950.Crossref 13. Donhauser, J. L.: Primary Carcinoma of the Gallbladder , AMA Arch Surg 77:918-924, 1958.Crossref 14. Etala, E.: [Primary Cancer of the Gallbladder] , Arch Ital Mal Appar Dig 26:5-34, 1959. 15. Feller, N., and Mordechai, I.: Primary Carcinoma of the Gallbladder , Israel Dapim Refuim , 18:122-128, 1959. 16. Fortner, J. G.: The Experimental Induction of Primary Carcinoma of the Gallbladder , Cancer 8:689-700, 1955.Crossref 17. Fortner, J. G.: An Appraisal of the Pathogenesis of Primary Carcinoma of the Extrahepatic Biliary Tract , Surgery 43:563-571, 1958. 18. Fortner, J. G., and Leffall, L. D.: Carcinoma of the Gallbladder in Dogs , Cancer 14:1127-1130, 1961.Crossref 19. Gerst, P. H.: Primary Carcinoma of the Gallbladder , Ann Surg 153:369-372, 1961.Crossref 20. Grad, B.; Berenson, J.; and Copian, L.: The Influence of Hyper- and Hypothyroidism on the Incidence of Lymphogenous Leukemia in A. K. R. Mice , Proc Amer Ass Cancer Res 2:20, 1955. 21. Horwitz, A., and Rosensweig, J.: Carcinoma of the Gallbladder—A Real Hazard: Summary of 20 Cases , JAMA 173:234-236, 1960.Crossref 22. Kazama, Y.: Studies on the Artificial Production of Tumors in Viscera , Jap Med World 2:309-312, 1922. 23. Kozoll, D. D.; Dwyer, G.; and Meyer, K. A.: Pathologic Correlation of Gallstones , AMA Arch Surg 79:514-536, 1959.Crossref 24. Kramer, A.: Das Gallenblasenkarzinom , Munchen Med Wschr 102:2082-2087, 1960. 25. Lazarus-Barlow, W. S.: An Attempt at the Experimental Production of a Carcinoma by Means of Radium , Proc Roy Soc Med 11:1-17, 1918. 26. Leitch, A.: Gallstones and Cancer of the Gallbladder: An Experimental Study , Brit Med J 2: 451-454, 1924.Crossref 27. Mohardt, J. H.: Carcinoma of the Gallbladder: Collective Review , Surg Gynec Obstet 69: 440-451, 1939. 28. Nelson, A. A., and Woodard, G.: Tumors of the Urinary Bladder, Gallbladder and Liver in Dogs Fed O-Aminoazotoluene or p-Dimethyl-Aminovasobenzene , J Nat Cancer Inst 13:1497-1510, 1953. 29. Petrov, N. N., and Krotkina, N. A.: Experimental Carcinoma of the Gallbladder , Ann Surg 125:241-248, 1947.Crossref 30. Relation of Thyroid Function to Cancer , CA 7:115, 1957. 31. Newsletter , CA 8( (2) ):V, 1958. 32. Schneiderbaur, A., and Lhotka, E.: [Gallbladder Carcinoma] , Wien Med Wschr 111:331-336, 1961. 33. Shimkin, M. B., and Mider, G. B.: Carcinogenesis in Guinea Pig , Cancer Res 1:751-752, 1941. 34. Shimkin, M. B., and Mider, G. B.: Induction of Tumors in Guinea Pigs With Subcutaneously Injected Methylcholanthrene , J Nat Cancer Inst 1:707-725, 1941. 35. Sternberg, S. S.; Popper, H.; Oser, B. L.: and Oser, M.: Gallbladder and Bile Duct Adenocarcinomas in Dogs After Long Term Feedings of Aramite , Cancer 13:780-789, 1960.Crossref 36. Strauch, G. O.: Primary Carcinoma of the Gallbladder: Presentation of 70 Cases From The Rhode Island Hospital and a Cumulative Review of the Last 10 Years of the American Literature , Surgery 47:368-383, 1960. 37. Strohl, E. L., and Diffenbaugh, W. G.: Carcinoma of the Gall Bladder , AMA Arch Surg 70:772-781, 1955.Crossref 38. Tabet, B. J.: Primary Carcinoma of the Gallbladder: Report of 47 Cases , Amer J Surg 100:365-371, 1960.Crossref 39. Thorbjarnarson, B., and Glenn, F.: Carcinoma of the Gallbladder , Cancer 12:1009-1015, 1959.Crossref 40. Thorbjarnarson, B.: Carcinoma of the Gallbladder, Letters to the Journal , JAMA 177:530-531, 1961.Crossref 41. Torvik, A., and Hoivik, B.: Gallstones in an Autopsy Series , Acta Chir Scand 120:168-174, 1960. 42. Van Zandt, I. L.: Carcinoma of the Gallbladder , Texas J Med 36:616-617, 1941. 43. Warren, R., and Balch, F. G., Jr.: Carcinoma of the Gallbladder: The Etiological Role of Gallstones , Surgery 7:657-666, 1940. 44. Worter, J., and Weill, J. P.: Lithiase biliare et hypothyroidie , Schweiz Med Wschr 87:101-105, 1957. 45. Zeppa, R., and Womack, N. A.: Carcinoma of the Gallbladder: Attempt at Experimental Induction , Southern Med J 50:1267-1271, 1957.Crossref
Archives of Surgery – American Medical Association
Published: Oct 1, 1963
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