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Effect of Oral Contraceptives on Experimental Demyelinating Disease

Effect of Oral Contraceptives on Experimental Demyelinating Disease Abstract AS THE USE of oral contraceptives has spread, certain hazards associated with their use have come to light.1,2 In the case of the human demyelinating disease, multiple sclerosis, no data have come forth as to whether oral contraceptives influence its course favorably, unfavorably, or at all. The point is of some moment to women with the disease, many of whom are terrified by the prospect of pregnancy and of the consequences which may be in store for them because of pregnancy. Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), an acute demyelinating disease of auto-allergic etiology, is produced readily in experimental animals, and mimics multiple sclerosis in many of its clinical and pathologic features. Whether or not it provides a reasonable model for multiple sclerosis is a matter of dispute, but on the basis that it may do so, a study of EAE in rats fed various oral contraceptive preparations, as well References 1. Inman, W.H., and Vessey, M.P.: Investigation of Deaths From Pulmonary, Coronary and Cerebral Thrombosis and Embolism in Women of Child-Bearing Age , Brit Med J 11:193-199 ( (April-June) ) 1968.Crossref 2. Vessey, M.P., and Doll, R.: Investigation of Relation Between Use of Oral Contraceptives and Thromboembolic Disease , Brit Med J 11:199-205 ( (April-June) ) 1968.Crossref 3. Lurie, M.B., et al: Constitutional Factors in Resistance to Infection: II. The Effect of Estrogen on Tuberculin Skin Sensitivity and on the Allergy of the Tissues , Amer Rev Tuberc 59:186-218 ( (Feb) ) 1949. 4. Kappas, A.; Jones, H.E.H.; and Roitt, I.M.: Effect of Steroid Sex Hormones on Immunological Phenomena , Nature 198:902 ( (June) ) 1963.Crossref 5. Lajos, L., and Gores, J.: Pathological Proliferation of the Trophoblast Homograft in Women , Nature 196:178-179 ( (Oct) ) 1962.Crossref 6. Simmons, R.L.: Price, A.L.; and Ozerkis, A.J.: The Immunologic Problem of Pregnancy: V. The Effect of Estrogen and Progesterone on Allograft Survival , Amer J Obstet Gynec 100:908-911 ( (April) ) 1968. 7. Zipper, J., et al: Intrauterine Grafting in Rats of Autologous Adult Rat Skin , Amer J Obstet Gynec 94:1056-1061 ( (April) ) 1966. 8. Krohn, P.L.: The Effect of Steroid Hormones on the Survival of Skin Homografts in the Rabbit , J Endocr 11:78-82 ( (July) ) 1954.Crossref 9. Medawar, P.B., and Sparrow, M.: The Effects of Adrenocortical Hormones, Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone and Pregnancy on Skin Transplantation Immunity in Mice , J Endocr 14:240-256 ( (Nov) ) 1956.Crossref 10. Hulka, J.F.; Mohr, K.; and Lieberman, M.W.: Effect of Synthetic Progestational Agents on Allograft Rejection and Circulating Antibody Production , Endocrinology 77:897-901 ( (Nov) ) 1965.Crossref 11. Mueller, M.N., and Kappas, A.: Estrogen Pharmacology: II. Suppression of Experimental Immune Polyarthritis , Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 117:845-847 ( (Oct-Dec) ) 1964.Crossref 12. Waksman, B.H.: Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis and the Autoallergic Diseases , Int Arch Allerg 14( (suppl) ):1-87, 1959. 13. Patterson, P.Y.: " Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis and Autoimmune Disease ," in Dixon, F.J., and Kunkel, H.G. (eds.): Advances in Immunology , New York: Academic Press, Inc., 1966, vol 5, pp 131-208. 14. Money, W.L.; Fager, J.; and Rawson, R.W.: The Comparative Effects of Various Steroids on Lymphoid Tissue of the Rat , Cancer Res 12:206-210 ( (March) ) 1952. 15. Stern, K., and Davidsohn, I.: Effect of Estrogen and Cortisone on Immune Hemoantibodies in Mice of Inbred Strains , J Immun 74:479-484 ( (June) ) 1955. 16. Healy, J.W., and Leeman, S.: Hemolysin Response of Rats Treated Neonatally With Steroids , Endocrinology 80:762-764 ( (April) ) 1967.Crossref 17. VonHaam, E., and Rosenfeld, I.: Influence of Estrone Upon Formation of Heterophil Antibodies , Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 49:710-711 ( (April) ) 1942.Crossref 18. Caniggia, A., and Bolognine, M.: Azione Degli Ormoni Sintetici Sulla Produzione di Anticorpi , Atti Accad Fisiocr Siena 17:132 ( (March) ) 1949. 19. Beurey, J., and deLavergne, E.: Oestrogenes et Production d' Agglutinines Typhiques Chez le Lapin , C R Soc Biol 146:1967-1969 ( (July) ) 1952. 20. VonHaam, E., and Rosenfeld, I.: The Effect of Estrone on Antibody Production , J Immun 43:109-119 ( (Jan) ) 1942. 21. Dingle, J.H.; Meyer, R.K.; and Gustus, E.L.: Effect of Gonadotropic and Oestrogenic Hormones on Agglutinin Response to B. Pertussis in Immature Animals , J Immun 30:139-147 ( (Feb) ) 1936. 22. Oettgen, H.F.; Binaghi, R.A.: and Benacerraf, B.: The Effect of Various Hormones on the Serum Level of Anaphylactic Antibody in the Rat , Int Arch Allerg 29:131-139 ( (Feb) ) 1966.Crossref 23. Paterson, P.Y., and Harwin, S.M.: Suppression of Allergic Encephalomyelitis in Rats by Means of Antibrain Serum , J Exp Med 117:755-774 ( (May) ) 1963.Crossref 24. Heller, J.H., et al: The Effect of Natural and Synthetic Estrogens on Reticuloendothelial System Function , Endocrinology 61:235-241 ( (Sept) ) 1957.Crossref 25. Nicol, T.; Vernon-Roberts, B.; and Quantock, D.C.: The Influence of Various Hormones on the Reticulo-endothelial System: Endocrine Control of Body Defence , J Endocr 33:365-383 ( (Nov) ) 1965.Crossref 26. Nicol, T., et al: Oestrogen: The Natural Stimulant of Body Defence , J Endocr 30:277-290 ( (Oct) ) 1964.Crossref 27. Caren, L.D., and Rosenberg, L.T.: Steroids and Serum Complement in Mice: Influence of Hydrocortisone, Diethylstilbestrol, and Testosterone , Science 152:782-783 ( (May) ) 1966.Crossref 28. Weintraub, R.M., et al: Mouse Complement: Influence of Sex Hormones on Its Activity , Science 152:783-785 ( (May) ) 1966.Crossref 29. Lurie, M.B.; Abramson, S.; and Allison, M.J.: Constitutional Factors in Resistance to Infection: I. The Effect of Estrogen and Chorionic Gonadotropin on the Course of Tuberculosis in Highly Inbred Rabbits , Amer Rev Tuberc 59:168-186 ( (Feb) ) 1949. 30. Broome, A.W.J., and Lamming, G.E.: Studies on the Relationship Between Ovarian Hormones and Uterine Infection: III. The Role of the Antibody System in Uterine Defence , J Endocr 18:229-236 ( (May) ) 1959.Crossref 31. Slenn, E.M.; Richardson, S.L.; and Bowman, B.J.: Biologic Activity of 6-Alpha-Methyl Compounds Corresponding to Progesterone, 17-Alpha-Hydroxy-Progesterone Acetate and Compound S , Metabolism 8:265-285 ( (May) ) 1959. 32. Levine, S., et al: Enhancement of Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis by Adrenalectomy , Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 111:383-385 ( (Oct-Dec) ) 1962.Crossref 33. Brown, J.B.: Urinary Excretion of Oestrogens, During Pregnancy, Lactation and the Re-establishment of Menstruation , Lancet 1:704-707 ( (May) ) 1956.Crossref 34. Miller, H.G., and Schapira, K.: Aetiological Aspects of Multiple Sclerosis , Brit Med J 1:737-739 ( (March 21) ) 1959.Crossref 35. Millar, J.H.D.: The Influence of Pregnancy on Disseminated Sclerosis , Proc Roy Soc Med 54:4-7 ( (Oct) ) 1961. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Neurology American Medical Association

Effect of Oral Contraceptives on Experimental Demyelinating Disease

Archives of Neurology , Volume 21 (1) – Jul 1, 1969

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1969 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-9942
eISSN
1538-3687
DOI
10.1001/archneur.1969.00480130117012
Publisher site
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Abstract

Abstract AS THE USE of oral contraceptives has spread, certain hazards associated with their use have come to light.1,2 In the case of the human demyelinating disease, multiple sclerosis, no data have come forth as to whether oral contraceptives influence its course favorably, unfavorably, or at all. The point is of some moment to women with the disease, many of whom are terrified by the prospect of pregnancy and of the consequences which may be in store for them because of pregnancy. Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), an acute demyelinating disease of auto-allergic etiology, is produced readily in experimental animals, and mimics multiple sclerosis in many of its clinical and pathologic features. Whether or not it provides a reasonable model for multiple sclerosis is a matter of dispute, but on the basis that it may do so, a study of EAE in rats fed various oral contraceptive preparations, as well References 1. Inman, W.H., and Vessey, M.P.: Investigation of Deaths From Pulmonary, Coronary and Cerebral Thrombosis and Embolism in Women of Child-Bearing Age , Brit Med J 11:193-199 ( (April-June) ) 1968.Crossref 2. Vessey, M.P., and Doll, R.: Investigation of Relation Between Use of Oral Contraceptives and Thromboembolic Disease , Brit Med J 11:199-205 ( (April-June) ) 1968.Crossref 3. Lurie, M.B., et al: Constitutional Factors in Resistance to Infection: II. The Effect of Estrogen on Tuberculin Skin Sensitivity and on the Allergy of the Tissues , Amer Rev Tuberc 59:186-218 ( (Feb) ) 1949. 4. Kappas, A.; Jones, H.E.H.; and Roitt, I.M.: Effect of Steroid Sex Hormones on Immunological Phenomena , Nature 198:902 ( (June) ) 1963.Crossref 5. Lajos, L., and Gores, J.: Pathological Proliferation of the Trophoblast Homograft in Women , Nature 196:178-179 ( (Oct) ) 1962.Crossref 6. Simmons, R.L.: Price, A.L.; and Ozerkis, A.J.: The Immunologic Problem of Pregnancy: V. The Effect of Estrogen and Progesterone on Allograft Survival , Amer J Obstet Gynec 100:908-911 ( (April) ) 1968. 7. Zipper, J., et al: Intrauterine Grafting in Rats of Autologous Adult Rat Skin , Amer J Obstet Gynec 94:1056-1061 ( (April) ) 1966. 8. Krohn, P.L.: The Effect of Steroid Hormones on the Survival of Skin Homografts in the Rabbit , J Endocr 11:78-82 ( (July) ) 1954.Crossref 9. Medawar, P.B., and Sparrow, M.: The Effects of Adrenocortical Hormones, Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone and Pregnancy on Skin Transplantation Immunity in Mice , J Endocr 14:240-256 ( (Nov) ) 1956.Crossref 10. Hulka, J.F.; Mohr, K.; and Lieberman, M.W.: Effect of Synthetic Progestational Agents on Allograft Rejection and Circulating Antibody Production , Endocrinology 77:897-901 ( (Nov) ) 1965.Crossref 11. Mueller, M.N., and Kappas, A.: Estrogen Pharmacology: II. Suppression of Experimental Immune Polyarthritis , Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 117:845-847 ( (Oct-Dec) ) 1964.Crossref 12. Waksman, B.H.: Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis and the Autoallergic Diseases , Int Arch Allerg 14( (suppl) ):1-87, 1959. 13. Patterson, P.Y.: " Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis and Autoimmune Disease ," in Dixon, F.J., and Kunkel, H.G. (eds.): Advances in Immunology , New York: Academic Press, Inc., 1966, vol 5, pp 131-208. 14. Money, W.L.; Fager, J.; and Rawson, R.W.: The Comparative Effects of Various Steroids on Lymphoid Tissue of the Rat , Cancer Res 12:206-210 ( (March) ) 1952. 15. Stern, K., and Davidsohn, I.: Effect of Estrogen and Cortisone on Immune Hemoantibodies in Mice of Inbred Strains , J Immun 74:479-484 ( (June) ) 1955. 16. Healy, J.W., and Leeman, S.: Hemolysin Response of Rats Treated Neonatally With Steroids , Endocrinology 80:762-764 ( (April) ) 1967.Crossref 17. VonHaam, E., and Rosenfeld, I.: Influence of Estrone Upon Formation of Heterophil Antibodies , Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 49:710-711 ( (April) ) 1942.Crossref 18. Caniggia, A., and Bolognine, M.: Azione Degli Ormoni Sintetici Sulla Produzione di Anticorpi , Atti Accad Fisiocr Siena 17:132 ( (March) ) 1949. 19. Beurey, J., and deLavergne, E.: Oestrogenes et Production d' Agglutinines Typhiques Chez le Lapin , C R Soc Biol 146:1967-1969 ( (July) ) 1952. 20. VonHaam, E., and Rosenfeld, I.: The Effect of Estrone on Antibody Production , J Immun 43:109-119 ( (Jan) ) 1942. 21. Dingle, J.H.; Meyer, R.K.; and Gustus, E.L.: Effect of Gonadotropic and Oestrogenic Hormones on Agglutinin Response to B. Pertussis in Immature Animals , J Immun 30:139-147 ( (Feb) ) 1936. 22. Oettgen, H.F.; Binaghi, R.A.: and Benacerraf, B.: The Effect of Various Hormones on the Serum Level of Anaphylactic Antibody in the Rat , Int Arch Allerg 29:131-139 ( (Feb) ) 1966.Crossref 23. Paterson, P.Y., and Harwin, S.M.: Suppression of Allergic Encephalomyelitis in Rats by Means of Antibrain Serum , J Exp Med 117:755-774 ( (May) ) 1963.Crossref 24. Heller, J.H., et al: The Effect of Natural and Synthetic Estrogens on Reticuloendothelial System Function , Endocrinology 61:235-241 ( (Sept) ) 1957.Crossref 25. Nicol, T.; Vernon-Roberts, B.; and Quantock, D.C.: The Influence of Various Hormones on the Reticulo-endothelial System: Endocrine Control of Body Defence , J Endocr 33:365-383 ( (Nov) ) 1965.Crossref 26. Nicol, T., et al: Oestrogen: The Natural Stimulant of Body Defence , J Endocr 30:277-290 ( (Oct) ) 1964.Crossref 27. Caren, L.D., and Rosenberg, L.T.: Steroids and Serum Complement in Mice: Influence of Hydrocortisone, Diethylstilbestrol, and Testosterone , Science 152:782-783 ( (May) ) 1966.Crossref 28. Weintraub, R.M., et al: Mouse Complement: Influence of Sex Hormones on Its Activity , Science 152:783-785 ( (May) ) 1966.Crossref 29. Lurie, M.B.; Abramson, S.; and Allison, M.J.: Constitutional Factors in Resistance to Infection: I. The Effect of Estrogen and Chorionic Gonadotropin on the Course of Tuberculosis in Highly Inbred Rabbits , Amer Rev Tuberc 59:168-186 ( (Feb) ) 1949. 30. Broome, A.W.J., and Lamming, G.E.: Studies on the Relationship Between Ovarian Hormones and Uterine Infection: III. The Role of the Antibody System in Uterine Defence , J Endocr 18:229-236 ( (May) ) 1959.Crossref 31. Slenn, E.M.; Richardson, S.L.; and Bowman, B.J.: Biologic Activity of 6-Alpha-Methyl Compounds Corresponding to Progesterone, 17-Alpha-Hydroxy-Progesterone Acetate and Compound S , Metabolism 8:265-285 ( (May) ) 1959. 32. Levine, S., et al: Enhancement of Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis by Adrenalectomy , Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 111:383-385 ( (Oct-Dec) ) 1962.Crossref 33. Brown, J.B.: Urinary Excretion of Oestrogens, During Pregnancy, Lactation and the Re-establishment of Menstruation , Lancet 1:704-707 ( (May) ) 1956.Crossref 34. Miller, H.G., and Schapira, K.: Aetiological Aspects of Multiple Sclerosis , Brit Med J 1:737-739 ( (March 21) ) 1959.Crossref 35. Millar, J.H.D.: The Influence of Pregnancy on Disseminated Sclerosis , Proc Roy Soc Med 54:4-7 ( (Oct) ) 1961.

Journal

Archives of NeurologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Jul 1, 1969

References

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