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Effect of Infant Cereals on Zinc and Copper Absorption During Weaning

Effect of Infant Cereals on Zinc and Copper Absorption During Weaning Abstract • Zinc and copper absorption from five infant cereal products mixed with water, human milk, or cow's milk was measured using an in vivo absorption model (rat pup) involving gastric intubation of extrinsically radiolabeled diets. Whole-body copper 64 uptake, nine hours after intubation, ranged from 14% to 31% of the dose given for the different cereal combinations. The resultant bioavailability of copper from human milk–cereal combinations (23% to 26%) was significantly lower than that from human milk alone (38%). Whole-body zinc 65 uptake, nine hours after intubation, ranged from 13% to 54% of the dose given for the different cereal combinations. These values were significantly lower than the whole-body zinc 65 uptake from milk alone (61%). Zinc availability was lower (13% to 25%) from dry cereal combinations that contained phytic acid (oatmeal and high-protein varieties) compared with the ready-to-serve cereal-fruit combinations (24% to 54%). The highest zinc uptake (37% to 54%) was from rice-fruit combinations that do not contain phytic acid. We estimated the amounts of zinc and copper that would be absorbed from these cereal products and speculated on the potential impact of these foods on the weaning infant's zinc and copper nutriture. Depending on the feeding practices employed during the weaning period, it is apparent that infant cereals may compromise utilization of zinc and copper from milk diets during weaning. (AJDC 1987;141:1128-1132) References 1. Underwood EJ: Trace Elements in Human and Animal Nutrition . Orlando, Fla, Academic Press Inc, 1977, pp 13-108, 190-242. 2. Shaw JCL: Trace elements in the fetus and young infant: I. Zinc . AJDC 1979;133:1260-1268. 3. Shaw JCL: Trace elements in the fetus and young infant: II. Copper, manganese, selenium, and chromium . AJDC 1980;134:78-81. 4. Hurley LS: Developmental Nutrition . Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice-Hall International Inc, 1979, pp 183-239. 5. Widdowson EM, Chan H, Harrison GE, et al: Accumulation of Cu, Zn, Mn, Cr and Co in the human liver before birth . Biol Neonate 1972;20:360-367.Crossref 6. Hambidge KM: Zinc deficiency in the weanling: How important? Acta Paediatr Scand Suppl 1986;323:52-58.Crossref 7. Krebs NF, Hambidge KM, Walravens PA: Increased food intake of young children receiving a zinc supplement . AJDC 1984;138:270-273. 8. Walravens PA, Krebs NF, Hambidge KM: Linear growth of low income preschool children receiving a zinc supplement . Am J Clin Nutr 1983;38:195-201. 9. Hambidge KM, Walravens PA, Neldner KH: The role of zinc in the pathogenesis and treatment of acrodermatitis enteropathica , in Brewer GJ, Prasad AS (eds): Current Aspects of Zinc in Health and Disease . New York, Alan R Liss Inc, 1977, pp 329-342. 10. Sorenson AW, Butrum R Zinc and copper in infant diets . J Am Diet Assoc 1983;83: 291-297. 11. Naveh Y, Hazani A, Berant M: Copper deficiency with cow's milk diet . Pediatrics 1981;68:397-400. 12. Sturgeon P, Brubaker C: Copper deficiency in infants: A syndrome characterized by hypocupremia, iron deficiency anemia, and hypoproteinemia . AJDC 1956;92:242-264. 13. Graham CG, Cordano A: Copper depletion and deficiency in the malnourished infant . Johns Hopkins Med J 1969;124:139-150. 14. Lönnerdal B, Keen CL, Ohtake M, et al: Iron, zinc, copper, and manganese in infant formulas . AJDC 1983;137:433-437. 15. Fomon SJ, Filer LJ, Anderson TA, et al: Recommendations for feeding normal infants . Pediatrics 1979;83:52-59. 16. Deeming S, Weber C: Trace minerals in commercially prepared baby foods . J Am Diet Assoc 1979;75:149-151. 17. Pennington JT, Calloway DH: Copper content of foods . J Am Diet Assoc 1973;63:143-153. 18. Murphy EW, Willis BW, Watt BK: Provisional tables on the zinc content of foods . J Am Diet Assoc 1975;66:345-355. 19. Cook JD, Bothwell TH: Availability of iron from infant foods , in Stekel A (ed): Iron Nutrition in Infancy and Childhood . Nestlé Nutrition Workshop Series No. 4. New York, Vevey/Raven Press, 1984, pp 119-145. 20. Rios E, Hunter R, Cook J, et al: The absorption of iron as supplements in infant cereal and infant formulas . Pediatrics 1975;55:686-692. 21. Morck TA, Lynch SR, Skikne BS, et al: Iron availability from infant food supplements . Am J Clin Nutr 1981;34:2630-2634. 22. Hurrell RF: Bioavailability of different iron compounds used to fortify formulas and cereals: Technological problems , in Stekel A (ed): Iron Nutrition in Infancy and Childhood . Nestlé Nutrition Workshop Series No. 4. New York, Vevey/Raven Press, 1984, pp 147-178. 23. Sandström B, Cederblad Å, Lönnerdal B: Zinc absorption from human milk, cow's milk and infant formulas . AJDC 1983;137:726-729. 24. Sandström B, Keen CL, Lönnerdal B: An experimental model for studies of Zn bioavailability from milk and infant formulas using extrinsic labelling . Am J Clin Nutr 1983;38: 420-428. 25. Lönnerdal B, Bell JG, Keen CL: Copper absorption from human milk, cow's milk, and infant formulas using a suckling rat model . Am J Clin Nutr 1985;42:836-844. 26. Lönnerdal B, Bell JG, Hendrickx AG, et al: Improved zinc bioavailability from dephytinized soy formula . Am J Clin Nutr 1986;43:674. 27. Masters DG, Keen CL, Lönnerdal B, et al: Zinc deficiency teratogenicity: The protective role of maternal tissue catabolism . J Nutr 1983; 113:905-912. 28. Clegg MS, Keen CL, Lönnerdal B, et al: Influence of ashing techniques on the analysis of trace elements in animal tissue: I. Wet ashing . Biol Trace Element Res 1981;3:107-115.Crossref 29. Snedecor GW, Cochran WG: Statistical Methods . Ames, Iowa, Iowa State University Press, 1967. 30. Shah BG, Giroux A, Belonje B: Bioavailability of zinc in infant cereals . Nutr Meta[ill] 1979;23:286-293.Crossref 31. Davies NT, Nightingale R: The effects of phytate on intestinal absorption and secretion of zinc, and whole-body retention of zinc, copper, iron, and manganese in rats . Br J Nutr 1975;34[ill] 243-258. 32. Lyon D: Studies on the solubility of Ca[ill] Mg, Zn, and Cu in cereal products . Am J Cli[ill] Nutr 1984;39:190-195. 33. Lönnerdal B: Dietary factors affecting trace element bioavailability in breast milk, cow's milk and infant formula , in Chandra RK (ed)[ill] Progress in Food and Nutrition Science . Elms[ill] ford, NY, Pergamon Press Inc, 1985, vol 9, pp 35-62. 34. Becker WM, Hoekstra WG: The intestinal absorption of zinc , in Skoryna SC, WaldronEdward D (eds): Intestinal Absorption of Metal Ions, Trace Elements, and Radionuclides[ill] Elmsford, NY, Pergamon Press Inc, 1971, pp 229-256. 35. Montalto MB, Benson JD: Nutrient intakes of older infants: Effect of different milk feedings . J Am Coll Nutr 1986;5:331-341.Crossref 36. Food and Nutrition Board: Recommended Dietary Allowances , ed 9. Washington, DC, American Academy of Sciences, 1980. 37. WHO Expert Committee: Trace elements in human nutrition . WHO Technical Report Series No. 532. Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1973. 38. Salmenperä L, Perheentupa J, Päkarinen P, et al: Copper nutrition in infants during prolonged exclusive breast-feedings: Low intake but rising serum concentrations of copper and ceruloplasmin . Am J Clin Nutr 1986;43:251-257. 39. Walravens PA, Koepfer DM, Hambidge KM, et al: Zinc supplementation in infants with failure to thrive: Effects on weight gains . Clin Res 1985;33:134A. 40. Kuramoto Y, Igarashi Y, Kato S: Acquired zinc deficiency in two breast-fed mature infants . Acta Derm Venereol 1986;66:359-361. 41. Aggett PJ, Atherton DJ, More J, et al: Symptomatic zinc deficiency in a breast-fed preterm infant . Arch Dis Child 1980;55:547-550.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png American Journal of Diseases of Children American Medical Association

Effect of Infant Cereals on Zinc and Copper Absorption During Weaning

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1987 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0002-922X
DOI
10.1001/archpedi.1987.04460100106041
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract • Zinc and copper absorption from five infant cereal products mixed with water, human milk, or cow's milk was measured using an in vivo absorption model (rat pup) involving gastric intubation of extrinsically radiolabeled diets. Whole-body copper 64 uptake, nine hours after intubation, ranged from 14% to 31% of the dose given for the different cereal combinations. The resultant bioavailability of copper from human milk–cereal combinations (23% to 26%) was significantly lower than that from human milk alone (38%). Whole-body zinc 65 uptake, nine hours after intubation, ranged from 13% to 54% of the dose given for the different cereal combinations. These values were significantly lower than the whole-body zinc 65 uptake from milk alone (61%). Zinc availability was lower (13% to 25%) from dry cereal combinations that contained phytic acid (oatmeal and high-protein varieties) compared with the ready-to-serve cereal-fruit combinations (24% to 54%). The highest zinc uptake (37% to 54%) was from rice-fruit combinations that do not contain phytic acid. We estimated the amounts of zinc and copper that would be absorbed from these cereal products and speculated on the potential impact of these foods on the weaning infant's zinc and copper nutriture. Depending on the feeding practices employed during the weaning period, it is apparent that infant cereals may compromise utilization of zinc and copper from milk diets during weaning. (AJDC 1987;141:1128-1132) References 1. Underwood EJ: Trace Elements in Human and Animal Nutrition . Orlando, Fla, Academic Press Inc, 1977, pp 13-108, 190-242. 2. Shaw JCL: Trace elements in the fetus and young infant: I. Zinc . AJDC 1979;133:1260-1268. 3. Shaw JCL: Trace elements in the fetus and young infant: II. Copper, manganese, selenium, and chromium . AJDC 1980;134:78-81. 4. Hurley LS: Developmental Nutrition . Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice-Hall International Inc, 1979, pp 183-239. 5. Widdowson EM, Chan H, Harrison GE, et al: Accumulation of Cu, Zn, Mn, Cr and Co in the human liver before birth . Biol Neonate 1972;20:360-367.Crossref 6. Hambidge KM: Zinc deficiency in the weanling: How important? Acta Paediatr Scand Suppl 1986;323:52-58.Crossref 7. Krebs NF, Hambidge KM, Walravens PA: Increased food intake of young children receiving a zinc supplement . AJDC 1984;138:270-273. 8. Walravens PA, Krebs NF, Hambidge KM: Linear growth of low income preschool children receiving a zinc supplement . Am J Clin Nutr 1983;38:195-201. 9. Hambidge KM, Walravens PA, Neldner KH: The role of zinc in the pathogenesis and treatment of acrodermatitis enteropathica , in Brewer GJ, Prasad AS (eds): Current Aspects of Zinc in Health and Disease . New York, Alan R Liss Inc, 1977, pp 329-342. 10. Sorenson AW, Butrum R Zinc and copper in infant diets . J Am Diet Assoc 1983;83: 291-297. 11. Naveh Y, Hazani A, Berant M: Copper deficiency with cow's milk diet . Pediatrics 1981;68:397-400. 12. Sturgeon P, Brubaker C: Copper deficiency in infants: A syndrome characterized by hypocupremia, iron deficiency anemia, and hypoproteinemia . AJDC 1956;92:242-264. 13. Graham CG, Cordano A: Copper depletion and deficiency in the malnourished infant . Johns Hopkins Med J 1969;124:139-150. 14. Lönnerdal B, Keen CL, Ohtake M, et al: Iron, zinc, copper, and manganese in infant formulas . AJDC 1983;137:433-437. 15. Fomon SJ, Filer LJ, Anderson TA, et al: Recommendations for feeding normal infants . Pediatrics 1979;83:52-59. 16. Deeming S, Weber C: Trace minerals in commercially prepared baby foods . J Am Diet Assoc 1979;75:149-151. 17. Pennington JT, Calloway DH: Copper content of foods . J Am Diet Assoc 1973;63:143-153. 18. Murphy EW, Willis BW, Watt BK: Provisional tables on the zinc content of foods . J Am Diet Assoc 1975;66:345-355. 19. Cook JD, Bothwell TH: Availability of iron from infant foods , in Stekel A (ed): Iron Nutrition in Infancy and Childhood . Nestlé Nutrition Workshop Series No. 4. New York, Vevey/Raven Press, 1984, pp 119-145. 20. Rios E, Hunter R, Cook J, et al: The absorption of iron as supplements in infant cereal and infant formulas . Pediatrics 1975;55:686-692. 21. Morck TA, Lynch SR, Skikne BS, et al: Iron availability from infant food supplements . Am J Clin Nutr 1981;34:2630-2634. 22. Hurrell RF: Bioavailability of different iron compounds used to fortify formulas and cereals: Technological problems , in Stekel A (ed): Iron Nutrition in Infancy and Childhood . Nestlé Nutrition Workshop Series No. 4. New York, Vevey/Raven Press, 1984, pp 147-178. 23. Sandström B, Cederblad Å, Lönnerdal B: Zinc absorption from human milk, cow's milk and infant formulas . AJDC 1983;137:726-729. 24. Sandström B, Keen CL, Lönnerdal B: An experimental model for studies of Zn bioavailability from milk and infant formulas using extrinsic labelling . Am J Clin Nutr 1983;38: 420-428. 25. Lönnerdal B, Bell JG, Keen CL: Copper absorption from human milk, cow's milk, and infant formulas using a suckling rat model . Am J Clin Nutr 1985;42:836-844. 26. Lönnerdal B, Bell JG, Hendrickx AG, et al: Improved zinc bioavailability from dephytinized soy formula . Am J Clin Nutr 1986;43:674. 27. Masters DG, Keen CL, Lönnerdal B, et al: Zinc deficiency teratogenicity: The protective role of maternal tissue catabolism . J Nutr 1983; 113:905-912. 28. Clegg MS, Keen CL, Lönnerdal B, et al: Influence of ashing techniques on the analysis of trace elements in animal tissue: I. Wet ashing . Biol Trace Element Res 1981;3:107-115.Crossref 29. Snedecor GW, Cochran WG: Statistical Methods . Ames, Iowa, Iowa State University Press, 1967. 30. Shah BG, Giroux A, Belonje B: Bioavailability of zinc in infant cereals . Nutr Meta[ill] 1979;23:286-293.Crossref 31. Davies NT, Nightingale R: The effects of phytate on intestinal absorption and secretion of zinc, and whole-body retention of zinc, copper, iron, and manganese in rats . Br J Nutr 1975;34[ill] 243-258. 32. Lyon D: Studies on the solubility of Ca[ill] Mg, Zn, and Cu in cereal products . Am J Cli[ill] Nutr 1984;39:190-195. 33. Lönnerdal B: Dietary factors affecting trace element bioavailability in breast milk, cow's milk and infant formula , in Chandra RK (ed)[ill] Progress in Food and Nutrition Science . Elms[ill] ford, NY, Pergamon Press Inc, 1985, vol 9, pp 35-62. 34. Becker WM, Hoekstra WG: The intestinal absorption of zinc , in Skoryna SC, WaldronEdward D (eds): Intestinal Absorption of Metal Ions, Trace Elements, and Radionuclides[ill] Elmsford, NY, Pergamon Press Inc, 1971, pp 229-256. 35. Montalto MB, Benson JD: Nutrient intakes of older infants: Effect of different milk feedings . J Am Coll Nutr 1986;5:331-341.Crossref 36. Food and Nutrition Board: Recommended Dietary Allowances , ed 9. Washington, DC, American Academy of Sciences, 1980. 37. WHO Expert Committee: Trace elements in human nutrition . WHO Technical Report Series No. 532. Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1973. 38. Salmenperä L, Perheentupa J, Päkarinen P, et al: Copper nutrition in infants during prolonged exclusive breast-feedings: Low intake but rising serum concentrations of copper and ceruloplasmin . Am J Clin Nutr 1986;43:251-257. 39. Walravens PA, Koepfer DM, Hambidge KM, et al: Zinc supplementation in infants with failure to thrive: Effects on weight gains . Clin Res 1985;33:134A. 40. Kuramoto Y, Igarashi Y, Kato S: Acquired zinc deficiency in two breast-fed mature infants . Acta Derm Venereol 1986;66:359-361. 41. Aggett PJ, Atherton DJ, More J, et al: Symptomatic zinc deficiency in a breast-fed preterm infant . Arch Dis Child 1980;55:547-550.Crossref

Journal

American Journal of Diseases of ChildrenAmerican Medical Association

Published: Oct 1, 1987

References

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