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Effect of Hypothalamic Lesions on the Amygdala Syndrome in the Cat

Effect of Hypothalamic Lesions on the Amygdala Syndrome in the Cat Abstract Introduction Previous studies have shown that bilateral ablation of the amygdaloid nuclei and surrounding rhinencephalic structures in rodents, carnivores, and primates is uniquely characterized by a specific pattern of behavior. Animals sustaining such lesions exhibit behavior that is dominated by increased responsiveness to visual stimuli, hyperactivity, exaggerated oral activity, inability to recognize objects visually, loss of fear, and an increase in amount and diversity of sexual behavior.6,14-16,18-21,24Anatomical and electrophysiological studies of the amygdaloid nucleus and related structures have revealed efferent projections from the amygdala to widespread areas of the cortex and subcortex.1,8-11 More specifically, the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus appears to be a strong recipient of fibers arising from the amygdaloid complex.Electrolytic lesions of the ventromedial nucleus in cats and rats2,12,23 have given rise to changes in behavior characterized by savage and aggressive attacks on other animals when approached, obesity, and hyposexual activity.In References 1. Adey, W. R., and Meyer, M.: Hippocampal and Hypothalamic Connexions of the Temporal Lobe in the Monkey , Brain 75:358-384, 1952.Crossref 2. Anand, B. K., and Brobeck, J. R.: Hypothalamic Control of Food Intake in Rats and Cats , Yale J. Biol. & Med. 24:123-140, 1951. 3. Akert, K.: Personal communication to the authors. 4. Bard, P., and Rioch, D. McK.: A Study of 4 Cats Deprived of Neocortex and Additional Portions of the Forebrain , Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 60:73-147, 1937. 5. Brady, J. V.; Schreiner, L.; Geller, I., and Kling, A.: Subcortical Mechanisms in Emotional Behavior: Effect of Rhinencephalic Injury upon the Acquisition and Retention of a Conditioned Avoidance Response in Cats , J. Comp. & Physiol. Psychol. 47:179-186, 1954. 6. Brown, S., and Schäfer, E. A.: An Investigation into the Function of the Occipital and Temporal Lobes of the Monkey's Brain , Phil. Tr. (1888) Roy. Soc. , London 179:303-327, 1889. 7. Clark, W. E. L.; Beattie, J.; Riddoch, G., and Dott, N. M.: The Hypothalamus , Edinburgh, Oliver & Boyd, 1938. 8. Clark, W. E. L., and Meyer, M.: Anatomical Relationships Between the Cerebral Cortex and the Hypothalamus , Brit. M. Bull. 7:341-345, 1950. 9. Fox, C. A.: Certain Basal Telencephalic Centers in the Cat , J. Comp. Neurol. 72:1-62, 1940. 10. Fox, C. A.: Amygdalo-Thalamic Connections in Macaca Mulatta , Anat. Rec. 103:537, 1949. 11. Gloor, P.: Electrophysiological Studies on the Connections of the Amygdaloid Nucleus in the Cat , Electroncephalog. & Clin. Neurophysiol. 7: 223-242, 1955. 12. Ingram, W. R.: The Hypothalamus: A Review of the Experimental Data , Psychosom. Med. 1:48-91, 1939. 13. Kennard, M. A.: Focal Autonomic Representation in the Cortex and Its Relation to Sham Rage , J. Neuropath. & Exper. Neurol. 4:295-304, 1945. 14. Klüver, H., and Bucy, P. C.: Preliminary Analysis of Functions of the Temporal Lobes in Monkeys , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 42:979-1000, 1939. 15. Pool, J. L.: Neurophysiological Symposium: The Visceral Brain of Man , J. Neurosurg. 11:45-63, 1954. 16. Pribram, K. H., and Bagshaw, M. H.: Further Analysis of the Temporal Lobe Syndrome Utilizing Fronto-Temporal Ablations , J. Comp. Neurol. 99:347-375, 1953. 17. Sawa, M.; Ueki, Y.; Arita, M., and Harada, T.: Preliminary Report on the Amygdaloidectomy on the Psychotic Patients, with Interpretation of Oral-Emotional Manifestations in Schizophrenics , Folia psychiat. et neurol. japon. 7:309-329, 1954. 18. Schreiner, L.; Kling, A., and Galambos, R.: Central Nervous System Lesions and Agressive Behavior in Cats , Fed. Proc. 11:142, 1952. 19. Schreiner, L., and Kling, A.: Behavioral Changes Following Paleocortical Injury in Rodents, Carnivores and Primates , Fed. Proc. 12:128, 1953. 20. Schreiner, L. A., and Kling, A.: Behavioral Changes Following Rhinencephalic Injury in Cat , J. Neurophysiol. 16:643-659, 1953. 21. Schreiner, L. A.; Rioch, D. McK.; Pechtel, C., and Masserman, J. H.: Behavioral Changes Following Thalamic Injury in Cat , J. Neurophysiol. 16:234-246, 1953. 22. Smith, W. K.: Non-Olfactory Functions of the Pyriform-Amygdaloid-Hippocampal Complex , Fed. Proc. 9:118, 1950. 23. Weiskrantz, L.: Behavioral Changes Associated with Ablation of the Amygdala , Am. Psychologist 8:452, 1953. 24. Wheatley, M. D.: The Hypothalamus and Affective Behavior in Cats , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 52:296-316, 1944. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png A.M.A. Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry American Medical Association

Effect of Hypothalamic Lesions on the Amygdala Syndrome in the Cat

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1958 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0096-6886
DOI
10.1001/archneurpsyc.1958.02340050039004
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Abstract

Abstract Introduction Previous studies have shown that bilateral ablation of the amygdaloid nuclei and surrounding rhinencephalic structures in rodents, carnivores, and primates is uniquely characterized by a specific pattern of behavior. Animals sustaining such lesions exhibit behavior that is dominated by increased responsiveness to visual stimuli, hyperactivity, exaggerated oral activity, inability to recognize objects visually, loss of fear, and an increase in amount and diversity of sexual behavior.6,14-16,18-21,24Anatomical and electrophysiological studies of the amygdaloid nucleus and related structures have revealed efferent projections from the amygdala to widespread areas of the cortex and subcortex.1,8-11 More specifically, the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus appears to be a strong recipient of fibers arising from the amygdaloid complex.Electrolytic lesions of the ventromedial nucleus in cats and rats2,12,23 have given rise to changes in behavior characterized by savage and aggressive attacks on other animals when approached, obesity, and hyposexual activity.In References 1. Adey, W. R., and Meyer, M.: Hippocampal and Hypothalamic Connexions of the Temporal Lobe in the Monkey , Brain 75:358-384, 1952.Crossref 2. Anand, B. K., and Brobeck, J. R.: Hypothalamic Control of Food Intake in Rats and Cats , Yale J. Biol. & Med. 24:123-140, 1951. 3. Akert, K.: Personal communication to the authors. 4. Bard, P., and Rioch, D. McK.: A Study of 4 Cats Deprived of Neocortex and Additional Portions of the Forebrain , Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 60:73-147, 1937. 5. Brady, J. V.; Schreiner, L.; Geller, I., and Kling, A.: Subcortical Mechanisms in Emotional Behavior: Effect of Rhinencephalic Injury upon the Acquisition and Retention of a Conditioned Avoidance Response in Cats , J. Comp. & Physiol. Psychol. 47:179-186, 1954. 6. Brown, S., and Schäfer, E. A.: An Investigation into the Function of the Occipital and Temporal Lobes of the Monkey's Brain , Phil. Tr. (1888) Roy. Soc. , London 179:303-327, 1889. 7. Clark, W. E. L.; Beattie, J.; Riddoch, G., and Dott, N. M.: The Hypothalamus , Edinburgh, Oliver & Boyd, 1938. 8. Clark, W. E. L., and Meyer, M.: Anatomical Relationships Between the Cerebral Cortex and the Hypothalamus , Brit. M. Bull. 7:341-345, 1950. 9. Fox, C. A.: Certain Basal Telencephalic Centers in the Cat , J. Comp. Neurol. 72:1-62, 1940. 10. Fox, C. A.: Amygdalo-Thalamic Connections in Macaca Mulatta , Anat. Rec. 103:537, 1949. 11. Gloor, P.: Electrophysiological Studies on the Connections of the Amygdaloid Nucleus in the Cat , Electroncephalog. & Clin. Neurophysiol. 7: 223-242, 1955. 12. Ingram, W. R.: The Hypothalamus: A Review of the Experimental Data , Psychosom. Med. 1:48-91, 1939. 13. Kennard, M. A.: Focal Autonomic Representation in the Cortex and Its Relation to Sham Rage , J. Neuropath. & Exper. Neurol. 4:295-304, 1945. 14. Klüver, H., and Bucy, P. C.: Preliminary Analysis of Functions of the Temporal Lobes in Monkeys , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 42:979-1000, 1939. 15. Pool, J. L.: Neurophysiological Symposium: The Visceral Brain of Man , J. Neurosurg. 11:45-63, 1954. 16. Pribram, K. H., and Bagshaw, M. H.: Further Analysis of the Temporal Lobe Syndrome Utilizing Fronto-Temporal Ablations , J. Comp. Neurol. 99:347-375, 1953. 17. Sawa, M.; Ueki, Y.; Arita, M., and Harada, T.: Preliminary Report on the Amygdaloidectomy on the Psychotic Patients, with Interpretation of Oral-Emotional Manifestations in Schizophrenics , Folia psychiat. et neurol. japon. 7:309-329, 1954. 18. Schreiner, L.; Kling, A., and Galambos, R.: Central Nervous System Lesions and Agressive Behavior in Cats , Fed. Proc. 11:142, 1952. 19. Schreiner, L., and Kling, A.: Behavioral Changes Following Paleocortical Injury in Rodents, Carnivores and Primates , Fed. Proc. 12:128, 1953. 20. Schreiner, L. A., and Kling, A.: Behavioral Changes Following Rhinencephalic Injury in Cat , J. Neurophysiol. 16:643-659, 1953. 21. Schreiner, L. A.; Rioch, D. McK.; Pechtel, C., and Masserman, J. H.: Behavioral Changes Following Thalamic Injury in Cat , J. Neurophysiol. 16:234-246, 1953. 22. Smith, W. K.: Non-Olfactory Functions of the Pyriform-Amygdaloid-Hippocampal Complex , Fed. Proc. 9:118, 1950. 23. Weiskrantz, L.: Behavioral Changes Associated with Ablation of the Amygdala , Am. Psychologist 8:452, 1953. 24. Wheatley, M. D.: The Hypothalamus and Affective Behavior in Cats , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 52:296-316, 1944.

Journal

A.M.A. Archives of Neurology & PsychiatryAmerican Medical Association

Published: May 1, 1958

References