Get 20M+ Full-Text Papers For Less Than $1.50/day. Start a 14-Day Trial for You or Your Team.

Learn More →

Effect of Combined Cortisol-Endotoxin Administration on Peripheral Blood Leukocyte Counts and Phenotype in Cortisol-Endotoxin

Effect of Combined Cortisol-Endotoxin Administration on Peripheral Blood Leukocyte Counts and... Abstract • We studied the role of lipopolysaccharide and the associated hypercortisolemic response as mediators of leukocyte changes associated with endotoxemia. Normal human subjects were given continuous, 12-hour, intravenous infusions of cortisol. After 6 hours of cortisol infusion, lipopolysaccharide (20 U/kg) was administered in an intravenous bolus. Plasma cortisol and blood leukocyte counts and lymphocyte subset proportions were evaluated every hour throughout the 12-hour study period. After 6 hours of cortisol infusion, lymphocyte counts and proportions of CD4+ helper/inducer T cells had declined significantly. The fact that these cells did not decline further in response to lipopolysaccharide and continued cortisol infusion suggests that lipopolysaccharide-induced lymphocyte changes are cortisol dependent. In contrast, the granulocytosis normally observed after lipopolysaccharide administration was unaffected by cortisol infusion. Finally, the monocyte counts and proportions of B cells (HLA-DR+ or CD20+ cells) responded to cortisol infusion and LPS in a pattern distinct from that of lipopolysaccharide alone. These results indicate that lipopolysaccharide-induced hypercortisolemia plays a role in immune modulation during endotoxemia. (Arch Surg. 1992;127:181-186) References 1. Wright LJ, Lipsett MB, Ross GT, Wolff SM. Effects of dexamethasone and aspirin on the responses to endotoxin in man . J Clin Endocrinol Metab . 1972;34:13-17.Crossref 2. Revhaug A, Michie HR, Manson J McK, et al. Inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase attenuates the metabolic response to endotoxin in humans . Arch Surg . 1988;123:162-170.Crossref 3. Michie HR, Manogue KR, Spriggs DR, et al. Detection of circulating tumor necrosis factor after endotoxin administration . N Engl J Med . 1988;318:1481-1486.Crossref 4. Richardson RP, Rhyne CD, Fong Y, et al. Peripheral blood leukocyte kinetics following in vivo lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration to normal human subjects: influence of elicited hormones and cytokines . Ann Surg . 1989;210:239-245.Crossref 5. Cupps TR, Edgar LC, Thomas CA, Fauci AS. Multiple mechanisms of B cell immunoregulation in man after administration of in vivo corticosteroids . J Immunol . 1984;132:170-175. 6. Bast RC Jr, Reinherz EL, Maver C, Lavin P, Schlossman SF. Contrasting effects of cyclophosphamide and prednisolone on the phenotype of human peripheral blood leukocytes . Clin Immunol Immunopathol . 1983;28:101-114.Crossref 7. Calvano SE, Albert JD, Legaspi A, et al. Comparison of numerical and phenotypic leukocyte changes during constant hydrocortisone infusion in normal humans with those in thermally injured patients . Surg Gynecol Obstet . 1987;164:509-520. 8. Bertini R, Bianchi M, Ghezzi P. Adrenalectomy sensitizes mice to the lethal effects of interleukin 1 and tumor necrosis factor . J Exp Med . 1988;167:1708-1712.Crossref 9. Calvano SE, de Riesthal HF, Marano MA, Antonacci AC. The decrease in peripheral blood CD4+ T cells following thermal injury in humans can be accounted for by a concomitant decrease in suppressor-inducer CD4+ T cells as assessed using anti-CD45R . Clin Immunol Immunopathol . 1988;47:164-173.Crossref 10. Bartter FC, Delea CS, Halberg F. A map of blood and urinary changes related to circadian variations in adrenal cortical function in normal subjects . Ann N Y Acad Sci . 1962;98:969-983.Crossref 11. Rodrick ML, Michie HR, Moss NM, et al. In vivo infusion of a single dose of endotoxin in healthy humans causes in vitro alteration of both T cell and adherent cell function . In: Faist E, Ninneman J, Green D, eds. Immune Consequences of Trauma, Shock and Sepsis . New York, NY: Springer-Verlag NY Inc; 1989:475-483. 12. Rhyne CD, Calvano SE, Richardson RP, et al. Functional immune consequences following in vivo lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration to normal human subjects are secondary to an alteration of antigen presenting cells . Surg Forum . 1987;38:96-98. 13. Beutler B, Krochin N, Milsark IW, Luedke C, Cerami A. Control of cachectin (tumor necrosis factor) synthesis: mechanisms of endotoxin resistance . Science . 1986;232:977-980.Crossref 14. Han J, Thompson P, Beutler B. Dexamethasone and pentoxifylline inhibit endotoxin-induced cachectin/tumor necrosis factor synthesis at separate points in the signaling pathway . J Exp Med . 1990;172:391-394.Crossref 15. Zuckerman SH, Shellhaas J, Butler LD. Differential regulation of lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin 1 and tumor necrosis factor synthesis: effects of endogenous and exogenous glucocorticoids and the role of the pituitary-adrenal axis . Eur J Immunol . 1989;19:301-305.Crossref 16. Bochner BS, Rutledge BK, Schleimer RP. Interleukin 1 production by human lung tissue, II: inhibition by antiinflammatory steroids . J Immunol . 1987;139:2303-2307. 17. Lew W, Oppenheim JJ, Matsushima K. Analysis of the suppression of IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta production in human peripheral blood mononuclear adherent cells by a glucocorticoid hormone . J Immunol . 1988;140:1895-1902. 18. Knudsen PJ, Dinarello CA, Strom TB. Glucocorticoids inhibit transcriptional and post-transcriptional expression of interleukin 1 in U937 cells . J Immunol . 1987;139:4129-4134. 19. Barber AE, Coyle SM, Fong Y, et al. Impact of hypercortisolemia on the metabolic and hormonal responses to endotoxin in humans . Surg Forum . 1990;41:74-77. 20. Fong Y, Marano MA, Moldawer LL, et al. The acute splanchnic and peripheral tissue metabolic response to endotoxin in humans . J Clin Invest . 1990;85:1896-1904.Crossref 21. Cohen JJ. Thymus-derived lymphocytes sequestered in the bone marrow of hydrocortisone-treated mice . J Immunol . 1972;107:841-844. 22. Fauci AS. Corticosteroids and circulating lymphocytes . Transplant Proc . 1975;7:37-40. 23. Calvano SE, Mark DA, Good RA, Fernandes G. In vitro assessment of immune function in adrenalectomized rats . Immunopharmacology . 1982;4:291-302.Crossref 24. Organ BC, Antonacci AC, Chiao J, et al. Changes in lymphocyte number and phenotype in seven lymphoid compartments after thermal injury . Ann Surg . 1989;210:78-89.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Surgery American Medical Association

Effect of Combined Cortisol-Endotoxin Administration on Peripheral Blood Leukocyte Counts and Phenotype in Cortisol-Endotoxin

Loading next page...
 
/lp/american-medical-association/effect-of-combined-cortisol-endotoxin-administration-on-peripheral-cy8qD0F070
Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1992 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0004-0010
eISSN
1538-3644
DOI
10.1001/archsurg.1992.01420020067010
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract • We studied the role of lipopolysaccharide and the associated hypercortisolemic response as mediators of leukocyte changes associated with endotoxemia. Normal human subjects were given continuous, 12-hour, intravenous infusions of cortisol. After 6 hours of cortisol infusion, lipopolysaccharide (20 U/kg) was administered in an intravenous bolus. Plasma cortisol and blood leukocyte counts and lymphocyte subset proportions were evaluated every hour throughout the 12-hour study period. After 6 hours of cortisol infusion, lymphocyte counts and proportions of CD4+ helper/inducer T cells had declined significantly. The fact that these cells did not decline further in response to lipopolysaccharide and continued cortisol infusion suggests that lipopolysaccharide-induced lymphocyte changes are cortisol dependent. In contrast, the granulocytosis normally observed after lipopolysaccharide administration was unaffected by cortisol infusion. Finally, the monocyte counts and proportions of B cells (HLA-DR+ or CD20+ cells) responded to cortisol infusion and LPS in a pattern distinct from that of lipopolysaccharide alone. These results indicate that lipopolysaccharide-induced hypercortisolemia plays a role in immune modulation during endotoxemia. (Arch Surg. 1992;127:181-186) References 1. Wright LJ, Lipsett MB, Ross GT, Wolff SM. Effects of dexamethasone and aspirin on the responses to endotoxin in man . J Clin Endocrinol Metab . 1972;34:13-17.Crossref 2. Revhaug A, Michie HR, Manson J McK, et al. Inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase attenuates the metabolic response to endotoxin in humans . Arch Surg . 1988;123:162-170.Crossref 3. Michie HR, Manogue KR, Spriggs DR, et al. Detection of circulating tumor necrosis factor after endotoxin administration . N Engl J Med . 1988;318:1481-1486.Crossref 4. Richardson RP, Rhyne CD, Fong Y, et al. Peripheral blood leukocyte kinetics following in vivo lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration to normal human subjects: influence of elicited hormones and cytokines . Ann Surg . 1989;210:239-245.Crossref 5. Cupps TR, Edgar LC, Thomas CA, Fauci AS. Multiple mechanisms of B cell immunoregulation in man after administration of in vivo corticosteroids . J Immunol . 1984;132:170-175. 6. Bast RC Jr, Reinherz EL, Maver C, Lavin P, Schlossman SF. Contrasting effects of cyclophosphamide and prednisolone on the phenotype of human peripheral blood leukocytes . Clin Immunol Immunopathol . 1983;28:101-114.Crossref 7. Calvano SE, Albert JD, Legaspi A, et al. Comparison of numerical and phenotypic leukocyte changes during constant hydrocortisone infusion in normal humans with those in thermally injured patients . Surg Gynecol Obstet . 1987;164:509-520. 8. Bertini R, Bianchi M, Ghezzi P. Adrenalectomy sensitizes mice to the lethal effects of interleukin 1 and tumor necrosis factor . J Exp Med . 1988;167:1708-1712.Crossref 9. Calvano SE, de Riesthal HF, Marano MA, Antonacci AC. The decrease in peripheral blood CD4+ T cells following thermal injury in humans can be accounted for by a concomitant decrease in suppressor-inducer CD4+ T cells as assessed using anti-CD45R . Clin Immunol Immunopathol . 1988;47:164-173.Crossref 10. Bartter FC, Delea CS, Halberg F. A map of blood and urinary changes related to circadian variations in adrenal cortical function in normal subjects . Ann N Y Acad Sci . 1962;98:969-983.Crossref 11. Rodrick ML, Michie HR, Moss NM, et al. In vivo infusion of a single dose of endotoxin in healthy humans causes in vitro alteration of both T cell and adherent cell function . In: Faist E, Ninneman J, Green D, eds. Immune Consequences of Trauma, Shock and Sepsis . New York, NY: Springer-Verlag NY Inc; 1989:475-483. 12. Rhyne CD, Calvano SE, Richardson RP, et al. Functional immune consequences following in vivo lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration to normal human subjects are secondary to an alteration of antigen presenting cells . Surg Forum . 1987;38:96-98. 13. Beutler B, Krochin N, Milsark IW, Luedke C, Cerami A. Control of cachectin (tumor necrosis factor) synthesis: mechanisms of endotoxin resistance . Science . 1986;232:977-980.Crossref 14. Han J, Thompson P, Beutler B. Dexamethasone and pentoxifylline inhibit endotoxin-induced cachectin/tumor necrosis factor synthesis at separate points in the signaling pathway . J Exp Med . 1990;172:391-394.Crossref 15. Zuckerman SH, Shellhaas J, Butler LD. Differential regulation of lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin 1 and tumor necrosis factor synthesis: effects of endogenous and exogenous glucocorticoids and the role of the pituitary-adrenal axis . Eur J Immunol . 1989;19:301-305.Crossref 16. Bochner BS, Rutledge BK, Schleimer RP. Interleukin 1 production by human lung tissue, II: inhibition by antiinflammatory steroids . J Immunol . 1987;139:2303-2307. 17. Lew W, Oppenheim JJ, Matsushima K. Analysis of the suppression of IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta production in human peripheral blood mononuclear adherent cells by a glucocorticoid hormone . J Immunol . 1988;140:1895-1902. 18. Knudsen PJ, Dinarello CA, Strom TB. Glucocorticoids inhibit transcriptional and post-transcriptional expression of interleukin 1 in U937 cells . J Immunol . 1987;139:4129-4134. 19. Barber AE, Coyle SM, Fong Y, et al. Impact of hypercortisolemia on the metabolic and hormonal responses to endotoxin in humans . Surg Forum . 1990;41:74-77. 20. Fong Y, Marano MA, Moldawer LL, et al. The acute splanchnic and peripheral tissue metabolic response to endotoxin in humans . J Clin Invest . 1990;85:1896-1904.Crossref 21. Cohen JJ. Thymus-derived lymphocytes sequestered in the bone marrow of hydrocortisone-treated mice . J Immunol . 1972;107:841-844. 22. Fauci AS. Corticosteroids and circulating lymphocytes . Transplant Proc . 1975;7:37-40. 23. Calvano SE, Mark DA, Good RA, Fernandes G. In vitro assessment of immune function in adrenalectomized rats . Immunopharmacology . 1982;4:291-302.Crossref 24. Organ BC, Antonacci AC, Chiao J, et al. Changes in lymphocyte number and phenotype in seven lymphoid compartments after thermal injury . Ann Surg . 1989;210:78-89.Crossref

Journal

Archives of SurgeryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Feb 1, 1992

References