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Effect of Chloroquine on Erythematous and Carcinogenic Response to Ultraviolet Light: Demonstrated in Experimental Animals

Effect of Chloroquine on Erythematous and Carcinogenic Response to Ultraviolet Light:... Abstract During a lifetime, exposed areas of the body are subject to large amounts of irradiation from sunlight. Unna was the first to call attention to the high incidence of skin cancer among sailors exposed to sunlight,1 and his observation on the relationship between exposure to sunlight and the development of skin cancers has been confirmed by many others. Also, epitheliomas have been produced experimentally by subjecting albino mice, rats, and rabbits to repeated exposures to ultraviolet rays produced by a mercury arc lamp.2-5 The carcinogenic wave lengths of the spectrum have been determined to be between 2,900 and 3,341 A. In experimental animals, the amount of effective midultraviolet radiant energy necessary to initiate changes which culminate with tumor formation is relatively small (63 to 84×107 ergs/sq. cm.).5 To a certain extent, the length of the precancerous period varies inversely with the daily dose of irradiation. Carcinogenesis, once References 1. G.E. Uviarc lamp (UA-3). 2. Blak-Ray, Model XX-15, long wave ultraviolet (3,200-4,000 A. with maximum transmission at 3,660 A.). Ultra-Violet Products, Inc., San Gabriel, Calif. 3. Orth, Johannes: Lehrbuch der speziallen pathologishen Anatomie , Hirschwald, Berlin, 1887, p. 719. 4. Blum, H. F.: Ultraviolet Radiation and Cancer , in Hollaender, A., Editor: Radiation Biology , Vol. 2, New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1955. 5. Findlay, G. M.: Ultraviolet Light and Skin Cancer , Lancet 2:1070-3 ( (Nov.) ) 1928.Crossref 6. Griffin, A. C.; Dolman, V. S.; Böhlke, E. B.; Bouvart, P., and Tatum, E. L.: The Effect of Visible Light on the Carcinogenicity of Ultraviolet Light , Cancer Res. 15:523-528, 1955. 7. Rusch, H. P.; Kline, B. E., and Baumann, C. A.: Carcinogenesis by Ultraviolet Rays with Reference to Wavelength and Energy , Arch. Path. 31:135-146, 1941. 8. Knox, J. M.; Griffin, A. C., and Hakim, R. E.: Protection from Ultraviolet Carcinogenesis, to be published. 9. Page, F.: Treatment of Lupus Erythematosus with Mepacrine , Lancet 2:755-758, 1951.Crossref 10. Knox, J. M.; Lamb, J. H., and Shelmire, B., Sr.: Light Sensitive Eruptions Treated with Atabrine and Chloroquine , J. Invest. Dermat. 31: 289-295 ( (Nov.) ) 1958.Crossref 11. Cahn, M.; Levy, E., and Shaffer, B.: The Use of Chloroquine Diphosphate (Aralen) and Quinacrine (Atabrine) Hydrochloride in the Prevention of Polymorphous Light Eruptions , J. Invest. Dermat. 22:93-96 ( (Feb.) ) 1954. 12. Knox, J. M., and Guin, J. D.: The Effect of Systemic Chloroquine Therapy on Actinic Keratoses: A Report of Two Cases in Albino Negroes, to be published. 13. Knox, J. M.; Guin, J. D., and Cockerell, E. G.: Benzophenones: Ultraviolet Light Absorbing Agents , J. Invest. Dermat. 29:435-444 ( (Dec.) ) 1957.Crossref 14. Deaborn, E.; Kelsey, F.; Oldham, F., and Geiling, E.: Studies on Antimalarials: The Accumulation and Excretion of Atabrine , J. Pharmacol. & Exper. Therap. 78:120-161, 1943. 15. Barlow, O.; Auerbach, M., and Rivenburg, H.: Studies of the Pharmacology of Atabrine on Mice, Rats, and Dogs , J. Lab. & Clin. Med. 39: 20-31, 1945. 16. McChesney, E. W.; Nachod, F. C., and Tainter, M. L.: Rationale for the Treatment of Lupus Erythematosus with Antimalarials , J. Invest. Dermat. 29:97-104 ( (Aug.) ) 1957. 17. Cahn, M.; Levy, E., and Shaffer, B.: Polymorphous Light Eruption: The Effect of Chloroquine Phosphate in Modifying Reactions to Ultraviolet Light , J. Invest. Dermat. 26:201-207, 1956. 18. Hall, F. A., in discussion on Lamb, J.; Jones, P., and Maxwell, T.: Solar Dermatitis , A.M.A. Arch. Dermat. 75:171-180, 1957. 19. Shaffer, B.; Cahn, M., and Levy, E.: Absorption of Antimalarial Drugs in Human Skin: Spectroscopic and Chemical Analysis in Epidermis and Corium J. Invest. Dermat. 30:341-345, 1958. 20. Kurnick, N.: A Rational Therapy of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus , A.M.A. Arch. Int. Med. 97:562-575, 1956. 21. Haydu, G.: The Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis in the Light of New Knowledge , Am. J. Occup. Therapy , 3:177, 1944. 22. Haydu, G.: Rheumatoid Arthritis Therapy: A Rationale and the Use of Chloroquine Disphosphate , Am. J.M. Sc. 225:71-75, 1953. 23. Bovarnick, M.; Lindsay, A., and Hellerman, L.: Metabolism of Malarial Parasite with Reference Particularly to Antimalarial Agents: Atabrine (Quinacrine) Inhibition of Glucose Oxidation in Parasites Initially Depleted of Substrate; Reversal by Adenylic Acid , J. Biol. Chem. 163:535, 1946. 24. Lerner, M. R., and Lerner, A. B.: Dermatologic Medications , Chicago, The Year Book Publishers, Inc., 1954. 25. Van Allen, J., and Tinker, J. F.: Stable Ultraviolet Light Absorbers , J. Organ. Chem. 19: 1243, 1954. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png A.M.A. Archives of Dermatology American Medical Association

Effect of Chloroquine on Erythematous and Carcinogenic Response to Ultraviolet Light: Demonstrated in Experimental Animals

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1960 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0096-5359
DOI
10.1001/archderm.1960.03730040074014
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract During a lifetime, exposed areas of the body are subject to large amounts of irradiation from sunlight. Unna was the first to call attention to the high incidence of skin cancer among sailors exposed to sunlight,1 and his observation on the relationship between exposure to sunlight and the development of skin cancers has been confirmed by many others. Also, epitheliomas have been produced experimentally by subjecting albino mice, rats, and rabbits to repeated exposures to ultraviolet rays produced by a mercury arc lamp.2-5 The carcinogenic wave lengths of the spectrum have been determined to be between 2,900 and 3,341 A. In experimental animals, the amount of effective midultraviolet radiant energy necessary to initiate changes which culminate with tumor formation is relatively small (63 to 84×107 ergs/sq. cm.).5 To a certain extent, the length of the precancerous period varies inversely with the daily dose of irradiation. Carcinogenesis, once References 1. G.E. Uviarc lamp (UA-3). 2. Blak-Ray, Model XX-15, long wave ultraviolet (3,200-4,000 A. with maximum transmission at 3,660 A.). Ultra-Violet Products, Inc., San Gabriel, Calif. 3. Orth, Johannes: Lehrbuch der speziallen pathologishen Anatomie , Hirschwald, Berlin, 1887, p. 719. 4. Blum, H. F.: Ultraviolet Radiation and Cancer , in Hollaender, A., Editor: Radiation Biology , Vol. 2, New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1955. 5. Findlay, G. M.: Ultraviolet Light and Skin Cancer , Lancet 2:1070-3 ( (Nov.) ) 1928.Crossref 6. Griffin, A. C.; Dolman, V. S.; Böhlke, E. B.; Bouvart, P., and Tatum, E. L.: The Effect of Visible Light on the Carcinogenicity of Ultraviolet Light , Cancer Res. 15:523-528, 1955. 7. Rusch, H. P.; Kline, B. E., and Baumann, C. A.: Carcinogenesis by Ultraviolet Rays with Reference to Wavelength and Energy , Arch. Path. 31:135-146, 1941. 8. Knox, J. M.; Griffin, A. C., and Hakim, R. E.: Protection from Ultraviolet Carcinogenesis, to be published. 9. Page, F.: Treatment of Lupus Erythematosus with Mepacrine , Lancet 2:755-758, 1951.Crossref 10. Knox, J. M.; Lamb, J. H., and Shelmire, B., Sr.: Light Sensitive Eruptions Treated with Atabrine and Chloroquine , J. Invest. Dermat. 31: 289-295 ( (Nov.) ) 1958.Crossref 11. Cahn, M.; Levy, E., and Shaffer, B.: The Use of Chloroquine Diphosphate (Aralen) and Quinacrine (Atabrine) Hydrochloride in the Prevention of Polymorphous Light Eruptions , J. Invest. Dermat. 22:93-96 ( (Feb.) ) 1954. 12. Knox, J. M., and Guin, J. D.: The Effect of Systemic Chloroquine Therapy on Actinic Keratoses: A Report of Two Cases in Albino Negroes, to be published. 13. Knox, J. M.; Guin, J. D., and Cockerell, E. G.: Benzophenones: Ultraviolet Light Absorbing Agents , J. Invest. Dermat. 29:435-444 ( (Dec.) ) 1957.Crossref 14. Deaborn, E.; Kelsey, F.; Oldham, F., and Geiling, E.: Studies on Antimalarials: The Accumulation and Excretion of Atabrine , J. Pharmacol. & Exper. Therap. 78:120-161, 1943. 15. Barlow, O.; Auerbach, M., and Rivenburg, H.: Studies of the Pharmacology of Atabrine on Mice, Rats, and Dogs , J. Lab. & Clin. Med. 39: 20-31, 1945. 16. McChesney, E. W.; Nachod, F. C., and Tainter, M. L.: Rationale for the Treatment of Lupus Erythematosus with Antimalarials , J. Invest. Dermat. 29:97-104 ( (Aug.) ) 1957. 17. Cahn, M.; Levy, E., and Shaffer, B.: Polymorphous Light Eruption: The Effect of Chloroquine Phosphate in Modifying Reactions to Ultraviolet Light , J. Invest. Dermat. 26:201-207, 1956. 18. Hall, F. A., in discussion on Lamb, J.; Jones, P., and Maxwell, T.: Solar Dermatitis , A.M.A. Arch. Dermat. 75:171-180, 1957. 19. Shaffer, B.; Cahn, M., and Levy, E.: Absorption of Antimalarial Drugs in Human Skin: Spectroscopic and Chemical Analysis in Epidermis and Corium J. Invest. Dermat. 30:341-345, 1958. 20. Kurnick, N.: A Rational Therapy of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus , A.M.A. Arch. Int. Med. 97:562-575, 1956. 21. Haydu, G.: The Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis in the Light of New Knowledge , Am. J. Occup. Therapy , 3:177, 1944. 22. Haydu, G.: Rheumatoid Arthritis Therapy: A Rationale and the Use of Chloroquine Disphosphate , Am. J.M. Sc. 225:71-75, 1953. 23. Bovarnick, M.; Lindsay, A., and Hellerman, L.: Metabolism of Malarial Parasite with Reference Particularly to Antimalarial Agents: Atabrine (Quinacrine) Inhibition of Glucose Oxidation in Parasites Initially Depleted of Substrate; Reversal by Adenylic Acid , J. Biol. Chem. 163:535, 1946. 24. Lerner, M. R., and Lerner, A. B.: Dermatologic Medications , Chicago, The Year Book Publishers, Inc., 1954. 25. Van Allen, J., and Tinker, J. F.: Stable Ultraviolet Light Absorbers , J. Organ. Chem. 19: 1243, 1954.

Journal

A.M.A. Archives of DermatologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Apr 1, 1960

References