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Effect of Bemegride (Megimide) on Cerebral Blood Flow and Electrical Activity of Brain: Studies in Cats and Rabbits

Effect of Bemegride (Megimide) on Cerebral Blood Flow and Electrical Activity of Brain: Studies... Abstract Introduction Since the discovery of the antagonism of bemegride (Megimide; 3-ethyl-3-methylglutarimide; NP13) toward barbiturates (Shaw et al.,27 1954), a large number of communications have been presented to show the therapeutic value of this substance (Shulman et al.,28 1955; Shaw,26 1955; Bentel et al.,3 1956). As there are still different opinions about the mode of action of the drug, the present investigation was undertaken in order to study the effects with some indices not used earlier. Thus, cerebral blood flow was followed using the new method of Ingvar and Söderberg14 (1956), with simultaneous recording of the electroencephalogram (EEG), blood pressure, and cutaneous circulation in narcotized cats and rabbits and encéphale isolé preparations of cats. In a few experiments with cats the gamma motor activity was studied by the method of Granit and Kaada11 (1952). In rabbits the antagonism of bemegride toward urethan U. S. P., References 1. Doriden was put at our disposal by Ciba A. G., Basel, Switzerland, and Megimide, by Nicholas Products Laboratories, Ltd., Slough, England. 2. Adrian, E. D., and Moruzzi, G.: Impulses in the Pyramidal Tract , J. Physiol. 97:153-199, 1939. 3. Ajmone-Marsan, C., and Marossero, F.: Electrocorticographic and Electrochordographic Study of the Convulsions Induced by Cardiazol , Electroencephalog. & Clin. Neurophysiol. 2:133-142, 1950. 4. Bentel, H.; Barlow, M. B., and Ginsberg, H.: Megimide in the Termination of Barbiturate Anæsthesia , M. Proc. 2:198-200, 1956. 5. Bernhard, C. G., and Bohm, E.: The Action of Local Anaesthetics on Experimental Epilepsy in Cats and Monkey , Brit. J. Pharmacol. 10:288-296, 1955. 6. Bernhard, C. G.; Bohm, E., and Höjeberg, S.: A New Treatment of Status Epilepticus , A. M. A. Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 74:208-214, 1955. 7. Delay, J.; Verdeaux, G.; Verdeaux, J.; Drossopoulo, G.; Schuller, E., and Chanoit, P.: Un Neuro-stimulant épileptogène: La mégimide , Presse méd. 64:1525-1527, 1956. 8. von Euler, C., and Söderberg, U.: The Influence of Hypothalamic Thermoceptive Structures on the Electroencephalogram and Gamma Motor Activity , Electroencephalog. & Clin. Neurophysiol. 9:391-408, 1957. 9. Gastaut, H.: Combined Photic and Metrazol Activation of the Brain , Electroencephalog. & Clin. Neurophysiol. 2:249-261, 1950. 10. Gibbs, F. A.: Cerebral Blood Flow Preceding and Accompanying Experimental Convulsions , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 30:1003-1010, 1933. 11. Gibbs, F. A.; Lennox, W. G., and Gibbs, E. L.: Cerebral Blood Flow Preceding and Accompanying Epileptic Seizures in Man , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 32:257-272, 1934. 12. Granit, R., and Kaada, B. R.: Influence of Stimulation of Central Nervous System on Muscle Spindles in Cat , Acta physiol. scandinav. 27:130-160, 1953. 13. Halpern, L., and Peyser, E.: The Effect of Various Convulsive Procedures on the Cranial Vessels of the Dog Angiographically Visualized , J. Neuropath. & Exper. Neurol. 12:277-282, 1953. 14. Hunter, J., and Ingvar, D. H.: Pathways Mediating Metrazol Induced Irradiation of Visceral Impulses: An Experimental Study in the Cat , Electroencephalog. & Clin. Neurophysiol. 7:30-60, 1955. 15. Ingvar, D. H., and Söderberg, U.: A New Method for Measuring Cerebral Blood Flow in Relation to the Electroencephalogram , Electroencephalog. & Clin. Neurophysiol. 8:403-412, 1956. 16. Ingvar, D. H., and Söderberg, U.: Cortical Blood Flow Related to EEG Patterns Evoked by Stimulation of the Brain Stem , Acta physiol. scandinav. , to be published. 17. Jalling, O.: Effect of B,B-Methylethyl Glutarimide and Amytal on Rat-Liver Mitochondrial Respiration , Nature , London 177:330-331, 1956. 18. Jasper, H. H., and Erickson, T. C.: Cerebral Blood Flow and pH in Excessive Cortical Discharge Induced by Metrazol and Electrical Stimulation , J. Neurophysiol. 4:333-347, 1941. 19. Kaufman, I. C.; Marshall, C., and Walker, A. E.: Metrazol Activated Electroencephalography , A. Res. Nerv. & Ment. Dis., Proc. 26: 476-486, 1947 20. Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 58:533-549, 1947. 21. Kirstein, L.: An Electroencephalographic Study of the Antagonism Between Metrazol and Sodium Amytal , Electroencephalog. & Clin. Neurophysiol. 4:73-78, 1952. 22. Li, C. L.; McLennan, H., and Jasper, H. H.: Brain Waves and Unit Discharge in Cerebral Cortex , Science 116:656-657, 1952. 23. Marshall, P. G., and Vallance, D. K.: Anticonvulsant Activity: Derivatives of Succinimide, Glutarimide, Thiazolidinedione and Methanol, and Some Miscellaneous Compounds , J. Pharm. & Pharmacol. 6:740-746, 1954. 24. Mayer, S. E., and Bain, J. A.: The Distribution of a New Central Convulsant: 10-(2-Dimethylaminopropyl)-9-Acridone , J. Pharmacol. & Exper. Therap. 111:210-223, 1954. 25. Moruzzi, G., and Magoun, H. W.: Brain Stem Reticular Formation and Activation of the EEG , Electroencephalog. & Clin. Neurophysiol. 1:455-473, 1949. 26. Peacock, J. M.: An Electroencephalographic Examination of the Effects of Megimide and Daptazole in Barbiturate Narcosis , Electroencephalog. & Clin. Neurophysiol. 8:289-298, 1956. 27. Penfield, W.; von Sántha, K., and Cipriani, A.: Cerebral Blood Flow During Induced Epileptiform Seizures in Animals and Man , J. Neurophysiol. 2:257-267, 1939. 28. Shaw, F. H.: Further Experiences with "Megimide"—a Barbiturate Antagonist , M. J. Australia 2:889-891, 1955. 29. Shaw, F. H.; Simon, S. E.; Cass, N.; Shulman, A.; Anstee, J. R., and Nelson, E. R.: Barbiturate Antagonism , Nature , London 174:402-403, 1954. 30. Shulman, A.; Shaw, F. H.; Cass, N. M., and Whyte, H. M.: A New Treatment of Barbiturate Intoxication , Brit. M. J. 1:1238-1244, 1955. 31. Söderberg, U., to be published. 32. Walleala and Wiesel: Personal communication to the author. 33. Crentzfeldt,: Personal communication to the author. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png A.M.A. Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry American Medical Association

Effect of Bemegride (Megimide) on Cerebral Blood Flow and Electrical Activity of Brain: Studies in Cats and Rabbits

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1958 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0096-6886
DOI
10.1001/archneurpsyc.1958.02340030003001
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Abstract

Abstract Introduction Since the discovery of the antagonism of bemegride (Megimide; 3-ethyl-3-methylglutarimide; NP13) toward barbiturates (Shaw et al.,27 1954), a large number of communications have been presented to show the therapeutic value of this substance (Shulman et al.,28 1955; Shaw,26 1955; Bentel et al.,3 1956). As there are still different opinions about the mode of action of the drug, the present investigation was undertaken in order to study the effects with some indices not used earlier. Thus, cerebral blood flow was followed using the new method of Ingvar and Söderberg14 (1956), with simultaneous recording of the electroencephalogram (EEG), blood pressure, and cutaneous circulation in narcotized cats and rabbits and encéphale isolé preparations of cats. In a few experiments with cats the gamma motor activity was studied by the method of Granit and Kaada11 (1952). In rabbits the antagonism of bemegride toward urethan U. S. P., References 1. Doriden was put at our disposal by Ciba A. G., Basel, Switzerland, and Megimide, by Nicholas Products Laboratories, Ltd., Slough, England. 2. Adrian, E. D., and Moruzzi, G.: Impulses in the Pyramidal Tract , J. Physiol. 97:153-199, 1939. 3. Ajmone-Marsan, C., and Marossero, F.: Electrocorticographic and Electrochordographic Study of the Convulsions Induced by Cardiazol , Electroencephalog. & Clin. Neurophysiol. 2:133-142, 1950. 4. Bentel, H.; Barlow, M. B., and Ginsberg, H.: Megimide in the Termination of Barbiturate Anæsthesia , M. Proc. 2:198-200, 1956. 5. Bernhard, C. G., and Bohm, E.: The Action of Local Anaesthetics on Experimental Epilepsy in Cats and Monkey , Brit. J. Pharmacol. 10:288-296, 1955. 6. Bernhard, C. G.; Bohm, E., and Höjeberg, S.: A New Treatment of Status Epilepticus , A. M. A. Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 74:208-214, 1955. 7. Delay, J.; Verdeaux, G.; Verdeaux, J.; Drossopoulo, G.; Schuller, E., and Chanoit, P.: Un Neuro-stimulant épileptogène: La mégimide , Presse méd. 64:1525-1527, 1956. 8. von Euler, C., and Söderberg, U.: The Influence of Hypothalamic Thermoceptive Structures on the Electroencephalogram and Gamma Motor Activity , Electroencephalog. & Clin. Neurophysiol. 9:391-408, 1957. 9. Gastaut, H.: Combined Photic and Metrazol Activation of the Brain , Electroencephalog. & Clin. Neurophysiol. 2:249-261, 1950. 10. Gibbs, F. A.: Cerebral Blood Flow Preceding and Accompanying Experimental Convulsions , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 30:1003-1010, 1933. 11. Gibbs, F. A.; Lennox, W. G., and Gibbs, E. L.: Cerebral Blood Flow Preceding and Accompanying Epileptic Seizures in Man , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 32:257-272, 1934. 12. Granit, R., and Kaada, B. R.: Influence of Stimulation of Central Nervous System on Muscle Spindles in Cat , Acta physiol. scandinav. 27:130-160, 1953. 13. Halpern, L., and Peyser, E.: The Effect of Various Convulsive Procedures on the Cranial Vessels of the Dog Angiographically Visualized , J. Neuropath. & Exper. Neurol. 12:277-282, 1953. 14. Hunter, J., and Ingvar, D. H.: Pathways Mediating Metrazol Induced Irradiation of Visceral Impulses: An Experimental Study in the Cat , Electroencephalog. & Clin. Neurophysiol. 7:30-60, 1955. 15. Ingvar, D. H., and Söderberg, U.: A New Method for Measuring Cerebral Blood Flow in Relation to the Electroencephalogram , Electroencephalog. & Clin. Neurophysiol. 8:403-412, 1956. 16. Ingvar, D. H., and Söderberg, U.: Cortical Blood Flow Related to EEG Patterns Evoked by Stimulation of the Brain Stem , Acta physiol. scandinav. , to be published. 17. Jalling, O.: Effect of B,B-Methylethyl Glutarimide and Amytal on Rat-Liver Mitochondrial Respiration , Nature , London 177:330-331, 1956. 18. Jasper, H. H., and Erickson, T. C.: Cerebral Blood Flow and pH in Excessive Cortical Discharge Induced by Metrazol and Electrical Stimulation , J. Neurophysiol. 4:333-347, 1941. 19. Kaufman, I. C.; Marshall, C., and Walker, A. E.: Metrazol Activated Electroencephalography , A. Res. Nerv. & Ment. Dis., Proc. 26: 476-486, 1947 20. Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 58:533-549, 1947. 21. Kirstein, L.: An Electroencephalographic Study of the Antagonism Between Metrazol and Sodium Amytal , Electroencephalog. & Clin. Neurophysiol. 4:73-78, 1952. 22. Li, C. L.; McLennan, H., and Jasper, H. H.: Brain Waves and Unit Discharge in Cerebral Cortex , Science 116:656-657, 1952. 23. Marshall, P. G., and Vallance, D. K.: Anticonvulsant Activity: Derivatives of Succinimide, Glutarimide, Thiazolidinedione and Methanol, and Some Miscellaneous Compounds , J. Pharm. & Pharmacol. 6:740-746, 1954. 24. Mayer, S. E., and Bain, J. A.: The Distribution of a New Central Convulsant: 10-(2-Dimethylaminopropyl)-9-Acridone , J. Pharmacol. & Exper. Therap. 111:210-223, 1954. 25. Moruzzi, G., and Magoun, H. W.: Brain Stem Reticular Formation and Activation of the EEG , Electroencephalog. & Clin. Neurophysiol. 1:455-473, 1949. 26. Peacock, J. M.: An Electroencephalographic Examination of the Effects of Megimide and Daptazole in Barbiturate Narcosis , Electroencephalog. & Clin. Neurophysiol. 8:289-298, 1956. 27. Penfield, W.; von Sántha, K., and Cipriani, A.: Cerebral Blood Flow During Induced Epileptiform Seizures in Animals and Man , J. Neurophysiol. 2:257-267, 1939. 28. Shaw, F. H.: Further Experiences with "Megimide"—a Barbiturate Antagonist , M. J. Australia 2:889-891, 1955. 29. Shaw, F. H.; Simon, S. E.; Cass, N.; Shulman, A.; Anstee, J. R., and Nelson, E. R.: Barbiturate Antagonism , Nature , London 174:402-403, 1954. 30. Shulman, A.; Shaw, F. H.; Cass, N. M., and Whyte, H. M.: A New Treatment of Barbiturate Intoxication , Brit. M. J. 1:1238-1244, 1955. 31. Söderberg, U., to be published. 32. Walleala and Wiesel: Personal communication to the author. 33. Crentzfeldt,: Personal communication to the author.

Journal

A.M.A. Archives of Neurology & PsychiatryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Mar 1, 1958

References