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Early Characteristics of Monozygotic Twins Discordant for Schizophrenia

Early Characteristics of Monozygotic Twins Discordant for Schizophrenia Abstract IN THE ATTEMPT to understand why schizophrenic symptoms appear in one individual and not in another, major investigative efforts have been directed toward: (1) assessing the genetic component which controls the cellular and physiologic characteristics of the central nervous system, thereby influencing what is called temperament, nervous disposition, personality, or mind; (2) assessing the environmental experiential factors which temper the degree of development and expression of the personality; or (3) the complex interaction of endowment and environment. The study of pairs of monozygotic twins, when one twin has developed schizophrenic symptomatology and the other has not, has the unique research power of controlling for the genetic differences which occur between siblings and randomly selected individuals. Differences in environmental experience from the intra-uterine period through the onset of illness are therefore highlighted in these pairs. Characteristics of an infant at birth, the classically designated time for the "begin References 1. Pollin, W.; Stabenau, J.; and Tupin, J.: Family Studies With Identical Twins Discordant for Schizophrenia , Psychiatry 28:60-78, 1965. 2. Pollin, W., et al: Life History Differences in Identical Twins Discordant for Schizophrenia , Amer J Orthopsychiat 36:492-509, 1966.Crossref 3. Essen-Mö E.: Psychiatrische Untersuchungen an einer Serie von Zwillingen , Acta Psychiat Scand , vol 16 ( (suppl 23) ), 1941. 4. Slater, E.: Psychotic and Neurotic Illnesses in Twins , London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1953. 5. Tienari, P.: Psychiatric Illnesses in Identical Twins , Acta psychiat Scand , 39 ( (suppl 171) ), 1963. 6. Kringlen, E.: Schizophrenia in Male Monozygotic Twins , Acta Psychiat Scand , vol 40 ( (suppl 178) ), 1964. 7. Grillmayr, W., and Kohlmann, T.: Diskordante Psychiatrische Bilder bei einem eineiigen Zwillingspaar , Wien Z Nervenheilk 2:441-460, 1929. 8. Burkhardt, H.: über ein Diskordantes eineiigees Zwillingsparr , Z Neurol Psychiat 121:277-282, 1929.Crossref 9. Wigers, F.: Ein Eineiiges, Bezüglich Schizophrenie Diskordantes Zwillingspaar , Acta Psychiat Neurol 9:541-556, 1934.Crossref 10. Kasanin, J.: A Case of Schizophrenia in Only One of Identical Twins , Amer J Psychiat 91:21-28, 1934. 11. Reed, G.: Uniovular Twins: Schizophrenia and Tuberculosis , Canad Med Assoc J 32:180-182, 1935. 12. Kallmann, F.J.: " Heredity and Constitution in Relation to the Treatment of Mental Disorders ," in Hoch P. (ed.): Failures in Psychiatric Treatment , New York: Grune and Stratton, Inc., 1948. 13. Kallmann, F.J.: Heredity in Health and Mental Disorder , New York: W. R. Norton and Co., Inc., 1953. 14. Hobson, J.A.: Identical Twins Discordant for Schizophrenia , J Nerv Ment Dis 138:432-442, 1964.Crossref 15. Rosanoff, A., et al: The Etiology of So-Called Schizophrenic Psychosis, With Special Reference to Their Occurrence in Twins , Amer J Psychiat 91:247-286, 1934. 16. Kurihara, M.: A Study of Schizophrenia by the Twin Method , Psychiat Neurol Jap 61:1721-1741, 1959. 17. Price, D.: Primary Biases in Twin Studies: A Review of Prenatal and Natal Difference-Producing Factors in Monozygotic Pairs , Amer J Hum Genet 2:293, 1950. 18. Morison, J.: Congenital Malformations in One of Monozygotic Twins , Arch Dis Child 24:214-218, 1949.Crossref 19. Sydow, G., and Rinne, A.: Very Unequal "Identical" Twins , Acta Paediat 47:163-171, 1958.Crossref 20. Stabenau, J., and Pollin, W.: Maturity at Birth and Adult Protein Bound Iodine , Nature 215:996-997 ( (Aug 26) )1967.Crossref 21. Stabenau, J.; Pollin, W.; and Mosher, L.: A Study of Monozygotic Twins Discordant for Schizophrenia: Some Biologic Variables, Arch Gen Psychiat, to be published. 22. Graham, F.; Matarazzo, R.; and Caldwell, B.: Behavioral Differences Between Normal and Traumatized New Borns: I. The Test Procedures: II. Standardization, Reliability and Validity , Psychol Monogr 70:20-21, 1956. 23. Clemetson, C.: The Difference in Birthweight of Human Twins and Twin Blood Studies: I. Oxygen Analysis of Umbilical Cord Blood , J Obstet Gynaec Brit Comm 63:1-8, 1956.Crossref 24. Cotnblath, M.; Joassin, G.; and Weisskope, B.: Hypoglycemia in the Newborn , Pediat Clin N Amer 13:905-920, 1966. 25. Moss, H.: Sex, Age and State as Determinants of Mother-Infant Interaction , Merrill-Palmer Quart 13:19-36, 1967. 26. Knobloch, H.: The Developmental Behavioral Approach to the Neurological Examination in Infancy , Child Develop 33:181-198, 1962. 27. Green, M., and Solnit, A.: Reactions to the Threatened Loss of a Child: A Vulnerable Child Syndrome , Pediatrics 34:58-66, 1964. 28. Thomas, A., et al: " Behavior Individuality in Early Childhood ," in Haimowitz, M., and Haimowitz, N. (eds.): Human Development , New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1966. 29. Bayley, N., and Schaefer, E.: " Maternal Behavior and Personality Development: Data From the Birth and Growth Study ," in Psychiatric Research Reports of the American Psychiatric Association , No. 13, 1960. 30. Shirley M.: A Behavior Syndrome Characterizing Prematurely Born Children , Child Develop 10:115-128, 1939.Crossref 31. Stabenau, J., et al: A Comparative Study of Families of Schizophrenics, Delinquents and Normals , Psychiatry 28:45-59, 1965. 32. Caplan, G.: Patterns of Parental Response to the Crisis of Premature Birth , Psychiatry 23:365-374, 1960. 33. Gifford, S., et al: Differences in Individual Development Within a Pair of Identical Twins , Int J Psychoanal 47:261-268, 1966. 34. Levy, D.M.: Maternal Overprotection , New York: Columbia University Press, 1943. 35. Kanner, L.: Child Psychiatry , Springfield, Ill: Charles C Thomas, Publisher, 1957. 36. Harper, P.: "Comments on the Prevention of Prematurity," in Fifth Conference on Physiology of Prematurity, New York: Macy Foundation, 1961, pp 218-221. 37. Sontag, L.; Baker, C.; and Nelson, V.: Mental Growth and Personality Development: A Longitudinal Study , Monogr Soc Res Child Develop 23( (2) ):1-143, 1958.Crossref 38. Tanner, J.: Growth at Adolescence , Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1962. 39. Shields, J.: Monozygotic Twins Brought Up Apart and Brought Up Together , London: Oxford University Press, 1962. 40. Babson, S., et al: Growth and Development of Twins of Dissimilar Size at Birth , Pediatrics 33:327-333, 1964. 41. Drillien, C.: The Incidence of Mental and Physical Handicaps of School-Age Children of Very Low Birthweight , Pediatrics 27:452-464, 1961. 42. Churchill, J.: The Relationship Between Intelligence and Birthweight in Twins , Neurology 15:341-347, 1965.Crossref 43. Wiener, G., et al: Correlates of Low Birth Weight: Psychological Status at Six to Seven Years of Age , Pediatrics 35:434-444, 1965. 44. DeHirsch, K.; Jansky, J.; and Langford, W.S.: Comparisons Between Prematurely and Maturely Born Children at Three Age Levels , Amer J Orthopsychiat 36:616-628, 1966.Crossref 45. Lane, E., and Albee, G.: Early Childhood Intellectual Differences Between Schizophrenic Adults and Their Siblings , J Abnorm Soc Psychol 68:193-195, 1964.Crossref 46. White, R.: " Ego and Reality in Psychoanalytic Theory, A Proposal Regarding Independent Ego Energies ," in Psychological Issues New York: International Universities Press, 1963, vol 3, No. 3. 47. Prout, C., and White, M.: The Schizophrenic's Sibling , J Nerv Ment Dis 123:162-170, 1956.Crossref 48. Planansky, K.: Schizoidness in Twins , Acta Genet Med Roma 15:151-166, 1966. 49. Lu, Y.: Mother-Child Role Relations in Schizophrenia: A Comparison of Schizophrenic Patients With Non-Schizophrenic Siblings , Psychiatry 24:133-142, 1961. 50. McGhie, A.: A Comparative Study of the Mother-Child Relationship in Schizophrenia , Brit J Med Psychol 34:195-221, 1961.Crossref 51. Pollack, M., et al: Childhood Development Patterns of Hospitalized Adult Schizophrenic and Non-Schizophrenic Patients and Their Siblings , Amer J Orthopsychiat 36:510-517, 1966.Crossref 52. Fleming, P.: Emotional Antecedents of Schizophrenia: Inner Experiences of Children and Adolescents Who Were Later Hospitalized for Schizophrenia, read before the Conference on Life History Research in Psychopathology, New York, May 12, 1967. 53. Mednick, S., and Schulsinger, F.: A Pre-Schizophrenic Sample , Acta Psychiat Scand 40:( (supp1 180) )135-146, 1964.Crossref 54. Bender, L.: " Twenty Years of Clinical Research on Schizophrenic Children With Special Reference to Those Under Six Years of Age ," in Caplan, G. (ed.): Emotional Problems of Early Childhood , New York: Basic Books, 1955. 55. Goldfarb, W.: Childhood Schizophrenia , New York: Harvard University Press, 1961. 56. Vorster, D.: An Investigation Into the Part Played by Organic Factors in Childhood Schizophrenia , J Ment Sci 106:494-522, 1960. 57. Wynne, L., et al: Pseudo-Mutuality in the Family Relations of Schizophrenics , Psychiatry 21:205-220, 1958. 58. Lidz, T., et al: Intrafamilial Environment of the Schizophrenic Patient: VI. The Transmission of Irrationality , Arch Neurol Psychiat 79:305-316, 1958.Crossref 59. Bowen, M.: " A Family Concept of Schizophrenia ," in Jackson, D.D. (ed.): The Etiology of Schizophrenia , New York: Basic Books, 1960. 60. Jackson, D.: The Etiology of Schizophrenia , New York: Basic Books, Inc., 1960. 61. Laing, R., and Estron, A.: Sanity, Madness and the Family , London: Tavistock Publications Ltd., 1964. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of General Psychiatry American Medical Association

Early Characteristics of Monozygotic Twins Discordant for Schizophrenia

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American Medical Association
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Copyright © 1967 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-990X
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1598-3636
DOI
10.1001/archpsyc.1967.01730300083011
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Abstract

Abstract IN THE ATTEMPT to understand why schizophrenic symptoms appear in one individual and not in another, major investigative efforts have been directed toward: (1) assessing the genetic component which controls the cellular and physiologic characteristics of the central nervous system, thereby influencing what is called temperament, nervous disposition, personality, or mind; (2) assessing the environmental experiential factors which temper the degree of development and expression of the personality; or (3) the complex interaction of endowment and environment. The study of pairs of monozygotic twins, when one twin has developed schizophrenic symptomatology and the other has not, has the unique research power of controlling for the genetic differences which occur between siblings and randomly selected individuals. Differences in environmental experience from the intra-uterine period through the onset of illness are therefore highlighted in these pairs. Characteristics of an infant at birth, the classically designated time for the "begin References 1. Pollin, W.; Stabenau, J.; and Tupin, J.: Family Studies With Identical Twins Discordant for Schizophrenia , Psychiatry 28:60-78, 1965. 2. Pollin, W., et al: Life History Differences in Identical Twins Discordant for Schizophrenia , Amer J Orthopsychiat 36:492-509, 1966.Crossref 3. Essen-Mö E.: Psychiatrische Untersuchungen an einer Serie von Zwillingen , Acta Psychiat Scand , vol 16 ( (suppl 23) ), 1941. 4. Slater, E.: Psychotic and Neurotic Illnesses in Twins , London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1953. 5. Tienari, P.: Psychiatric Illnesses in Identical Twins , Acta psychiat Scand , 39 ( (suppl 171) ), 1963. 6. Kringlen, E.: Schizophrenia in Male Monozygotic Twins , Acta Psychiat Scand , vol 40 ( (suppl 178) ), 1964. 7. Grillmayr, W., and Kohlmann, T.: Diskordante Psychiatrische Bilder bei einem eineiigen Zwillingspaar , Wien Z Nervenheilk 2:441-460, 1929. 8. Burkhardt, H.: über ein Diskordantes eineiigees Zwillingsparr , Z Neurol Psychiat 121:277-282, 1929.Crossref 9. Wigers, F.: Ein Eineiiges, Bezüglich Schizophrenie Diskordantes Zwillingspaar , Acta Psychiat Neurol 9:541-556, 1934.Crossref 10. Kasanin, J.: A Case of Schizophrenia in Only One of Identical Twins , Amer J Psychiat 91:21-28, 1934. 11. Reed, G.: Uniovular Twins: Schizophrenia and Tuberculosis , Canad Med Assoc J 32:180-182, 1935. 12. Kallmann, F.J.: " Heredity and Constitution in Relation to the Treatment of Mental Disorders ," in Hoch P. (ed.): Failures in Psychiatric Treatment , New York: Grune and Stratton, Inc., 1948. 13. Kallmann, F.J.: Heredity in Health and Mental Disorder , New York: W. R. Norton and Co., Inc., 1953. 14. Hobson, J.A.: Identical Twins Discordant for Schizophrenia , J Nerv Ment Dis 138:432-442, 1964.Crossref 15. Rosanoff, A., et al: The Etiology of So-Called Schizophrenic Psychosis, With Special Reference to Their Occurrence in Twins , Amer J Psychiat 91:247-286, 1934. 16. Kurihara, M.: A Study of Schizophrenia by the Twin Method , Psychiat Neurol Jap 61:1721-1741, 1959. 17. Price, D.: Primary Biases in Twin Studies: A Review of Prenatal and Natal Difference-Producing Factors in Monozygotic Pairs , Amer J Hum Genet 2:293, 1950. 18. Morison, J.: Congenital Malformations in One of Monozygotic Twins , Arch Dis Child 24:214-218, 1949.Crossref 19. Sydow, G., and Rinne, A.: Very Unequal "Identical" Twins , Acta Paediat 47:163-171, 1958.Crossref 20. Stabenau, J., and Pollin, W.: Maturity at Birth and Adult Protein Bound Iodine , Nature 215:996-997 ( (Aug 26) )1967.Crossref 21. Stabenau, J.; Pollin, W.; and Mosher, L.: A Study of Monozygotic Twins Discordant for Schizophrenia: Some Biologic Variables, Arch Gen Psychiat, to be published. 22. Graham, F.; Matarazzo, R.; and Caldwell, B.: Behavioral Differences Between Normal and Traumatized New Borns: I. The Test Procedures: II. Standardization, Reliability and Validity , Psychol Monogr 70:20-21, 1956. 23. Clemetson, C.: The Difference in Birthweight of Human Twins and Twin Blood Studies: I. Oxygen Analysis of Umbilical Cord Blood , J Obstet Gynaec Brit Comm 63:1-8, 1956.Crossref 24. Cotnblath, M.; Joassin, G.; and Weisskope, B.: Hypoglycemia in the Newborn , Pediat Clin N Amer 13:905-920, 1966. 25. Moss, H.: Sex, Age and State as Determinants of Mother-Infant Interaction , Merrill-Palmer Quart 13:19-36, 1967. 26. Knobloch, H.: The Developmental Behavioral Approach to the Neurological Examination in Infancy , Child Develop 33:181-198, 1962. 27. Green, M., and Solnit, A.: Reactions to the Threatened Loss of a Child: A Vulnerable Child Syndrome , Pediatrics 34:58-66, 1964. 28. Thomas, A., et al: " Behavior Individuality in Early Childhood ," in Haimowitz, M., and Haimowitz, N. (eds.): Human Development , New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1966. 29. Bayley, N., and Schaefer, E.: " Maternal Behavior and Personality Development: Data From the Birth and Growth Study ," in Psychiatric Research Reports of the American Psychiatric Association , No. 13, 1960. 30. Shirley M.: A Behavior Syndrome Characterizing Prematurely Born Children , Child Develop 10:115-128, 1939.Crossref 31. Stabenau, J., et al: A Comparative Study of Families of Schizophrenics, Delinquents and Normals , Psychiatry 28:45-59, 1965. 32. Caplan, G.: Patterns of Parental Response to the Crisis of Premature Birth , Psychiatry 23:365-374, 1960. 33. Gifford, S., et al: Differences in Individual Development Within a Pair of Identical Twins , Int J Psychoanal 47:261-268, 1966. 34. Levy, D.M.: Maternal Overprotection , New York: Columbia University Press, 1943. 35. Kanner, L.: Child Psychiatry , Springfield, Ill: Charles C Thomas, Publisher, 1957. 36. Harper, P.: "Comments on the Prevention of Prematurity," in Fifth Conference on Physiology of Prematurity, New York: Macy Foundation, 1961, pp 218-221. 37. Sontag, L.; Baker, C.; and Nelson, V.: Mental Growth and Personality Development: A Longitudinal Study , Monogr Soc Res Child Develop 23( (2) ):1-143, 1958.Crossref 38. Tanner, J.: Growth at Adolescence , Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1962. 39. Shields, J.: Monozygotic Twins Brought Up Apart and Brought Up Together , London: Oxford University Press, 1962. 40. Babson, S., et al: Growth and Development of Twins of Dissimilar Size at Birth , Pediatrics 33:327-333, 1964. 41. Drillien, C.: The Incidence of Mental and Physical Handicaps of School-Age Children of Very Low Birthweight , Pediatrics 27:452-464, 1961. 42. Churchill, J.: The Relationship Between Intelligence and Birthweight in Twins , Neurology 15:341-347, 1965.Crossref 43. Wiener, G., et al: Correlates of Low Birth Weight: Psychological Status at Six to Seven Years of Age , Pediatrics 35:434-444, 1965. 44. DeHirsch, K.; Jansky, J.; and Langford, W.S.: Comparisons Between Prematurely and Maturely Born Children at Three Age Levels , Amer J Orthopsychiat 36:616-628, 1966.Crossref 45. Lane, E., and Albee, G.: Early Childhood Intellectual Differences Between Schizophrenic Adults and Their Siblings , J Abnorm Soc Psychol 68:193-195, 1964.Crossref 46. White, R.: " Ego and Reality in Psychoanalytic Theory, A Proposal Regarding Independent Ego Energies ," in Psychological Issues New York: International Universities Press, 1963, vol 3, No. 3. 47. Prout, C., and White, M.: The Schizophrenic's Sibling , J Nerv Ment Dis 123:162-170, 1956.Crossref 48. Planansky, K.: Schizoidness in Twins , Acta Genet Med Roma 15:151-166, 1966. 49. Lu, Y.: Mother-Child Role Relations in Schizophrenia: A Comparison of Schizophrenic Patients With Non-Schizophrenic Siblings , Psychiatry 24:133-142, 1961. 50. McGhie, A.: A Comparative Study of the Mother-Child Relationship in Schizophrenia , Brit J Med Psychol 34:195-221, 1961.Crossref 51. Pollack, M., et al: Childhood Development Patterns of Hospitalized Adult Schizophrenic and Non-Schizophrenic Patients and Their Siblings , Amer J Orthopsychiat 36:510-517, 1966.Crossref 52. Fleming, P.: Emotional Antecedents of Schizophrenia: Inner Experiences of Children and Adolescents Who Were Later Hospitalized for Schizophrenia, read before the Conference on Life History Research in Psychopathology, New York, May 12, 1967. 53. Mednick, S., and Schulsinger, F.: A Pre-Schizophrenic Sample , Acta Psychiat Scand 40:( (supp1 180) )135-146, 1964.Crossref 54. Bender, L.: " Twenty Years of Clinical Research on Schizophrenic Children With Special Reference to Those Under Six Years of Age ," in Caplan, G. (ed.): Emotional Problems of Early Childhood , New York: Basic Books, 1955. 55. Goldfarb, W.: Childhood Schizophrenia , New York: Harvard University Press, 1961. 56. Vorster, D.: An Investigation Into the Part Played by Organic Factors in Childhood Schizophrenia , J Ment Sci 106:494-522, 1960. 57. Wynne, L., et al: Pseudo-Mutuality in the Family Relations of Schizophrenics , Psychiatry 21:205-220, 1958. 58. Lidz, T., et al: Intrafamilial Environment of the Schizophrenic Patient: VI. The Transmission of Irrationality , Arch Neurol Psychiat 79:305-316, 1958.Crossref 59. Bowen, M.: " A Family Concept of Schizophrenia ," in Jackson, D.D. (ed.): The Etiology of Schizophrenia , New York: Basic Books, 1960. 60. Jackson, D.: The Etiology of Schizophrenia , New York: Basic Books, Inc., 1960. 61. Laing, R., and Estron, A.: Sanity, Madness and the Family , London: Tavistock Publications Ltd., 1964.

Journal

Archives of General PsychiatryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Dec 1, 1967

References