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Drugs, Drinking, and Adolescence

Drugs, Drinking, and Adolescence Abstract • Despite mounting evidence to the contrary, most physicians do not want to believe that a drug epidemic involving children from all socioeconomic classes across the country is in progress. Prevention efforts are hindered by massive denial at all levels—societal, medical, and parental. Reasons for this denial are many; among them are misconceptions about the risks of experimentation and effectiveness of drug treatment programs, and a tendency to view drug abuse as a moral rather than a health problem. The use of alcohol and other drugs is closely related to rising mortality in older adolescents, for whom the leading causes of death are accidents, suicide, and homicide. The leading causes of disability in this age range are chemical dependency and impairments related to accidents. Chemical dependency, which has trapped millions of children, is best regarded as a progressive, contagious disease that causes serious problems for young people, their families, and society. Pediatricians, well skilled in preventive medicine, must address more seriously this epidemic killer and disabler of young people whose care has been entrusted to them. (AJDC 1984;138:117-125) References 1. Bachman JG, Johnston LD, O'Malley DM: Smoking, drinking, and drug use among American high school students: Correlates and trends, 1975-1979 . Am J Public Health 1981;71:1.Crossref 2. Johnston LD, Bachman JG, O'Malley DM: Student Drug Use, Attitudes, and Beliefs: National Trends, 1975-1982 . Rockville, Md, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Division of Research, 1982. 3. Healthy People: The Surgeon General's Report on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention . US Dept of Health and Human Services publication (PHS), 1979. 4. Jones KL, Smith DW, Streissguth AP, et al: Outcome in offspring in chronic alcoholic women . Lancet 1974;1:1076.Crossref 5. Hanson JW, Streissguth AP, Smith DW: The effects of moderate alcohol consumption during pregnancy on fetal growth and morphogenesis . J Pediatr 1978;92:457-460.Crossref 6. Warner RH, Rosett AL: The effects of drinking on offspring . J Stud Alcohol 1975;36: 1395-1420. 7. Eckardt MJ, Harford TC, Kaelber CI, et al: Health hazards associated with alcohol consumption . JAMA 1981;246:648-666.Crossref 8. Jaffe JH: Drug addiction and drug abuse , in Gilman AG, Goodman LS, Goodman A (eds): The Pharmacologic Basis of Therapeutics , ed 6. New York, Macmillan Publishing Co Inc, 1980, pp 535-584. 9. Donovan SE, Jessor J: Problem Drinking Among Adolescents: A Social-Psychological Study of a National Sample, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism contract ADM 281-75-0028, 1976. 10. Alcohol-related highway fatalities among young drivers: United States . MMWR 1982;31: 641-644. 11. Turner CE: The Marijuana Controversy . Rockville, Md, American Council for Drug Education, 1981. 12. Tashkin DP, Cohen S: Marijuana Smoking and Its Effects on the Lungs . Rockville, Md, American Council for Drug Education, 1981. 13. Smith CG, Asch RH: Marijuana and Reproduction . Rockville, Md, American Council for Drug Education, 1982. 14. Copeland KC, Underwood LE, VanWyk JJ: Marijuana smoking and pubertal arrest . N Engl J Med 1980;96:1079-1080. 15. Harmon J, Aliapouluis MA: Gynecomastia in marijuana users . N Engl J Med 1972;287:936. 16. Hembree WC III, Zeidenberg P, Nahas GG: Marijuana's effect on human gonadal function , in Nahas GG, Paton WDM (eds): Marijuana, Biological Effects: Analysis, Metabolism, Cellular Responses, Reproduction and Brain . New York, Pergamon Press, 1979, pp 521-532. 17. Munson AE, Fehr KP: Immunological effects of cannabis , in Fehr KO, Kalant H (eds): Cannabis and Health Hazards: Proceedings of the ARFIWHO Scientific Meeting on Adverse Health and Behavioral Consequences of Cannabis Use . Toronto, The Addiction Research Foundation, 1982, p 257. 18. Ader R, Grota LJ: Immunosuppressive effect of tetrahydrocannabinol plus cyclophosphamide . N Engl J Med 1981;305:463. 19. Hepler RS, Frank IM, Ungerleider JT: Pupillary constriction after marijuana smoking . Am J Ophthalmol 1972;74:1185-1190. 20. Tennant FS Jr: Clinical toxicology of cannabis use , in Fehr KO, Kalant H (eds): Cannabis and Health Hazards: Proceedings of the ARFI WHO Scientific Meeting on Adverse Health and Behavioral Consequences of Cannabis Use . Toronto, The Addiction Research Foundation, 1982, p 69. 21. Klonoff H: Acute psychological effects of marijuana in man, including acute cognitive, psychomotor and perceptual effects on driving , in Fehr KO, Kalant H (eds): Cannabis and Health Hazards: Proceedings of the ARFIWHO Scientific Meeting on Adverse Health and Behavioral Consequences of Cannabis Use . Toronto, The Addiction Research Foundation, 1982, p 433. 22. Sharma S, Moskowitz H: Marijuana dose study of vigilance performance. Read before the 81st Annual Conference of the American Psychological Association, Montreal, Aug 27-31, 1973. 23. Moskowitz H, Sharma S, McGlothlin W: The effects of marijuana upon peripheral vision as a function of the information processing demands upon central vision . Percept Mot Skills 1972;35:875-882.Crossref 24. Moskowitz H, Peterson R: Marijuana and Driving: A Review . Rockville, Md, American Council for Drug Education, 1982. 25. Chapman LF, Sassenrath EN, Goo GP: Social behavior of rhesus monkeys chronically exposed to moderate amounts of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol , in Nahas GG, Paton WDM (eds): Marijuana: Biological Effects, Advances in Biosciences . New York, Pergamon Press, 1979, vol 22-23, pp 693-710. 26. Golub MD, Sassenrath EN, Chapman ZF: An analysis of altered attention in monkeys exposed to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol during development . Neurobehav Toxicol Teratol 1982; 4:469-472. 27. McGahan JP, Dublin AB, Sassenrath E: Computed tomography of the brains of rhesus monkeys after long term delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol treatment. Read before the 67th Scientific Assembly and Annual Meeting of the Radiological Society of North America, Chicago, Nov 15-20, 1981. 28. Heath RG, Fitzjarrell AT, Fontana CJ, et al: Cannabis sativa: Effects of brain function and ultrastructure in rhesus monkeys . Biol Psychiatry 1980;15:657-690. 29. Heath RG: Marijuana and the Brain . Rockville, Md, American Council for Drug Education, 1981. 30. Russell GK: Marijuana Today . New York, The Myron Institute for Adult Education, 1982. 31. Cohen S: Cocaine Today . Rockville, Md, American Council for Drug Education, 1981. 32. Thompson T, Pickens R: Stimulant self-administration by animals: Some comparisons with opiate self-administration . Fed Proc 1970; 29:6-12. 33. Wilford BB (ed): Drug Abuse: A Guide for the Primary Care Physician . Chicago, American Medical Association, 1981. 34. American Psychiatric Association, Committee on Nomenclature and Statistics: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , ed 3. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 1980. 35. Johnson VE: I'll Quit Tomorrow . New York, Harper & Row Publishers Inc, 1980. 36. Jeri FR: The coca paste epidemic in South America , in Petersen RC, Cohen S, Jeri FR, et al (eds): Cocaine: A Second Look . Rockville, Md, American Council for Drug Education, 1983, pp 23-31. 37. Macdonald DI: Drugs, Drinking, and Adolescents. Chicago, Year Book Medical Publishers, in press. 38. Macdonald DI, Newton M: The clinical syndrome of adolescent drug abuse . Adv Pediatr 1981;25:1-25. 39. Newton M: Gone Way Down: Teenage Drug Use Is a Disease . Chicago, American Studies Press, 1981. 40. Hochman JS, Brill NO: Chronic marijuana use and psychological adaptation . Am J Psychiatry 1973;130:132-140. 41. Malcolm A: The amotivational syndrome: An appraisal . Addiction 1976;23:28. 42. Cohen S: Cannabis: Effects on adolescent motivation , in Marijuana and Youth: Clinical Observations on Motivation and Learning , publication (ADM) 82-1186. Rockville, Md, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Dept of Health and Human Services, 1982, pp 2-10. 43. Kaplan HI, Sadock BJ: Eric Erikson in theories of personality and psychopathology: Other schools , in Kaplan HI, Freedman AM, Sadock BJ (eds): Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry . Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Co, 1980, vol 3, pp 798-805. 44. Gruenberg EM: The social breakdown syndrome and its prevention , in Caplan G (ed): American Handbook of Psychiatry: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry , Sociocultural and Community Psychiatry, II, ed 2, New York, Basic Books Inc, 1974, pp 697-710. 45. Lamb HR: Young adult chronic patients: The new drifters . Hosp Community Psychiatry 1982;33:465-468. 46. Schwartz SR, Goldfinger SM: The new chronic patient: Clinical characteristics of an emerging subgroup : Hosp Community Psychiatry 1981;32:470-474. 47. Sheets JL, Prevost JA, Reihman J: Young adult chronic patients: Three hypothesized subgroups . Hosp Community Psychiatry 1982;33: 197-201. 48. Bachrach LL: Young adult chronic patients: An analytical review of the literature . Hosp Community Psychiatry 1982;33:189-197. 49. Pepper B, Kirshner MC, Rygleqicz H: The young adult chronic population: Overview of a population . Hosp Community Psychiatry 1981; 32:436-469. 50. Moore RS, Hofmann AD (eds): American Academy of Pediatrics: Conference on Consent and Confidentiality in Adolescent Health Care . Evanston, Ill, American Academy of Pediatrics, 1982. 51. Long WA, Brown RC, Ice AM, et al: The role of the pediatrician in substance abuse counseling , in Committee on Adolescence: American Academy of Pediatrics Policy Statement . Evanston, Ill, American Academy of Pediatrics, 1983. 52. Pendergast TJ Jr: Family characteristics associated with marijuana use among adolescents . Int J Addict 1974;9:827-839. 53. Streit F, Halsted DL, Pascale PJ: Differences among youthful users and non users of drugs based on their perceptions of parental behavior . Int J Addict 1974;9:749-755. 54. Hunt DG: Parental permissiveness as perceived by the offspring and the degree of marijuana usage among offspring . Hum Relations 1974;27:267-285.Crossref 55. Manatt M: Parents, Peers, and Pot . Rockville, Md, National Institute on Drug Abuse, 1979. 56. Westin J: The Coming Parent Revolution . Chicago, Rand McNally & Co, 1981. 57. Fishman HC: A family approach to marijuana use , in Marijuana and Youth: Clinical Observations on Motivation and Learning , publication (ADM) 82-1186. Rockville, Md, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Dept of Health and Human Services, 1982, pp 73-77. 58. Wegscheider S, Wegscheider D: Family Illness: Chemical Dependency . Crystal, Minn, Nurturing Networks, 1976. 59. Goodwin DW: Alcoholism and heredity . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1979;208:223-227. 60. Jessor R, Jessor SL: Adolescent development and the onset of drinking . J Stud Alcohol 1975;36:27-51. 61. Jessor R, Chase JA, Donovan JE: Psychosocial correlates of marijuana use and problem drinking in a national sample of adolescents . Am J Public Health 1980;70:604-613.Crossref 62. Glenn HS: The Developmental Approach to Preventing Problem Dependencies . Bethesda, Md, Family Development Institute, 1971. 63. Elkind D: Developmental structuralism of Jean Piaget , in Kaplan HI, Freedman AM, Sadock BJ (eds): Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry , Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Co, 1980, vol 2, pp 371-378. 64. Fists and Hearts: The Story of PDAP . Dallas, Palmer Drug Abuse Program, 1982. 65. DeLeon G: An intervention model , in deSilva R, DuPont RL, Russell GK (eds): Treating the Marijuana Dependent Person . Rockville, Md, American Council on Marijuana, 1981, pp 44-48. 66. Alcoholism Anonymous World Services . New York, Alcoholics Anonymous, 1955. 67. DuPont RL: Summary of treatment chapter, in Macdonald DI: Drugs, Drinking, and Adolescents. Chicago, Year Book Medical Publishers, in press. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png American Journal of Diseases of Children American Medical Association

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American Medical Association
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Copyright © 1984 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
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0002-922X
DOI
10.1001/archpedi.1984.02140400003001
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Abstract

Abstract • Despite mounting evidence to the contrary, most physicians do not want to believe that a drug epidemic involving children from all socioeconomic classes across the country is in progress. Prevention efforts are hindered by massive denial at all levels—societal, medical, and parental. Reasons for this denial are many; among them are misconceptions about the risks of experimentation and effectiveness of drug treatment programs, and a tendency to view drug abuse as a moral rather than a health problem. The use of alcohol and other drugs is closely related to rising mortality in older adolescents, for whom the leading causes of death are accidents, suicide, and homicide. The leading causes of disability in this age range are chemical dependency and impairments related to accidents. Chemical dependency, which has trapped millions of children, is best regarded as a progressive, contagious disease that causes serious problems for young people, their families, and society. Pediatricians, well skilled in preventive medicine, must address more seriously this epidemic killer and disabler of young people whose care has been entrusted to them. (AJDC 1984;138:117-125) References 1. Bachman JG, Johnston LD, O'Malley DM: Smoking, drinking, and drug use among American high school students: Correlates and trends, 1975-1979 . Am J Public Health 1981;71:1.Crossref 2. Johnston LD, Bachman JG, O'Malley DM: Student Drug Use, Attitudes, and Beliefs: National Trends, 1975-1982 . Rockville, Md, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Division of Research, 1982. 3. Healthy People: The Surgeon General's Report on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention . US Dept of Health and Human Services publication (PHS), 1979. 4. Jones KL, Smith DW, Streissguth AP, et al: Outcome in offspring in chronic alcoholic women . Lancet 1974;1:1076.Crossref 5. Hanson JW, Streissguth AP, Smith DW: The effects of moderate alcohol consumption during pregnancy on fetal growth and morphogenesis . J Pediatr 1978;92:457-460.Crossref 6. Warner RH, Rosett AL: The effects of drinking on offspring . J Stud Alcohol 1975;36: 1395-1420. 7. Eckardt MJ, Harford TC, Kaelber CI, et al: Health hazards associated with alcohol consumption . JAMA 1981;246:648-666.Crossref 8. Jaffe JH: Drug addiction and drug abuse , in Gilman AG, Goodman LS, Goodman A (eds): The Pharmacologic Basis of Therapeutics , ed 6. New York, Macmillan Publishing Co Inc, 1980, pp 535-584. 9. Donovan SE, Jessor J: Problem Drinking Among Adolescents: A Social-Psychological Study of a National Sample, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism contract ADM 281-75-0028, 1976. 10. Alcohol-related highway fatalities among young drivers: United States . MMWR 1982;31: 641-644. 11. Turner CE: The Marijuana Controversy . Rockville, Md, American Council for Drug Education, 1981. 12. Tashkin DP, Cohen S: Marijuana Smoking and Its Effects on the Lungs . Rockville, Md, American Council for Drug Education, 1981. 13. Smith CG, Asch RH: Marijuana and Reproduction . Rockville, Md, American Council for Drug Education, 1982. 14. Copeland KC, Underwood LE, VanWyk JJ: Marijuana smoking and pubertal arrest . N Engl J Med 1980;96:1079-1080. 15. Harmon J, Aliapouluis MA: Gynecomastia in marijuana users . N Engl J Med 1972;287:936. 16. Hembree WC III, Zeidenberg P, Nahas GG: Marijuana's effect on human gonadal function , in Nahas GG, Paton WDM (eds): Marijuana, Biological Effects: Analysis, Metabolism, Cellular Responses, Reproduction and Brain . New York, Pergamon Press, 1979, pp 521-532. 17. Munson AE, Fehr KP: Immunological effects of cannabis , in Fehr KO, Kalant H (eds): Cannabis and Health Hazards: Proceedings of the ARFIWHO Scientific Meeting on Adverse Health and Behavioral Consequences of Cannabis Use . Toronto, The Addiction Research Foundation, 1982, p 257. 18. Ader R, Grota LJ: Immunosuppressive effect of tetrahydrocannabinol plus cyclophosphamide . N Engl J Med 1981;305:463. 19. Hepler RS, Frank IM, Ungerleider JT: Pupillary constriction after marijuana smoking . Am J Ophthalmol 1972;74:1185-1190. 20. Tennant FS Jr: Clinical toxicology of cannabis use , in Fehr KO, Kalant H (eds): Cannabis and Health Hazards: Proceedings of the ARFI WHO Scientific Meeting on Adverse Health and Behavioral Consequences of Cannabis Use . Toronto, The Addiction Research Foundation, 1982, p 69. 21. Klonoff H: Acute psychological effects of marijuana in man, including acute cognitive, psychomotor and perceptual effects on driving , in Fehr KO, Kalant H (eds): Cannabis and Health Hazards: Proceedings of the ARFIWHO Scientific Meeting on Adverse Health and Behavioral Consequences of Cannabis Use . Toronto, The Addiction Research Foundation, 1982, p 433. 22. Sharma S, Moskowitz H: Marijuana dose study of vigilance performance. Read before the 81st Annual Conference of the American Psychological Association, Montreal, Aug 27-31, 1973. 23. Moskowitz H, Sharma S, McGlothlin W: The effects of marijuana upon peripheral vision as a function of the information processing demands upon central vision . Percept Mot Skills 1972;35:875-882.Crossref 24. Moskowitz H, Peterson R: Marijuana and Driving: A Review . Rockville, Md, American Council for Drug Education, 1982. 25. Chapman LF, Sassenrath EN, Goo GP: Social behavior of rhesus monkeys chronically exposed to moderate amounts of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol , in Nahas GG, Paton WDM (eds): Marijuana: Biological Effects, Advances in Biosciences . New York, Pergamon Press, 1979, vol 22-23, pp 693-710. 26. Golub MD, Sassenrath EN, Chapman ZF: An analysis of altered attention in monkeys exposed to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol during development . Neurobehav Toxicol Teratol 1982; 4:469-472. 27. McGahan JP, Dublin AB, Sassenrath E: Computed tomography of the brains of rhesus monkeys after long term delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol treatment. Read before the 67th Scientific Assembly and Annual Meeting of the Radiological Society of North America, Chicago, Nov 15-20, 1981. 28. Heath RG, Fitzjarrell AT, Fontana CJ, et al: Cannabis sativa: Effects of brain function and ultrastructure in rhesus monkeys . Biol Psychiatry 1980;15:657-690. 29. Heath RG: Marijuana and the Brain . Rockville, Md, American Council for Drug Education, 1981. 30. Russell GK: Marijuana Today . New York, The Myron Institute for Adult Education, 1982. 31. Cohen S: Cocaine Today . Rockville, Md, American Council for Drug Education, 1981. 32. Thompson T, Pickens R: Stimulant self-administration by animals: Some comparisons with opiate self-administration . Fed Proc 1970; 29:6-12. 33. Wilford BB (ed): Drug Abuse: A Guide for the Primary Care Physician . Chicago, American Medical Association, 1981. 34. American Psychiatric Association, Committee on Nomenclature and Statistics: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , ed 3. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 1980. 35. Johnson VE: I'll Quit Tomorrow . New York, Harper & Row Publishers Inc, 1980. 36. Jeri FR: The coca paste epidemic in South America , in Petersen RC, Cohen S, Jeri FR, et al (eds): Cocaine: A Second Look . Rockville, Md, American Council for Drug Education, 1983, pp 23-31. 37. Macdonald DI: Drugs, Drinking, and Adolescents. Chicago, Year Book Medical Publishers, in press. 38. Macdonald DI, Newton M: The clinical syndrome of adolescent drug abuse . Adv Pediatr 1981;25:1-25. 39. Newton M: Gone Way Down: Teenage Drug Use Is a Disease . Chicago, American Studies Press, 1981. 40. Hochman JS, Brill NO: Chronic marijuana use and psychological adaptation . Am J Psychiatry 1973;130:132-140. 41. Malcolm A: The amotivational syndrome: An appraisal . Addiction 1976;23:28. 42. Cohen S: Cannabis: Effects on adolescent motivation , in Marijuana and Youth: Clinical Observations on Motivation and Learning , publication (ADM) 82-1186. Rockville, Md, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Dept of Health and Human Services, 1982, pp 2-10. 43. Kaplan HI, Sadock BJ: Eric Erikson in theories of personality and psychopathology: Other schools , in Kaplan HI, Freedman AM, Sadock BJ (eds): Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry . Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Co, 1980, vol 3, pp 798-805. 44. Gruenberg EM: The social breakdown syndrome and its prevention , in Caplan G (ed): American Handbook of Psychiatry: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry , Sociocultural and Community Psychiatry, II, ed 2, New York, Basic Books Inc, 1974, pp 697-710. 45. Lamb HR: Young adult chronic patients: The new drifters . Hosp Community Psychiatry 1982;33:465-468. 46. Schwartz SR, Goldfinger SM: The new chronic patient: Clinical characteristics of an emerging subgroup : Hosp Community Psychiatry 1981;32:470-474. 47. Sheets JL, Prevost JA, Reihman J: Young adult chronic patients: Three hypothesized subgroups . Hosp Community Psychiatry 1982;33: 197-201. 48. Bachrach LL: Young adult chronic patients: An analytical review of the literature . Hosp Community Psychiatry 1982;33:189-197. 49. Pepper B, Kirshner MC, Rygleqicz H: The young adult chronic population: Overview of a population . Hosp Community Psychiatry 1981; 32:436-469. 50. Moore RS, Hofmann AD (eds): American Academy of Pediatrics: Conference on Consent and Confidentiality in Adolescent Health Care . Evanston, Ill, American Academy of Pediatrics, 1982. 51. Long WA, Brown RC, Ice AM, et al: The role of the pediatrician in substance abuse counseling , in Committee on Adolescence: American Academy of Pediatrics Policy Statement . Evanston, Ill, American Academy of Pediatrics, 1983. 52. Pendergast TJ Jr: Family characteristics associated with marijuana use among adolescents . Int J Addict 1974;9:827-839. 53. Streit F, Halsted DL, Pascale PJ: Differences among youthful users and non users of drugs based on their perceptions of parental behavior . Int J Addict 1974;9:749-755. 54. Hunt DG: Parental permissiveness as perceived by the offspring and the degree of marijuana usage among offspring . Hum Relations 1974;27:267-285.Crossref 55. Manatt M: Parents, Peers, and Pot . Rockville, Md, National Institute on Drug Abuse, 1979. 56. Westin J: The Coming Parent Revolution . Chicago, Rand McNally & Co, 1981. 57. Fishman HC: A family approach to marijuana use , in Marijuana and Youth: Clinical Observations on Motivation and Learning , publication (ADM) 82-1186. Rockville, Md, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Dept of Health and Human Services, 1982, pp 73-77. 58. Wegscheider S, Wegscheider D: Family Illness: Chemical Dependency . Crystal, Minn, Nurturing Networks, 1976. 59. Goodwin DW: Alcoholism and heredity . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1979;208:223-227. 60. Jessor R, Jessor SL: Adolescent development and the onset of drinking . J Stud Alcohol 1975;36:27-51. 61. Jessor R, Chase JA, Donovan JE: Psychosocial correlates of marijuana use and problem drinking in a national sample of adolescents . Am J Public Health 1980;70:604-613.Crossref 62. Glenn HS: The Developmental Approach to Preventing Problem Dependencies . Bethesda, Md, Family Development Institute, 1971. 63. Elkind D: Developmental structuralism of Jean Piaget , in Kaplan HI, Freedman AM, Sadock BJ (eds): Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry , Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Co, 1980, vol 2, pp 371-378. 64. Fists and Hearts: The Story of PDAP . Dallas, Palmer Drug Abuse Program, 1982. 65. DeLeon G: An intervention model , in deSilva R, DuPont RL, Russell GK (eds): Treating the Marijuana Dependent Person . Rockville, Md, American Council on Marijuana, 1981, pp 44-48. 66. Alcoholism Anonymous World Services . New York, Alcoholics Anonymous, 1955. 67. DuPont RL: Summary of treatment chapter, in Macdonald DI: Drugs, Drinking, and Adolescents. Chicago, Year Book Medical Publishers, in press.

Journal

American Journal of Diseases of ChildrenAmerican Medical Association

Published: Feb 1, 1984

References