Get 20M+ Full-Text Papers For Less Than $1.50/day. Start a 14-Day Trial for You or Your Team.

Learn More →

Drug Treatment of Canine Acral Lick: An Animal Model of Obsessive-compulsive Disorder

Drug Treatment of Canine Acral Lick: An Animal Model of Obsessive-compulsive Disorder Abstract • Canine acral lick dermatitis is a naturally occurring disorder in which excessive licking of paws or flank can produce ulcers and infection that require medical treatment. Fortytwo dogs with severe chronic canine acral lick dermatitis were treated in three double-blind crossover comparisons of clomipramine hydrochloride/desipramine hydrochloride, fluoxetine hydrochloride/fenfluramine hydrochloride, and sertraline hydrochloride/placebo. The serotonin uptake blocking drugs were clinically effective, while the other drugs were not. Based on phenomenology and pharmacological response, we propose canine acral lick dermatitis as an animal model of obsessive-compulsive disorder. References 1. Swedo S, Rapoport J, Cheslow D, Leonard H, Ayoub E, Hosier D, Wald E. High prevalence of obsessive-compulsive symptoms in patients with Sydenham's chorea . Am J Psychiatry . 1989;146:246-249. 2. Wise S, Rapoport J. Obsessive-compulsive disorder: a basal ganglia disease? In: Rapoport J, ed. Obsessive-compulsive Disorder in Children and Adolescents . Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press Inc; 1989:327-346. 3. Rapoport J. Recent advances in obsessive-compulsive disorder . Neuropsychopharmacology . 1991;5:1-10. 4. Jenike M. Drug treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder . In: Jenike M, Baer L, Minichiello W, eds. Obsessive-compulsive Disorders: Theory and Treatment . 2nd ed. St Louis, Mo: Mosby—Year Book; 1990:249-282. 5. Swedo S, Rapoport J, Leonard H, Lenane M, Cheslow D. Obsessive-compulsive disorder in children and adolescents: clinical phenomenology of 70 consecutive cases . Arch Gen Psychiatry . 1989;46:335-341.Crossref 6. Lenane M, Swedo S, Leonard H, Pauls D, Sceery W, Rapoport J. Psychiatric disorders in first-degree relatives of children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder . J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry . 1990;29:407-412.Crossref 7. Rapoport J, ed. Obsessive-compulsive Disorder in Childhood and Adolescence . Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press Inc; 1989. 8. Khanna S, Srinath S. Childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder . Psychopathology . 1988;21:254-258.Crossref 9. Honjo S, Hirano C, Murase C, Kaneko T, Sugiyama T, Ohtaka K, Aoyama T, Takei Y, Inoko K, Wakabayashi S. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms in childhood and adolescence . Acta Psychiatr Scand . 1989;80:83-91.Crossref 10. Swedo S, Leonard H, Rapoport J, Lenane M, Cheslow D, Goldberger E. Clomipramine vs desmethylimipramine treatment of trichotillomania: a double-blind comparison . N Engl J Med . 1989;321:497-501.Crossref 11. Leonard HL, Lenane M, Swedo S, Rettew D, Rapoport J. A double-blind comparison of clomipramine and desipramine treatment of severe onychophagia (nail biting) . Arch Gen Psychiatry . In press. 12. Swedo S. Rituals and releasers: an ethological model of obsessive-compulsive disorder . In: Rapoport J, ed. Obsessivecompulsive Disorder in Children and Adolescents . Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press Inc; 1989:269-289. 13. Pitman R. Animal models of compulsive behavior . Biol Psychiatry . 1989;26:189-198.Crossref 14. Insel T, Winslow J, Neurobiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder . In: Jenike M, Baer L, Minichiello W, eds. Obsessive-compulsive Disorders: Theory and Management . 2nd ed. St Louis, Mo: Mosby—Year Book; 1990:118-131. 15. Ricciardi J, Hurley E. Development of animal models of obsessive-compulsive behaviors . In: Jenike M, Baer L, Minichiello W, eds. Obsessive-compulsive Disorders: Theory and Treatment . 2nd ed. St Louis, Mo: Mosby—Year Book; 1990:189-199. 16. Sandberg P, Emerich D. Neural basis of behavior: animal models of human conditions . Brain Res Bull . 1990;25:447-451.Crossref 17. Muller G, Kirk R, Scott D. Psychogenic dermatoses . In: Muller G, Kirk R, Scott D, eds. Small Animal Dermatology . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: WB Saunders Co; 1983:625-635. 18. Young MS, Manning TO. Psychogenic dermatosis . Dermatol Rep . 1984;3:1-8. 19. Veith V. Behavioral disorders . In: Davis L, ed. Handbook of Small Animal Therapeutics . New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone Inc; 1985:519-535. 20. Veith L. Acral lick dermatitis in the dog . Canine Pract . 1986;3:15-22. 21. Goldberger E, Rapoport J. Canine acral lick dermatitis: response to the anti-obsessional drug clomipramine . J Am Anim Hosp Assoc . 1991;22:179-182. 22. Zohar J. Obsessive-compulsive disorder: psychobiological approaches to diagnosis, treatment and pathophysiology . Biol Psychiatry . 1987;22:667-687.Crossref 23. Piggott T, Zohar J, Hill H, Berstein S, Grover G, Zohar-Kaduch R, Murphy D. Metergoline blocks and behavioral and neuroendocrine effects of orally administered m-chlorophenylpiperazine in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder . Biol Psychiatry . 1991;29:418-426.Crossref 24. SAS Institute. User's Guide: Statistics Version 5. Cary, NC: SAS Institute; 1985. 25. Green A. Neuropharmacology of Serotonin . New York, NY: Oxford University Press Inc; 1985. 26. Sanders-Bush E, ed. The Serotonin Receptors . Clifton, NJ: Humana Press; 1988. 27. Jacobs B, Wilkinson L, Fornal C. The role of brain serotonin: a neurophysiologic perspective . Neuropsychopharmacology . 1990;3: 473-479. 28. Hollander E, Fay M, Cohen B, Campeas R, Gorman J, Liebowitz M. Serotonergic and noradrenergic sensitivity in obsessive-compulsive disorder: behavioral findings . Am J Psychiatry . 1988;145:1015-1017. 29. McBride PA, DeMaeo MD, Sweeney JA, Halper J, Mann JJ, Shear MK. Neuroendocrine and behavioral responses to challenge with the indirect serotonin agonist dl-fenfluramine in adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder . Biol Psychiatry . 1992;31:19-34.Crossref 30. Caccia S, Ballabio G, Guiso M, Rocchetti, Garattini S. Species differences in the kinetics and metabolism of fenfluramine isomers . Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther . 1982;258:15-28. 31. Gilbert D, Franko B, Ward J, Woodward G, Courtney K. Toxicologic studies of fenfluramine . Toxicol Appl Pharmacol . 1971;19:705-711.Crossref 32. Borroni E, Ceci A, Garattini S, Mennini T. Differences between d-fenfluramine and d-norfenfluramine in serotonin presynaptic mechanism . J Neurochem . 1983;40:891-893.Crossref 33. Cleinschmidt B, McGuffin J. Pharmacological differentiation of the central 5-hydroxtryptamine—like actions of MD-212, p-methocyamphetamine, and fenfluramine in an in vivo model system . Eur J Pharmacol . 1978;50:369.Crossref 34. Costa E, Gropetti A, Revuelta A. Action of fenfluramine on monoamine stores of rat tissue . Br J Pharmacol . 1971;41:57-64.Crossref 35. Garrattini S, Buczko W, Jori A, Saminin R. The mechanism of action of fenfluramine . Postgrad Med J . 1975;51( (suppl) ):27-35. 36. Reuter C. A review of the CNS effects of fenfluramine, and norfenfluramine on animals and man . Postgrad Med J . 1975;51( (suppl) ):18-27.Crossref 37. Chouinard F, Goodman W, Greist J, Jenike M, Rasmussen S, White K, Hackett E, Gaffrey M, Bick P. Results of a double-blind controlled trial of a new serotonin uptake inhibitor, sertraline, in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder . Psychopharmacol Bull . 1990;26:270-284. 38. Holland H. Displacement activity as a form of abnormal behavior in animals . In: Beech H, ed. Obsessional States . London, England: Methuen & Co Ltd; 1974:161-173. 39. McKinney W, Bunney W. Animal models of depression: review of evidence and implications for research . Arch Gen Psychiatry . 1969;21:240-248.Crossref 40. Wilner P. Validation criteria for animal models of human mental disorders: learned helplessness as a paradigm case . Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry . 1986;10:677-690.Crossref 41. Dodman N, Shuster L, White S, Court M, Parker D, Dixon R. Use of narcotic antagonists to modify stereotypic self-lick, self-chewing, and scratching behavior in dogs . J Am Vet Med Assoc . 1988;193:815-819. 42. Insel T, Pickar D. Naloxone administration in obsessive-compulsive disorder: report of two cases . Am J Psychiatry . 1983; 80:1219-1220. 43. Sandyk R. Naloxone obliterates obsessive-compulsive disorder in Tourette's syndrome . Int J Neurosci . 1987;35:93-94.Crossref 44. Goodman W, McDougle C, Price L, Riddle M, Pauls D, Leckman J. Beyond the serotonin hypothesis: a role for dopamine in some forms of obsessive-compulsive disorder? J Clin Psychiatry . 1990;51( (suppl 8) ):36-43. 45. Lucki I, Kucharick R. Selective enhancement of grooming behavior by the D-1 agonist SKF 3893 in rats following the destruction of serotonin neurons . Ann N Y Acad Sci . 1988;525:420-422.Crossref 46. Joffe R, Swinson R. Methylphenidate in primary obsessive-compulsive disorder . J Clin Psychopharmacol . 1987;7:420-422.Crossref 47. Insel T, Hamilton J, Guttmacher L, Murphy D. D-Amphetamine in obsessive-compulsive disorder . Psychopharmacology (Berl) . 1983;80: 231-235.Crossref 48. Henn F, McKinney W. Animal models in psychiatry . In: Meltzer H, ed. Psychopharmacology: The Third Generation of Progress . New York, NY: Raven Press; 1987:687-696.. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of General Psychiatry American Medical Association

Drug Treatment of Canine Acral Lick: An Animal Model of Obsessive-compulsive Disorder

Loading next page...
 
/lp/american-medical-association/drug-treatment-of-canine-acral-lick-an-animal-model-of-obsessive-5AF5BLerlW
Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1992 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-990X
eISSN
1598-3636
DOI
10.1001/archpsyc.1992.01820070011002
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract • Canine acral lick dermatitis is a naturally occurring disorder in which excessive licking of paws or flank can produce ulcers and infection that require medical treatment. Fortytwo dogs with severe chronic canine acral lick dermatitis were treated in three double-blind crossover comparisons of clomipramine hydrochloride/desipramine hydrochloride, fluoxetine hydrochloride/fenfluramine hydrochloride, and sertraline hydrochloride/placebo. The serotonin uptake blocking drugs were clinically effective, while the other drugs were not. Based on phenomenology and pharmacological response, we propose canine acral lick dermatitis as an animal model of obsessive-compulsive disorder. References 1. Swedo S, Rapoport J, Cheslow D, Leonard H, Ayoub E, Hosier D, Wald E. High prevalence of obsessive-compulsive symptoms in patients with Sydenham's chorea . Am J Psychiatry . 1989;146:246-249. 2. Wise S, Rapoport J. Obsessive-compulsive disorder: a basal ganglia disease? In: Rapoport J, ed. Obsessive-compulsive Disorder in Children and Adolescents . Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press Inc; 1989:327-346. 3. Rapoport J. Recent advances in obsessive-compulsive disorder . Neuropsychopharmacology . 1991;5:1-10. 4. Jenike M. Drug treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder . In: Jenike M, Baer L, Minichiello W, eds. Obsessive-compulsive Disorders: Theory and Treatment . 2nd ed. St Louis, Mo: Mosby—Year Book; 1990:249-282. 5. Swedo S, Rapoport J, Leonard H, Lenane M, Cheslow D. Obsessive-compulsive disorder in children and adolescents: clinical phenomenology of 70 consecutive cases . Arch Gen Psychiatry . 1989;46:335-341.Crossref 6. Lenane M, Swedo S, Leonard H, Pauls D, Sceery W, Rapoport J. Psychiatric disorders in first-degree relatives of children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder . J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry . 1990;29:407-412.Crossref 7. Rapoport J, ed. Obsessive-compulsive Disorder in Childhood and Adolescence . Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press Inc; 1989. 8. Khanna S, Srinath S. Childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder . Psychopathology . 1988;21:254-258.Crossref 9. Honjo S, Hirano C, Murase C, Kaneko T, Sugiyama T, Ohtaka K, Aoyama T, Takei Y, Inoko K, Wakabayashi S. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms in childhood and adolescence . Acta Psychiatr Scand . 1989;80:83-91.Crossref 10. Swedo S, Leonard H, Rapoport J, Lenane M, Cheslow D, Goldberger E. Clomipramine vs desmethylimipramine treatment of trichotillomania: a double-blind comparison . N Engl J Med . 1989;321:497-501.Crossref 11. Leonard HL, Lenane M, Swedo S, Rettew D, Rapoport J. A double-blind comparison of clomipramine and desipramine treatment of severe onychophagia (nail biting) . Arch Gen Psychiatry . In press. 12. Swedo S. Rituals and releasers: an ethological model of obsessive-compulsive disorder . In: Rapoport J, ed. Obsessivecompulsive Disorder in Children and Adolescents . Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press Inc; 1989:269-289. 13. Pitman R. Animal models of compulsive behavior . Biol Psychiatry . 1989;26:189-198.Crossref 14. Insel T, Winslow J, Neurobiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder . In: Jenike M, Baer L, Minichiello W, eds. Obsessive-compulsive Disorders: Theory and Management . 2nd ed. St Louis, Mo: Mosby—Year Book; 1990:118-131. 15. Ricciardi J, Hurley E. Development of animal models of obsessive-compulsive behaviors . In: Jenike M, Baer L, Minichiello W, eds. Obsessive-compulsive Disorders: Theory and Treatment . 2nd ed. St Louis, Mo: Mosby—Year Book; 1990:189-199. 16. Sandberg P, Emerich D. Neural basis of behavior: animal models of human conditions . Brain Res Bull . 1990;25:447-451.Crossref 17. Muller G, Kirk R, Scott D. Psychogenic dermatoses . In: Muller G, Kirk R, Scott D, eds. Small Animal Dermatology . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: WB Saunders Co; 1983:625-635. 18. Young MS, Manning TO. Psychogenic dermatosis . Dermatol Rep . 1984;3:1-8. 19. Veith V. Behavioral disorders . In: Davis L, ed. Handbook of Small Animal Therapeutics . New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone Inc; 1985:519-535. 20. Veith L. Acral lick dermatitis in the dog . Canine Pract . 1986;3:15-22. 21. Goldberger E, Rapoport J. Canine acral lick dermatitis: response to the anti-obsessional drug clomipramine . J Am Anim Hosp Assoc . 1991;22:179-182. 22. Zohar J. Obsessive-compulsive disorder: psychobiological approaches to diagnosis, treatment and pathophysiology . Biol Psychiatry . 1987;22:667-687.Crossref 23. Piggott T, Zohar J, Hill H, Berstein S, Grover G, Zohar-Kaduch R, Murphy D. Metergoline blocks and behavioral and neuroendocrine effects of orally administered m-chlorophenylpiperazine in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder . Biol Psychiatry . 1991;29:418-426.Crossref 24. SAS Institute. User's Guide: Statistics Version 5. Cary, NC: SAS Institute; 1985. 25. Green A. Neuropharmacology of Serotonin . New York, NY: Oxford University Press Inc; 1985. 26. Sanders-Bush E, ed. The Serotonin Receptors . Clifton, NJ: Humana Press; 1988. 27. Jacobs B, Wilkinson L, Fornal C. The role of brain serotonin: a neurophysiologic perspective . Neuropsychopharmacology . 1990;3: 473-479. 28. Hollander E, Fay M, Cohen B, Campeas R, Gorman J, Liebowitz M. Serotonergic and noradrenergic sensitivity in obsessive-compulsive disorder: behavioral findings . Am J Psychiatry . 1988;145:1015-1017. 29. McBride PA, DeMaeo MD, Sweeney JA, Halper J, Mann JJ, Shear MK. Neuroendocrine and behavioral responses to challenge with the indirect serotonin agonist dl-fenfluramine in adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder . Biol Psychiatry . 1992;31:19-34.Crossref 30. Caccia S, Ballabio G, Guiso M, Rocchetti, Garattini S. Species differences in the kinetics and metabolism of fenfluramine isomers . Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther . 1982;258:15-28. 31. Gilbert D, Franko B, Ward J, Woodward G, Courtney K. Toxicologic studies of fenfluramine . Toxicol Appl Pharmacol . 1971;19:705-711.Crossref 32. Borroni E, Ceci A, Garattini S, Mennini T. Differences between d-fenfluramine and d-norfenfluramine in serotonin presynaptic mechanism . J Neurochem . 1983;40:891-893.Crossref 33. Cleinschmidt B, McGuffin J. Pharmacological differentiation of the central 5-hydroxtryptamine—like actions of MD-212, p-methocyamphetamine, and fenfluramine in an in vivo model system . Eur J Pharmacol . 1978;50:369.Crossref 34. Costa E, Gropetti A, Revuelta A. Action of fenfluramine on monoamine stores of rat tissue . Br J Pharmacol . 1971;41:57-64.Crossref 35. Garrattini S, Buczko W, Jori A, Saminin R. The mechanism of action of fenfluramine . Postgrad Med J . 1975;51( (suppl) ):27-35. 36. Reuter C. A review of the CNS effects of fenfluramine, and norfenfluramine on animals and man . Postgrad Med J . 1975;51( (suppl) ):18-27.Crossref 37. Chouinard F, Goodman W, Greist J, Jenike M, Rasmussen S, White K, Hackett E, Gaffrey M, Bick P. Results of a double-blind controlled trial of a new serotonin uptake inhibitor, sertraline, in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder . Psychopharmacol Bull . 1990;26:270-284. 38. Holland H. Displacement activity as a form of abnormal behavior in animals . In: Beech H, ed. Obsessional States . London, England: Methuen & Co Ltd; 1974:161-173. 39. McKinney W, Bunney W. Animal models of depression: review of evidence and implications for research . Arch Gen Psychiatry . 1969;21:240-248.Crossref 40. Wilner P. Validation criteria for animal models of human mental disorders: learned helplessness as a paradigm case . Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry . 1986;10:677-690.Crossref 41. Dodman N, Shuster L, White S, Court M, Parker D, Dixon R. Use of narcotic antagonists to modify stereotypic self-lick, self-chewing, and scratching behavior in dogs . J Am Vet Med Assoc . 1988;193:815-819. 42. Insel T, Pickar D. Naloxone administration in obsessive-compulsive disorder: report of two cases . Am J Psychiatry . 1983; 80:1219-1220. 43. Sandyk R. Naloxone obliterates obsessive-compulsive disorder in Tourette's syndrome . Int J Neurosci . 1987;35:93-94.Crossref 44. Goodman W, McDougle C, Price L, Riddle M, Pauls D, Leckman J. Beyond the serotonin hypothesis: a role for dopamine in some forms of obsessive-compulsive disorder? J Clin Psychiatry . 1990;51( (suppl 8) ):36-43. 45. Lucki I, Kucharick R. Selective enhancement of grooming behavior by the D-1 agonist SKF 3893 in rats following the destruction of serotonin neurons . Ann N Y Acad Sci . 1988;525:420-422.Crossref 46. Joffe R, Swinson R. Methylphenidate in primary obsessive-compulsive disorder . J Clin Psychopharmacol . 1987;7:420-422.Crossref 47. Insel T, Hamilton J, Guttmacher L, Murphy D. D-Amphetamine in obsessive-compulsive disorder . Psychopharmacology (Berl) . 1983;80: 231-235.Crossref 48. Henn F, McKinney W. Animal models in psychiatry . In: Meltzer H, ed. Psychopharmacology: The Third Generation of Progress . New York, NY: Raven Press; 1987:687-696..

Journal

Archives of General PsychiatryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Jul 1, 1992

References