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DOMINANT BRAIN WAVE FREQUENCIES AS MEASURES OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROCESSES IN CEREBRAL CORTEX

DOMINANT BRAIN WAVE FREQUENCIES AS MEASURES OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROCESSES IN CEREBRAL CORTEX Abstract IT IS now well known that the electroencephalogram is modified by a variety of factors influencing the physicochemical environment of the brain. Studies of the effects of such agents as carbon dioxide, oxygen tension, blood sugar, temperature and drugs have been made by many investigators on the measurable variables: per cent time present of the alpha activity, delta index, dominant frequency (usually the alpha frequency), wave amplitude or voltage and the form of the frequency spectrum. In this paper we point out why we believe that one of these measures is superior to the others for furnishing information about the chemical dynamics of the cortex and show why some current methods of analysis of frequencies in the electroencephalogram, while empirically interesting, must give discrepant results when compared with other methods. The most conspicuous aspect of the normal electroencephalogram is usually the alpha rhythm. This is a rhythm of a specific References 1. Hoagland, H.: Pacemakers of Human Brain Waves in Normals and in General Paretics , Am. J. Physiol. 116:604-615, 1936 2. Some Pacemaker Aspects of Rhythmic Activity in the Nervous System , in Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology, Cold Spring Harbor , N. Y., The Biological Laboratory, 1936, vol. 4, pp. 267-284. 3. Hadidian, Z., and Hoagland, H.: Chemical Pacemakers: I. Catalytic Brain Iron; II. Activation Energies of Chemical Pacemakers , J. Gen. Physiol. 23:81-99, 1939Crossref 4. III. Activation Energies of Some Rate-Limiting Components of Respiratory Systems , Hadidian J. Gen. Physiol. 24:339-352, 1941.Crossref 5. Hoagland, H.; Rubin, M. A., and Cameron, D. E.: Electroencephalogram of Schizophrenics During Insulin Hypoglycemia and Recovery , Am. J. Physiol. 120:559-570, 1937. 6. Himwich, H. E.; Hadidian, Z.; Fazekas, J. F., and Hoagland, H.: Cerebral Metabolism and Electrical Activity During Insulin Hypoglycemia in Man , Am. J. Physiol. 125:578-585, 1939. 7. Hoagland, H.; Rubin, M. A., and Cameron, D. E.: Brain Wave Frequencies and Cellular Metabolism: Effects of Dinitrophenol , J. Neurophysiol. 2:170-172, 1939. 8. Rubin, M. A.; Cohen, L. H., and Hoagland, H.: The Effect of Artificially Raised Metabolic Rate on Electroencephalogram of Schizophrenic Patients , Endocrinology 21:536-540, 1937.Crossref 9. Hoagland, H.: Chemical Pacemakers and Physiological Rhythms , in Alexander, J.: Colloid Chemistry , New York, Reinhold Publishing Corporation, 1944, vol. 5, pp. 762-785. 10. Engel, G. L.; Romano, J.; Ferris, E. B.; Webb, J. P., and Stevens, C. D.: A Simple Method of Determining Frequency Spectrums in the Electroencephalogram , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 51:134-146 ( (Feb.) ) 1944. 11. Romano, J., and Engel, G. L.: Delirium: I. Electroencephalographic Data , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 51:356-377 ( (April) ) 1944. 12. Engel, G. L., and Romano, J.: Delirium: II. Reversibility of the Electroencephalogram with Experimental Procedures , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 51:378-392 ( (April) ) 1944. 13. Engel, G. L., and Rosenbaum, M.: Delirium: III. Electroencephalographic Changes Associated with Acute Alcoholic Intoxication , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 53:44-50 ( (Jan.) ) 1945. 14. Brazier, M. A. B., and Finesinger, J. E.: Characteristics of the Normal Electroencephalogram: I. A Study of the Occipital Cortical Potentials in 500 Normal Adults , J. Clin. Investigation 23:303-311, 1944. 15. Brazier, M. A. B.; Finesinger, J. E., and Schwab, R. S.: Characteristics of the Normal Electroencephalogram: II. The Effect of Varying Blood Sugar Levels on the Occipital Cortical Potentials in Adults During Quiet Breathing , J. Clin. Investigation 23:313-317, 1944 16. III. The Effect of Varying Blood Sugar Levels on the Occipital Cortical Potentials in Adults During Hyperventilation , Brazier J. Clin. Investigation 23:319-323, 1944. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry American Medical Association

DOMINANT BRAIN WAVE FREQUENCIES AS MEASURES OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROCESSES IN CEREBRAL CORTEX

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1946 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0096-6754
DOI
10.1001/archneurpsyc.1946.02300190077006
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract IT IS now well known that the electroencephalogram is modified by a variety of factors influencing the physicochemical environment of the brain. Studies of the effects of such agents as carbon dioxide, oxygen tension, blood sugar, temperature and drugs have been made by many investigators on the measurable variables: per cent time present of the alpha activity, delta index, dominant frequency (usually the alpha frequency), wave amplitude or voltage and the form of the frequency spectrum. In this paper we point out why we believe that one of these measures is superior to the others for furnishing information about the chemical dynamics of the cortex and show why some current methods of analysis of frequencies in the electroencephalogram, while empirically interesting, must give discrepant results when compared with other methods. The most conspicuous aspect of the normal electroencephalogram is usually the alpha rhythm. This is a rhythm of a specific References 1. Hoagland, H.: Pacemakers of Human Brain Waves in Normals and in General Paretics , Am. J. Physiol. 116:604-615, 1936 2. Some Pacemaker Aspects of Rhythmic Activity in the Nervous System , in Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology, Cold Spring Harbor , N. Y., The Biological Laboratory, 1936, vol. 4, pp. 267-284. 3. Hadidian, Z., and Hoagland, H.: Chemical Pacemakers: I. Catalytic Brain Iron; II. Activation Energies of Chemical Pacemakers , J. Gen. Physiol. 23:81-99, 1939Crossref 4. III. Activation Energies of Some Rate-Limiting Components of Respiratory Systems , Hadidian J. Gen. Physiol. 24:339-352, 1941.Crossref 5. Hoagland, H.; Rubin, M. A., and Cameron, D. E.: Electroencephalogram of Schizophrenics During Insulin Hypoglycemia and Recovery , Am. J. Physiol. 120:559-570, 1937. 6. Himwich, H. E.; Hadidian, Z.; Fazekas, J. F., and Hoagland, H.: Cerebral Metabolism and Electrical Activity During Insulin Hypoglycemia in Man , Am. J. Physiol. 125:578-585, 1939. 7. Hoagland, H.; Rubin, M. A., and Cameron, D. E.: Brain Wave Frequencies and Cellular Metabolism: Effects of Dinitrophenol , J. Neurophysiol. 2:170-172, 1939. 8. Rubin, M. A.; Cohen, L. H., and Hoagland, H.: The Effect of Artificially Raised Metabolic Rate on Electroencephalogram of Schizophrenic Patients , Endocrinology 21:536-540, 1937.Crossref 9. Hoagland, H.: Chemical Pacemakers and Physiological Rhythms , in Alexander, J.: Colloid Chemistry , New York, Reinhold Publishing Corporation, 1944, vol. 5, pp. 762-785. 10. Engel, G. L.; Romano, J.; Ferris, E. B.; Webb, J. P., and Stevens, C. D.: A Simple Method of Determining Frequency Spectrums in the Electroencephalogram , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 51:134-146 ( (Feb.) ) 1944. 11. Romano, J., and Engel, G. L.: Delirium: I. Electroencephalographic Data , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 51:356-377 ( (April) ) 1944. 12. Engel, G. L., and Romano, J.: Delirium: II. Reversibility of the Electroencephalogram with Experimental Procedures , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 51:378-392 ( (April) ) 1944. 13. Engel, G. L., and Rosenbaum, M.: Delirium: III. Electroencephalographic Changes Associated with Acute Alcoholic Intoxication , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 53:44-50 ( (Jan.) ) 1945. 14. Brazier, M. A. B., and Finesinger, J. E.: Characteristics of the Normal Electroencephalogram: I. A Study of the Occipital Cortical Potentials in 500 Normal Adults , J. Clin. Investigation 23:303-311, 1944. 15. Brazier, M. A. B.; Finesinger, J. E., and Schwab, R. S.: Characteristics of the Normal Electroencephalogram: II. The Effect of Varying Blood Sugar Levels on the Occipital Cortical Potentials in Adults During Quiet Breathing , J. Clin. Investigation 23:313-317, 1944 16. III. The Effect of Varying Blood Sugar Levels on the Occipital Cortical Potentials in Adults During Hyperventilation , Brazier J. Clin. Investigation 23:319-323, 1944.

Journal

Archives of Neurology & PsychiatryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Aug 1, 1946

References