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Diurnal Variations in the Cerebral Evoked Response and EEG: Relations to 17-Hydroxycorticosteroid Levels

Diurnal Variations in the Cerebral Evoked Response and EEG: Relations to 17-Hydroxycorticosteroid... Abstract ALTHOUGH there are many direct effects of 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (170HS) on the central nervous system (CNS),1 a diurnal change in CNS activity produced by a diurnal change in blood 170HS levels has not been demonstrated. In animals, 170HS increase brain excitability,1,2 lower seizure thresholds,1,2 increase behavioral and electrical arousal,2-4 increase amplitudes and decrease latencies of evoked responses in several multisynaptic pathways,2,5 and alter free-operant avoidance behavior.6 Single unit studies are more complex as they demonstrate both excitation and inhibition following cortisol (hydrocortisone).7,8 In humans, 17OHS often alter the electroencephalogram and increase seizure frequency.9,10 In adrenal insufficiency, 17OHS normalize the EEG,11 the low olfactory,12 gustatory,13 and auditory detection thresholds,14 and shorten the latency of the visual evoked response.15 A significant positive correlation has been reported between urinary 170HS levels and seizures in one case16 and References 1. Woodbury, D.M., and Vernadakis, A.: " Effects of Steroids on the Central Nervous System ," in Dorfman, R.I. (ed.): Methods in Hormone Research , New York: Academic Press, Inc., 1966, vol 5, pp 1-57. 2. Feldman, S., and Davidson, J.M.: Effect of Hydrocortisone on Electrical Activity, Arousal Thresholds and Evoked Potentials in the Brains of Chronically Implanted Rabbits , J Neurol Sci 3:462-472 ( (Jan-Feb) ) 1966.Crossref 3. Shimada, T.: Effect of a Large Dose of Dexamethasone, A Synthetic Adrenocortical Hormone, on the Electroencephalogram in Rabbits With Electrodes Chronically Implanted in the Brain , Folia Psychiat Neurol Jap 29( (pt 1) ):45-55, 1966.Crossref 4. Shimada, T.: Electroencephalographic Studies on Hydrocortisone and Desoxycorticosterone With Special Reference to the Action of Physostigmine and Strychnine in the Rabbit , Jap J Pharmacol 17:240-246 ( (June) ) 1967.Crossref 5. Chambers, W.F.; Freedman, S.L.; and Sawyer, C.H.: The Effect of Adrenal Steroids on Evoked Reticular Responses , Exp Neurol 8:458-469 ( (Dec) ) 1963.Crossref 6. Wertheim, G.A.; Connor, R.L.; and Levine, S.: Adrenocortical Influences on Free-operant Avoidance Behavior , J Exp Anal Behav 10:555-63 ( (Nov) ) 1967.Crossref 7. Slusher, M.A.; Hyde, J.E.; and Laufer, M.: Effect of Intracerebral Hydrocortisone on Unit Activity of Diencephalon and Midbrain in Cats , J Neurophysiol 29:157-169 ( (March) ) 1966. 8. Feldman, S., and Dafny, N.: Effect of Hydrocortisone on Single Cell Activity in the Anterior Hypothalamus , Israel J Med Sci 2:621-623 ( (Sept-Oct) ) 1966. 9. Glaser, G.H.: " The Pituitary Gland in Relation to Cerebral Metabolism and Metabolic Disorders of the Nervous System ," in Merritt, H.H., and Hare, C.C. (ed.): Metabolic and Toxic Diseases of the Nervous System , Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins Co., 1953, pp 21-39. 10. Glaser, G.H.; Kornfeld, D.S.; and Knight, R.P., Jr.: Intravenous Hydrocortisone, Corticotropin and the Electroencephalogram , Arch Neurol and Psychiat 73:338-344 ( (March) ) 1955.Crossref 11. Friedlander, W.J. and Rottger, E.: The Effect of Cortisone on the Electroencephalogram , Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 3:311-313 ( (Aug) ) 1951.Crossref 12. Henkin, R.I., and Bartter, F.C.: Studies on Olfactory Thresholds in Normal Man and in Patients with Adrenal Cortical Insufficiency: The Role of Adrenal Cortical Steroids and of Serum Sodium Concentration , J Clin Invest 45:1631-1639 ( (Oct) ) 1966.Crossref 13. Henkin, R.I.; Gill, J.R., Jr.; and Bartter, F.C.: Studies on Taste Thresholds in Normal Man and in Patients With Adrenal Cortical Insufficiency: The Role of Adrenal Cortical Steroids and of Serum Sodium Concentration , J Clin Invest 42:727-735 ( (May) ) 1963.Crossref 14. Henkin, R.I., et al: Studies on Auditory Thresholds in Normal Man and in Patients With Adrenal Cortical Insufficiency: The Role of Adrenal Cortical Steroids , J Clin Invest 46:429-435 ( (March) ) 1967.Crossref 15. Ojemann, A., and Henkin, R.I.: Steroid Dependent Changes in Human Visual Evoked Potentials , Life Sciences 6:327-334 ( (Feb) ) 1967.Crossref 16. Raher, J.; Ganis, G.M.; and Shaffer, J.W.: Intercorrelations Between Affect, Urinary 17-Hydroxycorticosteroid Levels, and Epileptic Convulsions , Psychosom Med 29:144-150 ( (March-April) ) 1967.Crossref 17. Murawski, B.J., and Burns, S.K.: Daily Correlation of Adrenal Steroids and Alpha Frequency in the EEG: A Demonstration , J Appl Physiol 21:549-553 ( (March) ) 1966. 18. Davis, W.M., and Webb, O.L.: A Circadian Rhythm of Chemo-Convulsive Response Thresholds in Mice , Med Exp 9:263-267, 1963. 19. Webb, O.L., and Russell, R.L.: Diurnal Chemo-Convulsive Responses and Central Inhibition , Arch Int Pharmacodyn 159:471-476 ( (Feb) ) 1966. 20. Aantaa, E., and Elenius, V.: Diurnal Variation in the Amplitude of the Corneo-Fundal Potential , Pract Otorhinolaryng 30:245-247 ( (Oct) ) 1968. 21. Frank, G., et al: Circadian Periodicity, Adrenal Corticosteroids, and the EEG of Normal Man , J Psychiat Res 4:73-86 ( (Nov) ) 1966.Crossref 22. Murawski, B.J.; Reddy, W.J.; and Fox, H.M.: Relationship of Adrenal Cortical Function to Flicker Fusion Thresholds , J Appl Physiol 11:468-474 ( (May) ) 1957. 23. Sollberger, A.: Biological Rhythms Research , New York: Elsevier Publishing Co., 1965. 24. Klein, K.E.; Wegmann, H.M.; and Bruner, H.: Circadian Rhythm in Indices of Human Performance, Physical Fitness and Stress Resistance , Aerospace Med 39:512-518 ( (May 5) ) 1968. 25. Danowski, T.S., et al: Hydrocortisone and/or Desiccated Thyroid in Physiologic Dosage, XVIII: Dexamethasone, Plasma Corticosteroids, and Response to ACTH , Metabolism 15:304-309 ( (April) ) 1966.Crossref 26. Mattingly, D.: A Simple Fluorometric Method for Estimation of Free 17-Hydroxycorticoids in Human Plasma , J Clin Path 15:374-379 ( (July) ) 1962.Crossref 27. Silber, R.H., and Porter, C.C.: " Determination of 17-, 21-dehydroxy 20-Ketosteroids in Urine and Plasma " in Glick, D. (ed.): Methods in Biochemical Analysis , New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1957, vol 4, pp 139-169. 28. Landon, J., et al: Threshold Adrenocortical Sensitivity in Man and its Possible Application to Corticotrophin Bioassay , Lancet 2:697-700 ( (Sept 30) ) 1967.Crossref 29. Wilkinson, R.T., and Morlock, H.C.: Auditory Evoked Responses and Reaction Time , Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 23:50-56 ( (July) ) 1967.Crossref 30. Nishitani, H., and Kooi, K.A.: Cerebral Evoked Responses in Hypothyroidism , Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 24:554-560 ( (June) ) 1968.Crossref 31. Goff, W.R, et al: Cerebral Somatosensory Responses Evoked During Sleep in Man , Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 21:1-9 ( (July) ) 1966.Crossref 32. Allison, T., et al: The Effects of Barbiturate Anesthesia Upon Human Somatosensory Evoked Responses , Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 24 ( (suppl) ):68-75, 1963. 33. Shagass, C., and Trusty, D.M.: Somatosensory and Visual Cerebral Evoked Response Changes During Sleep , Recent Advances Biol Psychiat 8:321-334, 1966. 34. Shagass, C.: "Pharmacology of Evoked Potentials in Man," in Efron, D.H. (ed.): Psychopharmacology: A Review of Progress, Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1968, pp 483-492. 35. Cracco, Q.R., and Bickford, R.G.: Somatomotor and Somatosensory Evoked Responses: Median Nerve Stimulation in Man , Arch Neurol 18:52-68 ( (Jan) ) 1968.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Neurology American Medical Association

Diurnal Variations in the Cerebral Evoked Response and EEG: Relations to 17-Hydroxycorticosteroid Levels

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1969 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-9942
eISSN
1538-3687
DOI
10.1001/archneur.1969.00480150120015
Publisher site
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Abstract

Abstract ALTHOUGH there are many direct effects of 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (170HS) on the central nervous system (CNS),1 a diurnal change in CNS activity produced by a diurnal change in blood 170HS levels has not been demonstrated. In animals, 170HS increase brain excitability,1,2 lower seizure thresholds,1,2 increase behavioral and electrical arousal,2-4 increase amplitudes and decrease latencies of evoked responses in several multisynaptic pathways,2,5 and alter free-operant avoidance behavior.6 Single unit studies are more complex as they demonstrate both excitation and inhibition following cortisol (hydrocortisone).7,8 In humans, 17OHS often alter the electroencephalogram and increase seizure frequency.9,10 In adrenal insufficiency, 17OHS normalize the EEG,11 the low olfactory,12 gustatory,13 and auditory detection thresholds,14 and shorten the latency of the visual evoked response.15 A significant positive correlation has been reported between urinary 170HS levels and seizures in one case16 and References 1. Woodbury, D.M., and Vernadakis, A.: " Effects of Steroids on the Central Nervous System ," in Dorfman, R.I. (ed.): Methods in Hormone Research , New York: Academic Press, Inc., 1966, vol 5, pp 1-57. 2. Feldman, S., and Davidson, J.M.: Effect of Hydrocortisone on Electrical Activity, Arousal Thresholds and Evoked Potentials in the Brains of Chronically Implanted Rabbits , J Neurol Sci 3:462-472 ( (Jan-Feb) ) 1966.Crossref 3. Shimada, T.: Effect of a Large Dose of Dexamethasone, A Synthetic Adrenocortical Hormone, on the Electroencephalogram in Rabbits With Electrodes Chronically Implanted in the Brain , Folia Psychiat Neurol Jap 29( (pt 1) ):45-55, 1966.Crossref 4. Shimada, T.: Electroencephalographic Studies on Hydrocortisone and Desoxycorticosterone With Special Reference to the Action of Physostigmine and Strychnine in the Rabbit , Jap J Pharmacol 17:240-246 ( (June) ) 1967.Crossref 5. Chambers, W.F.; Freedman, S.L.; and Sawyer, C.H.: The Effect of Adrenal Steroids on Evoked Reticular Responses , Exp Neurol 8:458-469 ( (Dec) ) 1963.Crossref 6. Wertheim, G.A.; Connor, R.L.; and Levine, S.: Adrenocortical Influences on Free-operant Avoidance Behavior , J Exp Anal Behav 10:555-63 ( (Nov) ) 1967.Crossref 7. Slusher, M.A.; Hyde, J.E.; and Laufer, M.: Effect of Intracerebral Hydrocortisone on Unit Activity of Diencephalon and Midbrain in Cats , J Neurophysiol 29:157-169 ( (March) ) 1966. 8. Feldman, S., and Dafny, N.: Effect of Hydrocortisone on Single Cell Activity in the Anterior Hypothalamus , Israel J Med Sci 2:621-623 ( (Sept-Oct) ) 1966. 9. Glaser, G.H.: " The Pituitary Gland in Relation to Cerebral Metabolism and Metabolic Disorders of the Nervous System ," in Merritt, H.H., and Hare, C.C. (ed.): Metabolic and Toxic Diseases of the Nervous System , Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins Co., 1953, pp 21-39. 10. Glaser, G.H.; Kornfeld, D.S.; and Knight, R.P., Jr.: Intravenous Hydrocortisone, Corticotropin and the Electroencephalogram , Arch Neurol and Psychiat 73:338-344 ( (March) ) 1955.Crossref 11. Friedlander, W.J. and Rottger, E.: The Effect of Cortisone on the Electroencephalogram , Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 3:311-313 ( (Aug) ) 1951.Crossref 12. Henkin, R.I., and Bartter, F.C.: Studies on Olfactory Thresholds in Normal Man and in Patients with Adrenal Cortical Insufficiency: The Role of Adrenal Cortical Steroids and of Serum Sodium Concentration , J Clin Invest 45:1631-1639 ( (Oct) ) 1966.Crossref 13. Henkin, R.I.; Gill, J.R., Jr.; and Bartter, F.C.: Studies on Taste Thresholds in Normal Man and in Patients With Adrenal Cortical Insufficiency: The Role of Adrenal Cortical Steroids and of Serum Sodium Concentration , J Clin Invest 42:727-735 ( (May) ) 1963.Crossref 14. Henkin, R.I., et al: Studies on Auditory Thresholds in Normal Man and in Patients With Adrenal Cortical Insufficiency: The Role of Adrenal Cortical Steroids , J Clin Invest 46:429-435 ( (March) ) 1967.Crossref 15. Ojemann, A., and Henkin, R.I.: Steroid Dependent Changes in Human Visual Evoked Potentials , Life Sciences 6:327-334 ( (Feb) ) 1967.Crossref 16. Raher, J.; Ganis, G.M.; and Shaffer, J.W.: Intercorrelations Between Affect, Urinary 17-Hydroxycorticosteroid Levels, and Epileptic Convulsions , Psychosom Med 29:144-150 ( (March-April) ) 1967.Crossref 17. Murawski, B.J., and Burns, S.K.: Daily Correlation of Adrenal Steroids and Alpha Frequency in the EEG: A Demonstration , J Appl Physiol 21:549-553 ( (March) ) 1966. 18. Davis, W.M., and Webb, O.L.: A Circadian Rhythm of Chemo-Convulsive Response Thresholds in Mice , Med Exp 9:263-267, 1963. 19. Webb, O.L., and Russell, R.L.: Diurnal Chemo-Convulsive Responses and Central Inhibition , Arch Int Pharmacodyn 159:471-476 ( (Feb) ) 1966. 20. Aantaa, E., and Elenius, V.: Diurnal Variation in the Amplitude of the Corneo-Fundal Potential , Pract Otorhinolaryng 30:245-247 ( (Oct) ) 1968. 21. Frank, G., et al: Circadian Periodicity, Adrenal Corticosteroids, and the EEG of Normal Man , J Psychiat Res 4:73-86 ( (Nov) ) 1966.Crossref 22. Murawski, B.J.; Reddy, W.J.; and Fox, H.M.: Relationship of Adrenal Cortical Function to Flicker Fusion Thresholds , J Appl Physiol 11:468-474 ( (May) ) 1957. 23. Sollberger, A.: Biological Rhythms Research , New York: Elsevier Publishing Co., 1965. 24. Klein, K.E.; Wegmann, H.M.; and Bruner, H.: Circadian Rhythm in Indices of Human Performance, Physical Fitness and Stress Resistance , Aerospace Med 39:512-518 ( (May 5) ) 1968. 25. Danowski, T.S., et al: Hydrocortisone and/or Desiccated Thyroid in Physiologic Dosage, XVIII: Dexamethasone, Plasma Corticosteroids, and Response to ACTH , Metabolism 15:304-309 ( (April) ) 1966.Crossref 26. Mattingly, D.: A Simple Fluorometric Method for Estimation of Free 17-Hydroxycorticoids in Human Plasma , J Clin Path 15:374-379 ( (July) ) 1962.Crossref 27. Silber, R.H., and Porter, C.C.: " Determination of 17-, 21-dehydroxy 20-Ketosteroids in Urine and Plasma " in Glick, D. (ed.): Methods in Biochemical Analysis , New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1957, vol 4, pp 139-169. 28. Landon, J., et al: Threshold Adrenocortical Sensitivity in Man and its Possible Application to Corticotrophin Bioassay , Lancet 2:697-700 ( (Sept 30) ) 1967.Crossref 29. Wilkinson, R.T., and Morlock, H.C.: Auditory Evoked Responses and Reaction Time , Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 23:50-56 ( (July) ) 1967.Crossref 30. Nishitani, H., and Kooi, K.A.: Cerebral Evoked Responses in Hypothyroidism , Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 24:554-560 ( (June) ) 1968.Crossref 31. Goff, W.R, et al: Cerebral Somatosensory Responses Evoked During Sleep in Man , Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 21:1-9 ( (July) ) 1966.Crossref 32. Allison, T., et al: The Effects of Barbiturate Anesthesia Upon Human Somatosensory Evoked Responses , Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 24 ( (suppl) ):68-75, 1963. 33. Shagass, C., and Trusty, D.M.: Somatosensory and Visual Cerebral Evoked Response Changes During Sleep , Recent Advances Biol Psychiat 8:321-334, 1966. 34. Shagass, C.: "Pharmacology of Evoked Potentials in Man," in Efron, D.H. (ed.): Psychopharmacology: A Review of Progress, Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1968, pp 483-492. 35. Cracco, Q.R., and Bickford, R.G.: Somatomotor and Somatosensory Evoked Responses: Median Nerve Stimulation in Man , Arch Neurol 18:52-68 ( (Jan) ) 1968.Crossref

Journal

Archives of NeurologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Sep 1, 1969

References

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