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Disturbances of the Maze Habit Following Occipital Cortex Removals in Blind Monkeys

Disturbances of the Maze Habit Following Occipital Cortex Removals in Blind Monkeys Abstract Striate cortex in the rat has been shown to possess precise structural and functional characteristics, and yet behavioral studies have revealed that within this cerebral area there is a curious lack of functional specificity. It is well established that primary defects in vision are produced by removals of striate cortex and by no other cortical lesion.2 However, loss of the maze habit was shown to follow supraminimal lesions to any part of the cerebrum, including the posterior part.1 Maze performance of cortically blinded rats was extremely inefficient when compared with that of normals or with peripherally blinded rats.3,6 Recently, I reviewed the literature in support of the view that striate cortex participates in nonvisual, as well as visual, functioning.5 I concluded that the evidence, though apparently decisive for the rat, is no more than suggestive for man,4 and simply does not exist for infrahuman primates. References 1. Dr. Karl Pribram carried out the intracranial transection. 2. Lashley, K. S.: Brain Mechanisms and Intelligence , Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1929. 3. Lashley, K. S.: The Mechanism of Vision: IV. The Cerebral Areas Necessary for Pattern Vision in the Rat , J. Comp. Neurol. 53:419-478, 1931.Crossref 4. Lashley, K. S.: Studies of Cerebral Function in Learning: XII. Loss of the Maze Habit After Occipital Lesions in Blind Rats , J. Comp. Neurol. 79:431-462, 1943.Crossref 5. Levine, J.: Relative Effects of Occipital and Peripheral Blinding upon Intellectual Functions , A. M. A. Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 67:310-314, 1952. 6. Orbach, J.: Effects of Removal of Occipital Cortex on Learning and Retention in the Monkey , Ph.D. Thesis, Princeton University, 1954, to be published. 7. Tsang, Y.-C.: The Functions of the Visual Areas of the Cerebral Cortex of the Rat in the Learning and Retention of the Maze: Comparative Psychology Monographs , Vol. X, No. 4, Pt. I, Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Press, 1934. 8. Lashley,3 p. 438. 9. Orbach, J.: Non-Visual Functioning of Occipital Cortex in the Monkey , Proc. Nat. Acad. Sc. 41:264-267, 1955. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png A.M.A. Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry American Medical Association

Disturbances of the Maze Habit Following Occipital Cortex Removals in Blind Monkeys

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1959 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0096-6886
DOI
10.1001/archneurpsyc.1959.02340130069007
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract Striate cortex in the rat has been shown to possess precise structural and functional characteristics, and yet behavioral studies have revealed that within this cerebral area there is a curious lack of functional specificity. It is well established that primary defects in vision are produced by removals of striate cortex and by no other cortical lesion.2 However, loss of the maze habit was shown to follow supraminimal lesions to any part of the cerebrum, including the posterior part.1 Maze performance of cortically blinded rats was extremely inefficient when compared with that of normals or with peripherally blinded rats.3,6 Recently, I reviewed the literature in support of the view that striate cortex participates in nonvisual, as well as visual, functioning.5 I concluded that the evidence, though apparently decisive for the rat, is no more than suggestive for man,4 and simply does not exist for infrahuman primates. References 1. Dr. Karl Pribram carried out the intracranial transection. 2. Lashley, K. S.: Brain Mechanisms and Intelligence , Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1929. 3. Lashley, K. S.: The Mechanism of Vision: IV. The Cerebral Areas Necessary for Pattern Vision in the Rat , J. Comp. Neurol. 53:419-478, 1931.Crossref 4. Lashley, K. S.: Studies of Cerebral Function in Learning: XII. Loss of the Maze Habit After Occipital Lesions in Blind Rats , J. Comp. Neurol. 79:431-462, 1943.Crossref 5. Levine, J.: Relative Effects of Occipital and Peripheral Blinding upon Intellectual Functions , A. M. A. Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 67:310-314, 1952. 6. Orbach, J.: Effects of Removal of Occipital Cortex on Learning and Retention in the Monkey , Ph.D. Thesis, Princeton University, 1954, to be published. 7. Tsang, Y.-C.: The Functions of the Visual Areas of the Cerebral Cortex of the Rat in the Learning and Retention of the Maze: Comparative Psychology Monographs , Vol. X, No. 4, Pt. I, Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Press, 1934. 8. Lashley,3 p. 438. 9. Orbach, J.: Non-Visual Functioning of Occipital Cortex in the Monkey , Proc. Nat. Acad. Sc. 41:264-267, 1955.

Journal

A.M.A. Archives of Neurology & PsychiatryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Jan 1, 1959

References