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DISTANT NEUROANATOMIC COMPLICATIONS OF SPINA BIFIDA (SPINAL DYSRAPHISM): HYDROCEPHALUS, ARNOLD-CHIARI DEFORMITY, STENOSIS OF THE AQUEDUCT OF SYLVIUS, ETC.; PATHOGENESIS AND PATHOLOGY

DISTANT NEUROANATOMIC COMPLICATIONS OF SPINA BIFIDA (SPINAL DYSRAPHISM): HYDROCEPHALUS,... Abstract In a previous article1 I emphasized that spina bifida is primarily an expression of inadequate or improper fusion of the embryonal tissues in the dorsal median region of the developing embryo and the resultant pathologic states are manifested, therefore, in the cutaneous, mesodermal and/or neural derivatives of these tissues. Since to many the term spina bifida indicates a vertebral defect (posteriorly through the arch or anteriorly through the bodies of the vertebrae or through the sacrum), and since in many instances anomalies, particularly neural in nature, belonging to the spina bifida group of disorders occur unassociated with evidences of a bony defect, the generic term "spinal dysraphism" was used to identify these conditions resulting from defective raphe formation. In that study the cutaneous, vertebral, meningeal and neural manifestations of the dysraphic state were described. Just as important, however, are the pleomorphic neuroanatomic changes in distant parts of the nervous References 1. Lichtenstein, B. W.: "Spinal Dysraphism," Spina Bifida and Myelodysplasia , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 44:792 ( (Oct.) ) 1940. 2. Ranke, H.: Zur Aetiologie der Spina bifida lumbalis und lumbosacralis , Jahrb. f. Kinderh. 12:116, 1878. 3. von Recklinghausen, F.: Untersuchungen über die Spina bifida , Virchows Arch. f. path. Anat. 105:243, 1886. 4. Beck, O.: Spina bifida occulta und ihre ätiologische Beziehung zu Deformitäten der unteren Extremität , Ergebn. d. Chir. u. Orthop. 15:493, 1922. 5. Katzenstein, M.: Beitrag zur Pathologie und Therapie der Spina bifida occulta , Arch. f. klin. Chir. 64:607, 1901. 6. Arnold, J.: Myelocyste, Transposition von Gewebskeimen und Sympodie , Beitr. z. path. Anat. u. z. allg. Path. 16:1, 1894. 7. Chiari, H.: Ueber Veränderungen des Kleinhirns, des Pons und der Medulla oblongata infolge von kongenitaler Hydrocephalie des Grosshirns , Denkschr. d. Akad. d. Wissensch. Math.-Naturw. Cl. 63:71, 1895. 8. Chiari, H.: Ueber Veränderungen des Kleinhirns infolge von Hydrocephalie des Grosshirns , Deutsche med. Wchnschr. 17:1172, 1891. 9. Schwalbe, E., and Gredig, M.: Ueber Entwicklungsstörungen des Kleinhirns, Hirnstamms und Halsmarks bei Spina bifida , Beitr. z. path. Anat. u. z. allg. Path. 40:132, 1907. 10. Jacob, H.: Ueber die Fehlentwicklungen des Kleinhirns, der Brücke, und des verlängerten Marks (Arnold-Chiarische Entwicklungsstörung) bei kongenitaler Hydrocephalie und Spaltbildung des Rückenmarks , Ztschr. f. d. ges. Neurol. u. Psychiat. 164:229, 1939. 11. Bruns, R.: Zur Kenntnis der Bildungsfehlen des Kleinhirns , Schweiz. Arch. f. Neurol. u. Psychiat. 3:13, 1918. 12. Gudden, H.: Ueber einen Fall von Knickung der Medulla oblongata und Teilung des Rückenmarks , Arch. f. Psychiat. 30:866, 1898. 13. Penfield, W., and Cone, W. V.: Spina Bifida and Cranium Bifidum , J. A. M. A. 98:454 ( (Feb. 6) ) 1932. 14. Gross, S. W., and Sachs, E.: Spina Bifida and Cranium Bifidum , Arch. Surg. 28:874 ( (May) ) 1934. 15. Shapiro, B., and Tosti, V. G.: Ventricular Dilatation in Spina Bifida , J. Pediat. 16:318, 1940. 16. Russell, D. S., and Donald, C.: The Mechanism of Internal Hydrocephalus in Spina Bifida , Brain 58:203, 1935. 17. Parker, H. L., and McConnell, A. A.: Internal Hydrocephalus Resulting from a Peculiar Deformity of the Hindbrain , Tr. Am. Neurol. A. 63:14, 1937. 18. Gustafson, W. A., and Oldberg, E.: Neurologic Significance of Platybasia , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 44:1184 ( (Dec.) ) 1940. 19. Penfield, W., and Coburn, D. F.: Arnold-Chiari Malformation and Its Operative Treatment . Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 40:328 ( (Aug.) ) 1938. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry American Medical Association

DISTANT NEUROANATOMIC COMPLICATIONS OF SPINA BIFIDA (SPINAL DYSRAPHISM): HYDROCEPHALUS, ARNOLD-CHIARI DEFORMITY, STENOSIS OF THE AQUEDUCT OF SYLVIUS, ETC.; PATHOGENESIS AND PATHOLOGY

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1942 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0096-6754
DOI
10.1001/archneurpsyc.1942.02290020011001
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Abstract

Abstract In a previous article1 I emphasized that spina bifida is primarily an expression of inadequate or improper fusion of the embryonal tissues in the dorsal median region of the developing embryo and the resultant pathologic states are manifested, therefore, in the cutaneous, mesodermal and/or neural derivatives of these tissues. Since to many the term spina bifida indicates a vertebral defect (posteriorly through the arch or anteriorly through the bodies of the vertebrae or through the sacrum), and since in many instances anomalies, particularly neural in nature, belonging to the spina bifida group of disorders occur unassociated with evidences of a bony defect, the generic term "spinal dysraphism" was used to identify these conditions resulting from defective raphe formation. In that study the cutaneous, vertebral, meningeal and neural manifestations of the dysraphic state were described. Just as important, however, are the pleomorphic neuroanatomic changes in distant parts of the nervous References 1. Lichtenstein, B. W.: "Spinal Dysraphism," Spina Bifida and Myelodysplasia , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 44:792 ( (Oct.) ) 1940. 2. Ranke, H.: Zur Aetiologie der Spina bifida lumbalis und lumbosacralis , Jahrb. f. Kinderh. 12:116, 1878. 3. von Recklinghausen, F.: Untersuchungen über die Spina bifida , Virchows Arch. f. path. Anat. 105:243, 1886. 4. Beck, O.: Spina bifida occulta und ihre ätiologische Beziehung zu Deformitäten der unteren Extremität , Ergebn. d. Chir. u. Orthop. 15:493, 1922. 5. Katzenstein, M.: Beitrag zur Pathologie und Therapie der Spina bifida occulta , Arch. f. klin. Chir. 64:607, 1901. 6. Arnold, J.: Myelocyste, Transposition von Gewebskeimen und Sympodie , Beitr. z. path. Anat. u. z. allg. Path. 16:1, 1894. 7. Chiari, H.: Ueber Veränderungen des Kleinhirns, des Pons und der Medulla oblongata infolge von kongenitaler Hydrocephalie des Grosshirns , Denkschr. d. Akad. d. Wissensch. Math.-Naturw. Cl. 63:71, 1895. 8. Chiari, H.: Ueber Veränderungen des Kleinhirns infolge von Hydrocephalie des Grosshirns , Deutsche med. Wchnschr. 17:1172, 1891. 9. Schwalbe, E., and Gredig, M.: Ueber Entwicklungsstörungen des Kleinhirns, Hirnstamms und Halsmarks bei Spina bifida , Beitr. z. path. Anat. u. z. allg. Path. 40:132, 1907. 10. Jacob, H.: Ueber die Fehlentwicklungen des Kleinhirns, der Brücke, und des verlängerten Marks (Arnold-Chiarische Entwicklungsstörung) bei kongenitaler Hydrocephalie und Spaltbildung des Rückenmarks , Ztschr. f. d. ges. Neurol. u. Psychiat. 164:229, 1939. 11. Bruns, R.: Zur Kenntnis der Bildungsfehlen des Kleinhirns , Schweiz. Arch. f. Neurol. u. Psychiat. 3:13, 1918. 12. Gudden, H.: Ueber einen Fall von Knickung der Medulla oblongata und Teilung des Rückenmarks , Arch. f. Psychiat. 30:866, 1898. 13. Penfield, W., and Cone, W. V.: Spina Bifida and Cranium Bifidum , J. A. M. A. 98:454 ( (Feb. 6) ) 1932. 14. Gross, S. W., and Sachs, E.: Spina Bifida and Cranium Bifidum , Arch. Surg. 28:874 ( (May) ) 1934. 15. Shapiro, B., and Tosti, V. G.: Ventricular Dilatation in Spina Bifida , J. Pediat. 16:318, 1940. 16. Russell, D. S., and Donald, C.: The Mechanism of Internal Hydrocephalus in Spina Bifida , Brain 58:203, 1935. 17. Parker, H. L., and McConnell, A. A.: Internal Hydrocephalus Resulting from a Peculiar Deformity of the Hindbrain , Tr. Am. Neurol. A. 63:14, 1937. 18. Gustafson, W. A., and Oldberg, E.: Neurologic Significance of Platybasia , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 44:1184 ( (Dec.) ) 1940. 19. Penfield, W., and Coburn, D. F.: Arnold-Chiari Malformation and Its Operative Treatment . Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 40:328 ( (Aug.) ) 1938.

Journal

Archives of Neurology & PsychiatryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Feb 1, 1942

References