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Disorders of Phagocyte Function

Disorders of Phagocyte Function Abstract • An increasing number of phagocytic defects with cutaneous manifestations and signs in humans are being reported. With the increasing availability of phagocyte assays, detection of phagocyte defects will allow us to dissect the component events and more clearly understand the central role of the phagocytic leukocyte in host defenses of the skin. (Arch Dermatol 112:1589-1596, 1976) References 1. Stiehm ER: Immunodeficiency disorders: General considerations , in Stiehm ER, Fulginitti VA (eds): Immunologic Disorders in Infants and Children . Philadelphia, WB Saunders Co, 1973, pp 145-167. 2. Miller ME: The pathology of chemotaxis and random mobility . Semin Hematol 12:59-82, 1975. 3. Quie PG: Pathology of bactericidal power of neutrophils . Semin Hematol 12:143-160, 1975. 4. Stossel TP: Phagocytosis: Recognition and ingestion . Semin Hematol 12:83-116, 1975. 5. Senn HJ, Jungi WF: Neutrophil migration in health and disease . Semin Hematol 12:7-46, 1975. 6. Snyderman R, Altman LC: Mediators of delayed hypersensitivity , in Frazier CA (ed): Annual Review of Allergy . Flushing, NY, Medical Examination Publishing Co, 1973, pp 377-387. 7. Snyderman R, Stahl C: Defective immune effector function in patients with neoplastic and immune deficiency diseases , in Bellanti JA, Dayton DH (eds): The Phagocytic Cell in Host Resistance . New York, Raven Press, 1975, pp 267-281. 8. Müller-Eberhard HJ: Complement and phagocytosis , in Bellanti JA, Dayton DH (eds): The Phagocytic Cell in Host Resistance . New York, Raven Press, 1975, pp 87-100. 9. Frank MM, Schreiber AD, Atkinson JP: Studies of the interaction of antibody, complement, and macrophages in the immune clearance of erythrocytes , in Bellanti JA, Dayton DH (eds): The Phagocytic Cell in Host Resistance . New York, Raven Press, 1975, pp 101-116. 10. Keller HU, Hess MW, Cottier H: The pathology of chemotaxis and random mobility . Semin Hematol 12:47-58, 1975. 11. Miller ME: Leukocyte movement: In vitro and in vivo correlates . J Pediatr 83:1104-1106, 1973.Crossref 12. Miller ME, Oski FA, Harris MB: The lazy leukocyte syndrome: Anew disorder of neutrophil function . Lancet 1:565-569, 1971. 13. Ketchel MM, Favour CB: The acceleration and inhibition of migration of human leukocytes in vitro by plasma protein fractions . J Exp Med 101:647-663, 1955.Crossref 14. Carruthers BM: Leukocyte motility: I. Method of study, normal variation, effect of physical alterations in environment, and effect of iodoacetate . Can JPhysiol Pharmacol 44:475-485, 1966.Crossref 15. Clark RA, Kimball HR: Defective granulocyte chemotaxis in the Chediak-Higashi syndrome . J Clin Invest 50:2645-2652, 1971.Crossref 16. Miller ME, Baker L: Leukocyte functions in juvenile diabetes mellitus: Humoral and cellular aspects . J Pediatr 81:980-982, 1972. 17. Clark RA, Root RF, Kimball HR, et al: Defective neutrophil chemotaxis in a child with recurrent infections . Ann Intern Med 78:595-619, 1973.Crossref 18. Ward PA: Neutrophil chemotactic factors and related clinical disorders . Arthritis Rheum 13:181-186, 1970.Crossref 19. Keller HU, Sorkin E: Studies in chemotaxis: IV. The influence of serum factors on granulocyte locomotion . Immunology 10:409-416, 1966. 20. Shin HS, Snyderman R, Friedman E, et al: Chemotactic and anaphylatoxic fragment cleaved from the fifth component of guinea pig complement . Science 162:361-363, 1968.Crossref 21. Gallin JI, Durocher JR, Kaplan AR: Interaction of leukocyte chemotactic factors with the cell surface . J Clin Invest 55:967-974, 1975.Crossref 22. Keller HU, Sorkin E: Studies on chemotaxis . Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 35:279-287, 1969.Crossref 23. Lachman PJ, Kay AB, Thompson R: The chemotactic activity on neutrophil and eosinophil leukocytes of the trimolecular complex of the fifth, sixth, and seventh component of human complement prepared in free solution by the "reactive lysis" procedure . Immunology 19:895-899, 1970. 24. Boyden S: The chemotactic effect of mixtures of antibody and antigen on polymorphonuclear leukocytes . J Exp Med 115:454-466, 1962.Crossref 25. Frei PC, Baiser MH, Ochsner M: Chemotaxis of human polymorphonuclears in vitro: II. Technical study . J Immunol Methods 5:375-386, 1974.Crossref 26. Keller HU, Borel JF, Wilkinson PC, et al: Re-assessment of Boyden's technique for measuring chemotaxis . J Immunol Methods 1:165-168, 1972.Crossref 27. Zigmund SH, Hirsch JG: Leukocyte locomotion and chemotaxis: New methods for evaluation and demonstration of a cell-derived chemotactic factor . J Exp Med 137:387-410, 1973.Crossref 28. Baum J: Chemotaxis in human disease , in Bellanti JA, Dayton DH (eds): The Phagocytic Cell in Host Resistance . New York, Raven Press, 1975, pp 283-293. 29. Baum J, Mowat AG, Kirk JA: A simplified method for the measurement of chemotaxis of polymorphonuclear leukocytes from human blood . J Lab Clin Med 77:501-509, 1971. 30. Ward PA, Becker EL: Potassium reversible inhibition of leukotaxis by ouabain . Life Sci 77:501-509, 1971. 31. Becker EL, Showell HJ: The effect of Ca+2 and Mg+2 on the chemotactic responsiveness and spontaneous motility of rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes . Z Immunitaetsforsch 143:466-476, 1972. 32. Gallin JI: Abnormal chemotaxis: Cellular and humoral components , in Bellanti JA, Dayton DH (eds): The Phagocytic Cell in Host Resistance . New York, Raven Press, 1975, pp 227-243. 33. Klebanoff SJ: Antimicrobial mechanisms in neutrophilic polymorphonuclear leukocytes . Semin Hematol 12:117-142, 1975. 34. Klebanoff SJ: Antimicrobial systems of the polymorphonuclear leukocytes , in Bellanti JA, Dayton DH (eds): The Phagocytic Cell in Host Resistance . New York, Raven Press, 1975, pp 45-60. 35. Baehner RL, Murrmann SK, Davis J, et al: The role of superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide in phagocytosis-associated oxidative metabolic reactions . J Clin Invest 56:571-576, 1975.Crossref 36. Root RK, Metcalf J, Oshino N, et al: H2O2 release from human granulocytes during phagocytosis . J Clin Invest 55:945-955, 1975.Crossref 37. Johnston RB, Keete BB, Misra HP, et al: Superoxide anion generation and phagocytic bactericidal activity , in Bellanti JA, Dayton DH (eds): The Phagocytic Cell in Host Resistance . New York, Raven Press, 1975, pp 61-75. 38. Weening RS, Wever R, Roos D: Quantitative aspects of the production of superoxide radicals by phagocytizing human granulocytes . J Lab Clin Med 85:245-252, 1975. 39. Babior BM, Curnutte JT, Kipnes RS: Biological defense mechanisms: Evidence for the participation of superoxide in bacterial killing by xanthine oxidase . J Lab Clin Med 85:235-244, 1975. 40. Ward PA, Becker EL: The deactivation of rabbit neutrophils by chemotactic factor and the nature of the activatable esterase . J Exp Med 127:693-710, 1968.Crossref 41. Becker EL: The relationship of the chemotactic behavior of the complement derived factors C3a, C5a, and C567, and a bacterial chemotactic factor to their ability to activate the proesterase 1 of rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes . J Exp Med 135:376-387, 1972.Crossref 42. Kaplan AP, Kay AB, Austen KF: A prealbumin activator of prekallikrein: III. Appearance of chemotactic activity for human neutrophils by the conversion of human prekallikrein to kallikrein . J Exp Med 135:81-97, 1972.Crossref 43. Kaplan AP, Goetzl EJ, Austen KF: The fibrinolytic pathway of human plasma: II. The generation of chemotactic activity by activation of plasminogen proactivator . J Clin Invest 52:2591-2595, 1973.Crossref 44. Rowlands DT, Danielle RP: Surface receptors in the immune response . N Engl J Med 293:26-32, 1975.Crossref 45. Mackaness GB: The influence of immunologically committed lymphoid cells on macrophage activity in vitro . J Exp Med 129:973-992, 1969.Crossref 46. Ward PA, Remold HG, David JR: The production by antigen-stimulated lymphocytes of a leukotactic factor distinct from migration inhibitory factor . Cell Immunol 1:162-174, 1970.Crossref 47. Nathan CF, Karnovsky ML, David JR: Alteration of macrophage functions by mediators from lymphocytes . J Exp Med 133:1356-1376, 1971.Crossref 48. Rocklin RE, Winston CT, David JR: Activation of human blood monocytes by products of sensitized lymphocytes . J Clin Invest 53:559-564, 1974.Crossref 49. Altman LC, Snyderman R, Oppenheim JJ, et al: A human mononuclear leukocyte chemotactic factor: Characterization, specificity, and kinetics of production by homologous leukocytes . J Immunol 110:801-810, 1973. 50. David JR: A brief review of macrophage activation by lymphocyte mediators , in Bellanti JA, Dayton DH (eds): The Phagocytic Cell in Host Resistance . New York, Raven Press, 1975, pp 143-153. 51. Lolekha S, Dray S, Gotoff SP: Macrophage aggregation in vitro: A correlate of delayed hypersensitivity . J Immunol 104:296-304, 1970. 52. Fowles RE, Fajardo IM, Leibowitch JL, et al: The enhancement of macrophage bacteriostasis by products of activated lymphocytes . J Exp Med 138:952-964, 1973.Crossref 53. Miller ME, Norman ME, Koblenzer PJ, et al: A new familial defect of neutrophil movement . J Lab Clin Med 82:1-8, 1973. 54. Altman LC, Snyderman R, Blaese RM: Abnormalities of chemotactic lymphokine synthesis and mononuclear leukocyte chemotaxis in Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome . J Clin Invest 54:486-493, 1974.Crossref 55. Huff JC, Weston WL, Neldner KH, et al: Defective monocyte chemotaxis and zinc deficiency in acrodermatitis enteropathica . Clin Res 23:229a, 1975. 56. Humbert JR, Fishman CB, Weston WL, et al: Frequency of the carrier state for X-linked chronic granulomatous disease among females with lupus erythematosus . Clin Genet , to be published. 57. Snyderman R, Dickson J, Meadows L, et al: Deficient monocyte chemotactic responsiveness in humans with cancer . Clin Res 22:430, 1974. 58. Hill HR, Quie PG: Defective neutrophil chemotaxis associated with hyperimmunoglobulinemia E , in Bellanti JA, Dayton DH (eds): The Phagocytic Cell in Host Resistance . New York, Raven Press, 1975, pp 249-266. 59. Hill HR, Quie PG: Raised serum IgE levels and defective neutrophil chemotaxis in three children with eczema and recurrent bacterial infections . Lancet 1:183-186, 1974.Crossref 60. Hill HR, Quie PG, Pabst HF, et al: Defect in neutrophil granulocyte chemotaxis in Job's syndrome of recurrent "cold" staphylococcal abscesses . Lancet 2:617-619, 1974.Crossref 61. Buckley RH, Wray BB, Belmaker EZ: Extreme hyperimmunoglobulinemia E and undue susceptibility to infections . Pediatrics 49:59-70, 1972. 62. Hill HR, Quie PG: Defective neutrophil chemotaxis, severe staphylococcal infection, and hyperimmunoglobulinemia E . Pediatr Res 8:426, 1974.Crossref 63. Pickering RM, Naff GB, Siroud RM, et al: Deficiency of C1r in human serum: Effects on the structure and function of macromolecular Cl . J Exp Med 131:803-815, 1970.Crossref 64. Day NK, Geiger H, Stroud R, et al: C1r deficiency: An inborn error associated with cutaneous and renal disease . J Clin Invest 51:1102-1108, 1972.Crossref 65. Agnello V, De Bracco MME, Kunkel HG: Hereditary C2 deficiency with some manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus . J Immunol 108:837-840, 1972. 66. Ruddy S, Klemperer MR, Rosen FS, et al: Hereditary deficiency of the second component of complement (C2) in man: Correlation of C2 protein . Immunology 18:943-954, 1970. 67. Klemperer MR, Woodworth HC, Rosen FS, et al: Hereditary deficiency of the second component of complement in man . J Clin Invest 45:880-890, 1966.Crossref 68. Klemperer MR, Austen KF, Rosen FS: Hereditary deficiency of the second component of complement (C2) in man: Further observations in a second kindred . J Immunol 98:72-78, 1967. 69. Alper CA, Colten HR, Rosen FS, et al: Homozygous deficiency of C3 in a patient with reported infections . Lancet 2:1179-1181, 1972.Crossref 70. Alper CA, Abramson N, Johnston RB, et al: Increased susceptibility to infection associated with abnormalities of complement-mediated functions of the third component of complement (C3) . N Engl J Med 282:349-354, 1970.Crossref 71. Ziegler JB, Alper CA, Rosen FS, et al: Restoration by purified C3b inactivator of complement-mediated function in vivo in a patient with C3b inactivator deficiency . J Clin Invest 55:668-672, 1975.Crossref 72. Alper CA, Bloch KJ, Rosen FS: Increased susceptibility to infection in a patient with type II essential hypercatabolism of C3 . N Engl J Med 288:601-606, 1973.Crossref 73. Thompson RA, White RHR: Partial lipodystrophy and hypocomplementemic nephritis . Lancet 2:679, 1973.Crossref 74. Miller ME, Nilsson UR: A familial deficiency of the phagocytosis-enhancing activity of serum related to a dysfunction of the fifth component of complement (C5) . N Engl J Med 282:354-358, 1970.Crossref 75. Miller ME, Koblenzer PJ: Leiner's disease and deficiency of C5 . J Ped 80:879-881, 1972.Crossref 76. Rosenfeld SI, Leddy JP: Hereditary deficiency of the fifth component of complement . J Clin Invest 53:67a, 1974. 77. Miller ME, Dooley R: Defective random mobility, normal chemotaxis, and impaired phagocytosis: A new abnormality of neutrophil function . Pediatr Res 7:137, 1973. 78. Boxer LA, Hedley-Whyte ET, Stossel TP: Neutrophil actin dysfunction and abnormal neutrophil behavior . N Engl J Med 291:1093-1099, 1974.Crossref 79. DeCree J, Berhagen H, DeCook W, et al: Impaired neutrophil phagocytosis . Lancet 2:294-295, 1974.Crossref 80. Craddock PR, Yawata G, Dansaten L, et al: Acquired phagocyte dysfunction: A complication of hypophosphatemia of parenteral hyperalimentation . N Engl J Med 290:1403-1407, 1974.Crossref 81. Jemelin M, Fornerod M, Frei J, et al: Impaired phagocytosis in leukocytes from newborn infants . Enzyme 12:642-646, 1971. 82. Van Woerkom R, Teelken AW, Minderhoud JM: Impairment of phagocytosis by granulocytes in brain-damaged patients . Lancet 2:97, 1973.Crossref 83. Tan JS, Strauss RG, Akabuty J, et al: Persistent neutrophil dysfunction in an adult . Am J Med 57:251-258, 1974.Crossref 84. Stossel TP: Phagocytosis . N Engl J Med 290:717-724, 774-780, 833-838, 1974.Crossref 85. Carson MJ, Chadwick DL, Brubaker CA, et al: Thirteen boys with progressive septic granulomatosis . Pediatrics 35:405-412, 1965. 86. Schlegel RJ: Chronic granulomatous disease—1974 . JAMA 231:615-617, 1975.Crossref 87. Lazarus GM, Neu HC: Agents responsible for infection in chronic granulomatous disease of childhood . J Pediatr 86:415-417, 1975.Crossref 88. Curnutte JT, Kipnes RS, Babior BM: Defect in pyridine nucleotide-dependent superoxide production by a particulate fraction from the granulocytes of patients with chronic granulomatous disease . N Engl J Med 293:628-632, 1975.Crossref 89. Macfarlane PS, Speurs AL, Sommerville RG: Fatal granulomatous disease of childhood and benign lymphocytic infiltration of the skin (congenital dysphagocytosis) . Lancet 1:408-410, 1967.Crossref 90. Schaller J: Illness resembling lupus erythematosus in mothers of boys with chronic granulomatous disease . Ann Intern Med 76:747-750, 1972.Crossref 91. Holmes B, Park BH, Malawista SE, et al: Chronic granulomatous disease in females: A deficiency of leukocyte glutathione peroxidase . N Engl J Med 283:217-221, 1970.Crossref 92. Cooper MR, DeChatelet, LR, La Via MD, et al: Complete deficiency of leukocyte glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase with defective bactericidal activity . J Clin Invest 49:21a, 1970.Crossref 93. Gray GR, Klebanoff SJ, Stamatoyanopoulos J, et al: Neutrophil dysfunction, chronic granulomatous disease, and nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia caused by complete deficiency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase . Lancet 2:530-534, 1973.Crossref 94. Baehner RL, Johnston RB Jr, Nathan DG: Reduced pyridine nucleotide (RPN) content in G-6-PD deficient granulocytes (PMN): An explanation for their defective bactericidal function . Proc Am Soc Clin Invest 13:4a, 1971. 95. Lehrer RI, Cline MJ: Leukocyte myeloperoxidase deficiency and disseminated candidiasis: The role of myeloperoxidase in resistance to Candida infections . J Clin Invest 48:1478-1488, 1969.Crossref 96. Root RK, Rosenthal AS, Balestra DJ: Abnormal bactericidal metabolic and lysosomal functions of Chediak-Higashi syndrome leukocytes . J Clin Invest 51:649-665, 1972.Crossref 97. White JG: Chediak-Higashi syndrome: Cytoplasmic sequestration in circulating leukocytes . Blood 29:435-451, 1967. 98. Wolff SM, Dale DC, Clark RA, et al: The Chediak-Higashi syndrome: Studies of host defenses . Ann Intern Med 76:293-316, 1972.Crossref 99. Blume BR, Wolff SM: Chediak-Higashi: Review and report of new patients . Medicine 51:247-280, 1972.Crossref 100. Stossel TP, Root RK, Vaughn M: Phagocytosis in chronic granulomatous disease and the Chediak-Higashi syndrome . N Engl J Med 286:120-123, 1972.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Dermatology American Medical Association

Disorders of Phagocyte Function

Archives of Dermatology , Volume 112 (11) – Nov 1, 1976

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American Medical Association
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Copyright © 1976 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
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0003-987X
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1538-3652
DOI
10.1001/archderm.1976.01630350063016
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Abstract

Abstract • An increasing number of phagocytic defects with cutaneous manifestations and signs in humans are being reported. With the increasing availability of phagocyte assays, detection of phagocyte defects will allow us to dissect the component events and more clearly understand the central role of the phagocytic leukocyte in host defenses of the skin. (Arch Dermatol 112:1589-1596, 1976) References 1. Stiehm ER: Immunodeficiency disorders: General considerations , in Stiehm ER, Fulginitti VA (eds): Immunologic Disorders in Infants and Children . Philadelphia, WB Saunders Co, 1973, pp 145-167. 2. Miller ME: The pathology of chemotaxis and random mobility . Semin Hematol 12:59-82, 1975. 3. Quie PG: Pathology of bactericidal power of neutrophils . Semin Hematol 12:143-160, 1975. 4. Stossel TP: Phagocytosis: Recognition and ingestion . Semin Hematol 12:83-116, 1975. 5. Senn HJ, Jungi WF: Neutrophil migration in health and disease . Semin Hematol 12:7-46, 1975. 6. Snyderman R, Altman LC: Mediators of delayed hypersensitivity , in Frazier CA (ed): Annual Review of Allergy . Flushing, NY, Medical Examination Publishing Co, 1973, pp 377-387. 7. Snyderman R, Stahl C: Defective immune effector function in patients with neoplastic and immune deficiency diseases , in Bellanti JA, Dayton DH (eds): The Phagocytic Cell in Host Resistance . New York, Raven Press, 1975, pp 267-281. 8. Müller-Eberhard HJ: Complement and phagocytosis , in Bellanti JA, Dayton DH (eds): The Phagocytic Cell in Host Resistance . New York, Raven Press, 1975, pp 87-100. 9. Frank MM, Schreiber AD, Atkinson JP: Studies of the interaction of antibody, complement, and macrophages in the immune clearance of erythrocytes , in Bellanti JA, Dayton DH (eds): The Phagocytic Cell in Host Resistance . New York, Raven Press, 1975, pp 101-116. 10. Keller HU, Hess MW, Cottier H: The pathology of chemotaxis and random mobility . Semin Hematol 12:47-58, 1975. 11. Miller ME: Leukocyte movement: In vitro and in vivo correlates . J Pediatr 83:1104-1106, 1973.Crossref 12. Miller ME, Oski FA, Harris MB: The lazy leukocyte syndrome: Anew disorder of neutrophil function . Lancet 1:565-569, 1971. 13. Ketchel MM, Favour CB: The acceleration and inhibition of migration of human leukocytes in vitro by plasma protein fractions . J Exp Med 101:647-663, 1955.Crossref 14. Carruthers BM: Leukocyte motility: I. Method of study, normal variation, effect of physical alterations in environment, and effect of iodoacetate . Can JPhysiol Pharmacol 44:475-485, 1966.Crossref 15. Clark RA, Kimball HR: Defective granulocyte chemotaxis in the Chediak-Higashi syndrome . J Clin Invest 50:2645-2652, 1971.Crossref 16. Miller ME, Baker L: Leukocyte functions in juvenile diabetes mellitus: Humoral and cellular aspects . J Pediatr 81:980-982, 1972. 17. Clark RA, Root RF, Kimball HR, et al: Defective neutrophil chemotaxis in a child with recurrent infections . Ann Intern Med 78:595-619, 1973.Crossref 18. Ward PA: Neutrophil chemotactic factors and related clinical disorders . Arthritis Rheum 13:181-186, 1970.Crossref 19. Keller HU, Sorkin E: Studies in chemotaxis: IV. The influence of serum factors on granulocyte locomotion . Immunology 10:409-416, 1966. 20. Shin HS, Snyderman R, Friedman E, et al: Chemotactic and anaphylatoxic fragment cleaved from the fifth component of guinea pig complement . Science 162:361-363, 1968.Crossref 21. Gallin JI, Durocher JR, Kaplan AR: Interaction of leukocyte chemotactic factors with the cell surface . J Clin Invest 55:967-974, 1975.Crossref 22. Keller HU, Sorkin E: Studies on chemotaxis . Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 35:279-287, 1969.Crossref 23. Lachman PJ, Kay AB, Thompson R: The chemotactic activity on neutrophil and eosinophil leukocytes of the trimolecular complex of the fifth, sixth, and seventh component of human complement prepared in free solution by the "reactive lysis" procedure . Immunology 19:895-899, 1970. 24. Boyden S: The chemotactic effect of mixtures of antibody and antigen on polymorphonuclear leukocytes . J Exp Med 115:454-466, 1962.Crossref 25. Frei PC, Baiser MH, Ochsner M: Chemotaxis of human polymorphonuclears in vitro: II. Technical study . J Immunol Methods 5:375-386, 1974.Crossref 26. Keller HU, Borel JF, Wilkinson PC, et al: Re-assessment of Boyden's technique for measuring chemotaxis . J Immunol Methods 1:165-168, 1972.Crossref 27. Zigmund SH, Hirsch JG: Leukocyte locomotion and chemotaxis: New methods for evaluation and demonstration of a cell-derived chemotactic factor . J Exp Med 137:387-410, 1973.Crossref 28. Baum J: Chemotaxis in human disease , in Bellanti JA, Dayton DH (eds): The Phagocytic Cell in Host Resistance . New York, Raven Press, 1975, pp 283-293. 29. Baum J, Mowat AG, Kirk JA: A simplified method for the measurement of chemotaxis of polymorphonuclear leukocytes from human blood . J Lab Clin Med 77:501-509, 1971. 30. Ward PA, Becker EL: Potassium reversible inhibition of leukotaxis by ouabain . Life Sci 77:501-509, 1971. 31. Becker EL, Showell HJ: The effect of Ca+2 and Mg+2 on the chemotactic responsiveness and spontaneous motility of rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes . Z Immunitaetsforsch 143:466-476, 1972. 32. Gallin JI: Abnormal chemotaxis: Cellular and humoral components , in Bellanti JA, Dayton DH (eds): The Phagocytic Cell in Host Resistance . New York, Raven Press, 1975, pp 227-243. 33. Klebanoff SJ: Antimicrobial mechanisms in neutrophilic polymorphonuclear leukocytes . Semin Hematol 12:117-142, 1975. 34. Klebanoff SJ: Antimicrobial systems of the polymorphonuclear leukocytes , in Bellanti JA, Dayton DH (eds): The Phagocytic Cell in Host Resistance . New York, Raven Press, 1975, pp 45-60. 35. Baehner RL, Murrmann SK, Davis J, et al: The role of superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide in phagocytosis-associated oxidative metabolic reactions . J Clin Invest 56:571-576, 1975.Crossref 36. Root RK, Metcalf J, Oshino N, et al: H2O2 release from human granulocytes during phagocytosis . J Clin Invest 55:945-955, 1975.Crossref 37. Johnston RB, Keete BB, Misra HP, et al: Superoxide anion generation and phagocytic bactericidal activity , in Bellanti JA, Dayton DH (eds): The Phagocytic Cell in Host Resistance . New York, Raven Press, 1975, pp 61-75. 38. Weening RS, Wever R, Roos D: Quantitative aspects of the production of superoxide radicals by phagocytizing human granulocytes . J Lab Clin Med 85:245-252, 1975. 39. Babior BM, Curnutte JT, Kipnes RS: Biological defense mechanisms: Evidence for the participation of superoxide in bacterial killing by xanthine oxidase . J Lab Clin Med 85:235-244, 1975. 40. Ward PA, Becker EL: The deactivation of rabbit neutrophils by chemotactic factor and the nature of the activatable esterase . J Exp Med 127:693-710, 1968.Crossref 41. Becker EL: The relationship of the chemotactic behavior of the complement derived factors C3a, C5a, and C567, and a bacterial chemotactic factor to their ability to activate the proesterase 1 of rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes . J Exp Med 135:376-387, 1972.Crossref 42. Kaplan AP, Kay AB, Austen KF: A prealbumin activator of prekallikrein: III. Appearance of chemotactic activity for human neutrophils by the conversion of human prekallikrein to kallikrein . J Exp Med 135:81-97, 1972.Crossref 43. Kaplan AP, Goetzl EJ, Austen KF: The fibrinolytic pathway of human plasma: II. The generation of chemotactic activity by activation of plasminogen proactivator . J Clin Invest 52:2591-2595, 1973.Crossref 44. Rowlands DT, Danielle RP: Surface receptors in the immune response . N Engl J Med 293:26-32, 1975.Crossref 45. Mackaness GB: The influence of immunologically committed lymphoid cells on macrophage activity in vitro . J Exp Med 129:973-992, 1969.Crossref 46. Ward PA, Remold HG, David JR: The production by antigen-stimulated lymphocytes of a leukotactic factor distinct from migration inhibitory factor . Cell Immunol 1:162-174, 1970.Crossref 47. Nathan CF, Karnovsky ML, David JR: Alteration of macrophage functions by mediators from lymphocytes . J Exp Med 133:1356-1376, 1971.Crossref 48. Rocklin RE, Winston CT, David JR: Activation of human blood monocytes by products of sensitized lymphocytes . J Clin Invest 53:559-564, 1974.Crossref 49. Altman LC, Snyderman R, Oppenheim JJ, et al: A human mononuclear leukocyte chemotactic factor: Characterization, specificity, and kinetics of production by homologous leukocytes . J Immunol 110:801-810, 1973. 50. David JR: A brief review of macrophage activation by lymphocyte mediators , in Bellanti JA, Dayton DH (eds): The Phagocytic Cell in Host Resistance . New York, Raven Press, 1975, pp 143-153. 51. Lolekha S, Dray S, Gotoff SP: Macrophage aggregation in vitro: A correlate of delayed hypersensitivity . J Immunol 104:296-304, 1970. 52. Fowles RE, Fajardo IM, Leibowitch JL, et al: The enhancement of macrophage bacteriostasis by products of activated lymphocytes . J Exp Med 138:952-964, 1973.Crossref 53. Miller ME, Norman ME, Koblenzer PJ, et al: A new familial defect of neutrophil movement . J Lab Clin Med 82:1-8, 1973. 54. Altman LC, Snyderman R, Blaese RM: Abnormalities of chemotactic lymphokine synthesis and mononuclear leukocyte chemotaxis in Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome . J Clin Invest 54:486-493, 1974.Crossref 55. Huff JC, Weston WL, Neldner KH, et al: Defective monocyte chemotaxis and zinc deficiency in acrodermatitis enteropathica . Clin Res 23:229a, 1975. 56. Humbert JR, Fishman CB, Weston WL, et al: Frequency of the carrier state for X-linked chronic granulomatous disease among females with lupus erythematosus . Clin Genet , to be published. 57. Snyderman R, Dickson J, Meadows L, et al: Deficient monocyte chemotactic responsiveness in humans with cancer . Clin Res 22:430, 1974. 58. Hill HR, Quie PG: Defective neutrophil chemotaxis associated with hyperimmunoglobulinemia E , in Bellanti JA, Dayton DH (eds): The Phagocytic Cell in Host Resistance . New York, Raven Press, 1975, pp 249-266. 59. Hill HR, Quie PG: Raised serum IgE levels and defective neutrophil chemotaxis in three children with eczema and recurrent bacterial infections . Lancet 1:183-186, 1974.Crossref 60. Hill HR, Quie PG, Pabst HF, et al: Defect in neutrophil granulocyte chemotaxis in Job's syndrome of recurrent "cold" staphylococcal abscesses . Lancet 2:617-619, 1974.Crossref 61. Buckley RH, Wray BB, Belmaker EZ: Extreme hyperimmunoglobulinemia E and undue susceptibility to infections . Pediatrics 49:59-70, 1972. 62. Hill HR, Quie PG: Defective neutrophil chemotaxis, severe staphylococcal infection, and hyperimmunoglobulinemia E . Pediatr Res 8:426, 1974.Crossref 63. Pickering RM, Naff GB, Siroud RM, et al: Deficiency of C1r in human serum: Effects on the structure and function of macromolecular Cl . J Exp Med 131:803-815, 1970.Crossref 64. Day NK, Geiger H, Stroud R, et al: C1r deficiency: An inborn error associated with cutaneous and renal disease . J Clin Invest 51:1102-1108, 1972.Crossref 65. Agnello V, De Bracco MME, Kunkel HG: Hereditary C2 deficiency with some manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus . J Immunol 108:837-840, 1972. 66. Ruddy S, Klemperer MR, Rosen FS, et al: Hereditary deficiency of the second component of complement (C2) in man: Correlation of C2 protein . Immunology 18:943-954, 1970. 67. Klemperer MR, Woodworth HC, Rosen FS, et al: Hereditary deficiency of the second component of complement in man . J Clin Invest 45:880-890, 1966.Crossref 68. Klemperer MR, Austen KF, Rosen FS: Hereditary deficiency of the second component of complement (C2) in man: Further observations in a second kindred . J Immunol 98:72-78, 1967. 69. Alper CA, Colten HR, Rosen FS, et al: Homozygous deficiency of C3 in a patient with reported infections . Lancet 2:1179-1181, 1972.Crossref 70. Alper CA, Abramson N, Johnston RB, et al: Increased susceptibility to infection associated with abnormalities of complement-mediated functions of the third component of complement (C3) . N Engl J Med 282:349-354, 1970.Crossref 71. Ziegler JB, Alper CA, Rosen FS, et al: Restoration by purified C3b inactivator of complement-mediated function in vivo in a patient with C3b inactivator deficiency . J Clin Invest 55:668-672, 1975.Crossref 72. Alper CA, Bloch KJ, Rosen FS: Increased susceptibility to infection in a patient with type II essential hypercatabolism of C3 . N Engl J Med 288:601-606, 1973.Crossref 73. 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Journal

Archives of DermatologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Nov 1, 1976

References