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DISEASES OF NUTRITION: REVIEW OF CERTAIN RECENT CONTRIBUTIONS

DISEASES OF NUTRITION: REVIEW OF CERTAIN RECENT CONTRIBUTIONS Abstract Within the past year vitamins again have been the main attraction in the study of nutrition. More and more evidence has accumulated to indicate that vitamins form an integral part of the enzyme system of the body and that clinical deficiencies of vitamins are usually multiple rather than singular. In addition, the broad aspect of national defense has again brought forward many timely discussions of national standards of nutrition and the controversial issue of fortification of foods. These general advances have been supplemented by numerous experimental and chemical contributions to knowledge of each separate vitamin, but space allows detailed discussion only of those of the greatest clinical significance. VITAMIN A Chemical and Physiologic Properties. —It appears from recent reports that the chemical structure of vitamin (A1) is closely related to that of vitamin A2. Most observations are in accord with the view that vitamin A2 contains the References 1. Gray, E. LeB., and Cawley, J. D.: The Influence of Structure on the Elimination Maximum: I. The Structure of Vitamin A2 , J. Biol. Chem. 143:397-401 ( (June) ) 1940. 2. Baxter, J. G., and Robeson, C. D.: Crystalline Vitamin A Palmitate and Vitamin A Alcohol , Science 92:203-204 ( (Aug. 30) ) 1940.Crossref 3. Gray, E. L.; Morgareidge, K., and Cawley, J. D.: Intestinal Absorption of Vitamin A in the Normal Rat , J. Nutrition 20:67-74 ( (July 10) ) 1940. 4. Groth, H., and Skurnik, L.: Intravenous Saturation with Vitamin-A , Acta med. Scandinav. 101:333-337, 1939.Crossref 5. Clausen, S. W.; Baum, W. S.; McCoord, A. B.; Rydeen, J. O., and Breese, B. B.: Mobilization of Vitamin A from Its Stores in the Tissues by Ethyl Alcohol , Science 91:318-319 ( (March 29) ) 1940.Crossref 6. Pett, L. B.: Mobilization of Vitamin A by Alcohol , Science 92:63 ( (July 19) ) 1940.Crossref 7. With, T. K.: Investigations on Transformation of Carotene to Vitamin A in Liver of Rats, with Special Reference to Rate of Process , Nord. med. (Hospitalstid.) 3:2901-2903 ( (Sept. 23) ) 1939. 8. Popper, H.: Histological Demonstration of Vitamin A in the Human Liver by Means of Fluorescence Microscopy , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 43:234-236 ( (Feb.) ) 1940 9. Vitamin A: The Distribution of Vitamin A in the Body , J. Mt. Sinai Hosp. 7:119-132 ( (Sept.-Oct.) ) 1940. 10. Popper, H., and Greenburg, R.: Distribution of Vitamin A in the Rat as Studied by Fluorescence Microscopy , Am. J. Physiol. 129:442 ( (May) ) 1940. 11. von Querner, F. R.: Der mikroskopische Nachweis von Vitamin A im animalen Gewebe. Zur Kenntnis der paraplasmatischen Leberzelleinschlusse: III , Klin. Wchnschr. 14:1213-1217 ( (Aug. 24) ) 1935. 12. May, C. D.; Blackfan, K. D.; McCreary, J. F., and Allen, F. H., Jr.: Clinical Studies of Vitamin A in Infants and in Children , Am. J. Dis. Child. 59: 1167-1184 ( (June) ) 1940. 13. The values are expressed, not in U. S. P. units, but abstract units directly related to the galvanometer readings on the Evelyn colorimeter, as described by May (page 1170 10). 14. Lewis, J. M., and Haig, C.: Vitamin A Requirements in Infancy as Determined by Dark Adaptation , J. Pediat. 15:812-823 ( (Dec.) ) 1939 15. correction, Lewis Vitamin A Requirements in Infancy as Determined by Dark Adaptation J. Pediat. 16:274 ( (Feb.) ) 1940. 16. Booher, L. E., and Callison, E. C.: The Minimum Vitamin-A Requirements of Normal Adults, the Utilization of Carotene as Affected by Certain Dietary Factors and Variations in Light Exposure , J. Nutrition 18:459-471 ( (Nov.) ) 1939. 17. Dornbush, A. C.; Peterson, W. H., and Olson, F. R.: The Carotene and Vitamin A Content of Market Milks , J. A. M. A. 114:1748-1751 ( (May 4) ) 1940. 18. Steele, E. J. P.: Effect of Vitamin-A Therapy Estimated by a Rapid Optical Test , Lancet 2:205-206 ( (Aug. 17) ) 1940. 19. Sheftel, A. G.: Dark Adaptation and Vitamin A Deficiency: A New Technic , Am. J. Clin. Path. 10:168-175 ( (Feb.) ) 1940. 20. Pett, L. B.: Vitamin A Deficiency: Its Prevalence and Importance as Shown by a New Test , J. Lab. & Clin. Med. 25:149-160 ( (Nov.) ) 1939. 21. Blanchard, E. L., and Harper, H. A.: Measurement of Vitamin A Status of Young Adults by the Dark Adaptation Technic , Arch. Int. Med. 66:661-669 ( (Sept.) ) 1940. 22. McDonald, R., and Adler, F. H.: Effect of Anoxemia on the Dark Adaptation of the Normal and of the Vitamin A-Deficient Subject , Arch. Ophth. 22:980-988 ( (Dec.) ) 1939.Crossref 23. Steininger, G., and Roberts, L. J.: Biophotometer Test as an Index of Nutritional Status for Vitamin A , Arch. Int. Med. 64:1170-1186 ( (Dec.) ) 1939.Crossref 24. Harris, L. J., and Abbasy, M. A.: The Dark-Adaptation Test: Its Reliability as a Test for Vitamin-A Deficiency , Lancet 2:1299-1305 ( (Dec. 23) ) 25. 1355-1359 (Dec. 30) 1939. 26. Isaacs, B. L.; Jung, F. T., and Ivy, A. C.: Clinical Studies of Vitamin A Deficiency: Biophotometer and Adaptometer (Hecht) Studies on Normal Adults and on Persons in Whom an Attempt Was Made to Produce Vitamin A Deficiency , Arch. Ophth. 24:698-721 ( (Oct.) ) 1940.Crossref 27. Thomson, A. M.; Griffith, H. D.; Mutch, J. R.; Lubbock, D. M.; Owen, E. C., and Logaras, G.: A Study of Diet in Relation to Health: Dark Adaptation as an Index of Adequate Vitamin A Intake; III. The Relation of Diet to Rate and Extent of Dark Adaptation , Brit. J. Ophth. 23:697-723 ( (Nov.) ) 1939.Crossref 28. Baum, W. S., and McCoord, A. B.: The Relationship Between Biophotometer Tests and the Vitamin A Content of the Blood of Children , J. Pediat. 16:409-418 ( (April) ) 1940.Crossref 29. Steininger, G.; Roberts, L. J., and Brenner, S.: Vitamin A in the Blood of Normal Adults: The Effect of a Depletion Diet on Blood Values and Biophotometer Readings , J. A. M. A. 113:2381-2387 ( (Dec. 30) ) 1939.Crossref 30. Pett, L. B., and LePage, G. A.: Vitamin A Deficiency: III. Blood Analysis Correlated with a Visual Test , J. Biol. Chem. 132:585-593 ( (Feb.) ) 1940. 31. French, R. B.: Assay of Vitamin A with the Photoelectric Colorimeter , Indust. & Engin. Chem. (Analyt. Ed.) 12:351-352 ( (June) ) 1940. 32. Kimble, M. S.: The Photocolorimetric Determination of Vitamin A and Carotene in Human Plasma , J. Lab. & Clin. Med. 24:1055-1065 ( (July) ) 1939. 33. Breese, B. B., Jr., and McCoord, A. B.: Vitamin A Absorption in Celiac Disease , J. Pediat. 15:183-196 ( (Aug.) ) 1939. 34. Breese, B. B., and McCoord, A. B.: Vitamin A Absorption in Catarrhal Jaundice , J. Pediat. 16:139-145 ( (Feb.) ) 1940. 35. Salah, M.: Vitamin A Deficiency in Jaundice , J. Egyptian M. A. 23:153-161 ( (March) ) 1940. 36. Breese and McCoord (footnotes 21 and 22a). 37. Salah.22b 38. Straumfjord, J. V.: Vernix Caseosa: A Manifestation of Vitamin A Deficiency; a Preliminary Report , West. J. Surg. 48:341-351 ( (June) ) 1940. 39. Lehman, E., and Rapaport, H. G.: Cutaneous Manifestations of Vitamin A Deficiency in Children , J. A. M. A. 114:386-393 ( (Feb. 3) ) 1940. 40. Giraud, P., and Vallette, A.: Essai de traitement de la fievre typhoïde chez l'enfant par la vitamine A , Arch. de méd. d. enf. 42:691-697 ( (Nov.-Dec.) ) 1939 41. abstracted, J. A. M. A. 114:832-833 ( (March 2) ) 1940. 42. Jensen, H. B., and With, T. K.: Vitamin A and the Carotenoids in the Liver of Mammals, Birds, Reptiles and Man with Particular Regard to the Intensity of the Ultraviolet Absorption and the Carr-Price Reaction of Vitamin A , Biochem. J. 33:1771-1786 ( (Nov.) ) 1939. 43. Woo, T. T., and Chu, F. T.: The Vitamin A Content of the Livers of Chinese Infants, Children and Adults , Chinese J. Physiol. 15:83-100 ( (Jan. 30) ) 1940. 44. Crimm, P. D., and Short, D. M.: Vitamin A Content of the Human Liver in Tuberculosis , Ann. Int. Med. 13:61-63 ( (July) ) 1939. 45. Wohl, M. G., and Feldman, J. B.: Vitamin A Deficiency in Disease of the Liver: Its Detection by Dark-Adaptation Method , J. Lab. & Clin. Med. 25: 485-494 ( (Feb.) ) 1940. 46. Brazer, J. G., and Curtis, A. C.: Vitamin A Deficiency in Diabetes Mellitus , Arch. Int. Med. 65:90-105 ( (Jan.) ) 1940. 47. Hall, M. G.; Bayles, T. B., and Soutter, P.: Vitamin A Requirements in Rheumatoid Arthritis , New England J. Med. 223:92-96 ( (July 18) ) 1940. 48. Cordes, F. C., and Harrington, D. O.: Astenopia Due to Vitamin-A Deficiency , Am. J. Ophth. 22:1343-1354 ( (Dec.) ) 1939. 49. de Grósz, S.: Local Use of Vitamin A Preparations in Ophthalmic Practice , Arch. Ophth. 22:727-734 ( (Nov.) ) 1939. 50. de Rötth, A.: Local Action of Oils Containing Vitamin A: Experimental Contribution , Arch. Ophth. 24:281-291 ( (Aug.) ) 1940. 51. Platt, B. S., and Lu, G. D.: Studies on the Metabolism of Pyruvic Acid in Normal and Vitamin B1 Deficiency States: IV. The Accumulation of Pyruvic Acid and Other Compounds in Beri-Beri and the Effect of Vitamin B1 , Biochem. J. 33:1525-1537 ( (Oct.) ) 1939. 52. Lu, G. D., and Platt, B. S.: Studies on the Metabolism of Pyruvic Acid in Normal and Vitamin B1 Deficiency States: V. The Effect of Exercises on Blood Pyruvate in Vitamin B1 Deficiency in Man , Biochem. J. 33:1538-1543 ( (Oct.) ) 1939. 53. Robinson, W. D; Melnick, D., and Field, H., Jr.: Correlation Between the Concentration of Bisulphite Binding Substances in the Blood and the Urinary Thiamin Excretion , J. Clin. Investigation 19:483-488 ( (May) ) 1940. 54. Engel, R. W., and Phillips, P. H.: Fatty Livers as a Result of Thiamin Administration and the Vitamin B1 Deficiency of the Rat and the Chick , J. Nutrition 18:329-338 ( (Oct. 10) ) 1939. 55. Badger, L. F., and Masunaga, E.: Possible Relation of Calcium Deficiency to the Utilization of Vitamin B1 , Pub. Health Rep. 54:1775-1779 ( (Sept. 29) ) 1939. 56. Sinclair, H. M.: The Estimation of Vitamin B1 in Cerebrospinal Fluid , Biochem. J. 33:1816-1821 ( (Nov.) ) 1939. 57. Melnick, D.; Field, H., Jr., and Robinson, W. D.: A Quantitative Chemical Study of the Urinary Excretion of Thiamine by Normal Individuals , J. Nutrition 18:593-610 ( (Dec.) ) 1939. 58. Borson, H. J.: Clinical Application of the Thiochrome Reaction in the Study of Thiamin (Vitamin B1) Deficiency , Ann. Int. Med. 14:1-27 ( (July) ) 1940. 59. Wang, Y. L., and Harris, L. J.: Methods for Assessing the Level of Nutrition of the Human Subject: Estimation of Vitamin B1 in Urine by the Thiochrome Test , Biochem. J. 33:1356-1369 ( (Aug.) ) 1939. 60. Sinclair, H. M.: The Estimation of Vitamin B1 in Blood: II. A Further Modification of Meiklejohn's Method , Biochem. J. 33:2027-2036 ( (Dec.) ) 1939. 61. Wright, M. D., and Baker, A. Z.: Vitamin B1 Excretion on a Varied Intake , J. Hyg. 39:638-642 ( (Nov.) ) 1939. 62. Pollack, H.; Dolger, H.; Ellenberg, M., and Cohen, S.: A Test Proposed to Measure Vitamin B1 Saturation in Humans , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 44:98-100 ( (May) ) 1940. 63. Robinson, W. D.; Melnick, D., and Field, H., Jr.: Urinary Excretion of Thiamin in Clinical Cases and the Value of Such Analyses in the Diagnosis of Thiamin Deficiency , J. Clin. Investigation 19:399-408 ( (March) ) 1940. 64. Hou, H. C., and Yang, E. F.: Observations on Vitamin B1 Metabolism: I. Urinary Excretion by Normal Individuals and Beriberi Patients , Chinese J. Physiol. 14:269-282 ( (Sept. 30) ) 1939. 65. Pannekoek-Westenburg, S. J. E., and van Veen, A. G.: Vitamin B1 Content of Blood in Healthy Persons and Patients , Geneesk. tijdschr. v. Nederl.-Indeë 80: 1773-1820 ( (July 23) ) 1940 66. abstracted, J. A. M. A. 115:1494 ( (Oct. 26) ) 1940. 67. Goodhart, R., and Sinclair, H. M.: Deficiency of Vitamin B1 in Man as Determined by the Blood Cocarboxylase , J. Biol. Chem. 132:11-21 ( (Jan.) ) 1940. 68. Pollack, H.; Dolger, H.; Ellenberg, M., and Cohen, S.: Test for the Rapid Estimation of Vitamin B1 Saturation , J. Clin. Investigation 19:771 ( (Sept.) ) 1940. 69. Emmett, A. D.; Peacock, G., and Brown, R. A.: Chemical Determination of Thiamine by a Modification of the Melnick-Field Method , J. Biol. Chem. 135: 131-138 ( (Aug.) ) 1940. 70. Hills, G. M.: The Thiochrome Test for Aneurin (Vitamin B1) in Urine as an Index of Nutritional Level , Biochem. J. 33:1966-1979 ( (Dec.) ) 1939. 71. Ferrebee, J. W., and Carden, G. A.: A Procedure for the Routine Determination of Vitamin B1 in Urine , J. Lab. & Clin. Med. 25:1320-1324 ( (Sept.) ) 1940. 72. Melnick, D., and Field, H., Jr.: Chemical Determination, Stability, and Form of Thiamine in Urine , J. Biol. Chem. 130:97-107 ( (Sept.) ) 1939. 73. Jolliffe, N.; Goodhart, R.; Gennis, J., and Cline, J. K.: The Experimental Production of Vitamin B1 Deficiency in Normal Subjects: The Dependence of the Urinary Excretion of Thiamin on the Dietary Intake of Vitamin B1 , Am. J. M. Sc. 198:198-211 ( (Aug.) ) 1939. 74. Williams, R. D.; Mason, H. L., and Smith, B. F.: Induced Vitamin B1 Deficiency in Human Subjects , Proc. Staff Meet., Mayo Clin. 14:787-793 ( (Dec. 13) ) 1939. 75. Williams, R. D.; Mason, H. L., and Wilder, R. M.: Experimental Vitamin B1 Deficiency in Man , J. Nutrition ( (supp.) ) 19:7 (June) 1940. 76. Elsom, K. O.; Lukens, F. D. W.; Montgomery, E. H., and Jonas, L.: Metabolic Disturbances in Experimental Human Vitamin B1 Deficiency , J. Clin. Investigation 19:153-161 ( (Jan.) ) 1940. 77. Melnick, Field and Robinson.42 78. Meiklejohn, A. P.: Is Thiamin the Antineuritic Vitamin? New England J. Med. 223:265-273 ( (Aug. 22) ) 1940. 79. Aring, C. D., and Spies, T. D.: A Critical Review: Vitamin B Deficiency and Nervous Disease , J. Neurol. & Psychiat. 2:335-360 ( (Oct.) ) 1939. 80. Vorhaus, M. G.: Evaluation of Vitamin B1 (Thiamin Chloride) in the Treatment of Polyneuritis , Am. J. M. Sc. 198:837-844 ( (Dec.) ) 1939. 81. Kiene, H. E.; Streitwieser, R. J., and Miller, H.: The Role of Vitamin B1 in Delirium Tremens , J. A. M. A. 114:2191-2194 ( (June 1) ) 1940. 82. Bowman, K. M.; Goodhart, R., and Jolliffe, N.: Observations on the Role of Vitamin B1 in the Etiology and Treatment of Korsakoff Psychosis , J. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. 90:569-575 ( (Nov.) ) 1939. 83. Stone, S.: Treatment of Sydenham's Chorea by Fever and Vitamin B Therapy , New England J. Med. 223:489-496 ( (Sept. 26) ) 1940. 84. Fitzhugh, O. G.: The Effect of Vitamin B1 on Morphine Abstinence Symptoms , J. Pharmacol. & Exper. Therap. 67:423-428 ( (Dec.) ) 1939. 85. Bakhsh, I.: Treatment of Nervous Diseases by Vitamin B1 with Special Reference to Trigeminal Neuralgia: A Report of Seven Cases , Indian M. Gaz. 74:456-458 ( (Aug.) ) 1939. 86. Brandenburg, K. C.: Relief of Neuritis of Eighth Cranial Nerve with Vitamin B1 , Arch. Otolaryng. 31:189-191 ( (Jan.) ) 1940.Crossref 87. Chesley, F. F.; Dunbar, J., and Crandall, L. A., Jr.: The Vitamin B Complex and Its Constituents in Functional Digestive Disturbances , Am. J. Digest. Dis. 7:24-27 ( (Jan.) ) 1940.Crossref 88. Moore, M. T.: Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis with Nicotinic Acid and Vitamin B1: Preliminary Report , Arch. Int. Med. 65:1-20 ( (Jan.) ) 1940.Crossref 89. Jankelson, I. R.: Dysphagia Ascribed to Vitamin B Deficiency , Am. J. Digest. Dis. 7:252-253 ( (June) ) 1940.Crossref 90. Durand, J. I.; Spickard, V. W., and Burgess, E.: Acrodynia Treated with Intramuscular Injections of Vitamin B1 , J. Pediat. 14:74-78 ( (Jan.) ) 1939.Crossref 91. Williams, P.; Shapiro, B. G., and Bartelot, R.: Treatment of Acrodynia with Vitamin B1 Given Parenterally , Lancet 1:76 ( (Jan. 13) ) 1940.Crossref 92. Ochsner, A., and Smith, M. C.: The Use of Vitamin B1 for the Relief of Pain in Varicose Ulcers , J. A. M. A. 114:947-948 ( (March 16) ) 1940. 93. Owens, L. B.; Rockwern, S. S., and Brown, E. G.: Evaluation of Vitamin B Therapy for Diabetes , Arch. Int. Med. 66:679-687 ( (Sept.) ) 1940.Crossref 94. Bean, W. B., and Spies, T. D.: Vitamin Deficiencies in Diarrheal States , J. A. M. A. 115:1078-1081 ( (Sept. 28) ) 1940.Crossref 95. Field, H., Jr.; Robinson, W. D., and Melnick, D.: The Destruction of Thiamin by Unacidified Bile and Pancreatic Juice: A Possible Explanation of the Cord Changes in Pernicious Anemia , J. Clin. Investigation 19:791 ( (Sept.) ) 1940. 96. Weiss, S.: Occidental Beriberi with Cardiovascular Manifestations: Its Relation to Thiamin Deficiency , J. A. M. A. 115:832-839 ( (Sept. 7) ) 1940.Crossref 97. Wilder, R.M.; Browne, H.C., and Butt, H.R.: Diseases of Metabolism and Nutrition: Review of Certain Recent Contributions , Arch. Int. Med. 65:390-460 ( (Feb.) ) 1940.Crossref 98. Axelrod, A. E., and Elvehjem, C. A.: Effect of Nicotinic Acid Deficiency on the Cozymase Content of Tissues , Nature, London 143:281-282 ( (Feb. 18) ) 1939.Crossref 99. Kohn, H.I.; Klein, J.R., and Dann, W.J.: The V-Factorr Content and Oxygen Consumption of Tissues of the Normal and Blacktongue Dog , Biochem. J. 33:1432-1442 ( (Sept.) ) 1939. 100. Kohn, H. I.: The Concentration of Coenzyme-Like Substance in Blood Following Administration of Nicotinic Acid to Normal Individuals and Pellagrins , Biochem. J. 32:2075-2083, 1938. 101. Vilter, R. W.; Vilter, S. P., and Spies, T. D.: Relationship Between Nicotinic Acid and a Codehydrogenase (Cozymase) , J. A. M. A. 112:420-422 ( (Feb. 4) ) 1939.Crossref 102. Kohn, H. I.; Bernheim, F., and Felsovanyi, A. V.: The Blood V-Factor (Coenzyme) Level in Normal and Pathological Subjects , J. Clin. Investigation 18:585-591 ( (Sept.) ) 1939.Crossref 103. Axelrod, A. E.; Gordon, E. S., and Elvehjem, C. A.: The Relationship of the Dietary Intake of Nicotinic Acid to the Coenzyme I Content of Blood , Am. J. M. Sc. 199:697-705 ( (May) ) 1940.Crossref 104. Axelrod, A. E.; Madden, R. J., and Elvehjem, C. A.: The Effect of Nicotinic Acid Deficiency upon the Coenzyme I Content of Animal Tissues , J. Biol. Chem. 131:85-93 ( (Nov.) ) 1939. 105. Vilter, S. P.; Koch, M. B., and Spies, T. D.: Coenzymes I and II in Human Blood , J. Lab. & Clin. Med. 26:31-44 ( (Oct.) ) 1940. 106. Elvehjem, C. A.: Relation of Nicotinic Acid to Pellagra , Physiol. Rev. 20:249-271 ( (April) ) 1940. 107. Kodicek, E.: Estimation of Nicotinic Acid in Animal Tissues, Blood and Certain Foodstuffs: II. Applications , Biochem. J. 34:724-735 ( (May) ) 1940. 108. Kohn, H. I., and Klein, J. R.: Synthesis of Factor V (Pyridine Nucleotides) from Nicotinic Acid in Vitro by Human Erythrocytes , J. Biol. Chem. 135: 685-689 ( (Sept.) ) 1940. 109. Sydenstricker, V. P.; Geeslin, L. E., and Weaver, J. W.: Avitaminosis Occurring in Diabetic Patients Under Insulin Therapy , J. A. M. A. 113:2137-2138 ( (Dec. 9) ) 1939. 110. Burke, J. C., and McIntyre, A. R.: Nicotinic Acid and the Vitamin B Complex in Insulin Tolerance , J. Pharmacol. & Exper. Therap. 67:142-146 ( (Oct.) ) 1939. 111. Himwich, H. E.; Spies, T. D.; Fazekas, J. F., and Nesin, S.: Cerebral Carbohydrate Metabolism During Deficiency of Various Members of the Vitamin B Complex , Am. J. M. Sc. 199:849-853 ( (June) ) 1940. 112. Swaminathan, M.: The Urinary Excretion of Nicotinic Acid , Indian J. M. Research 27:417-428 ( (Oct.) ) 1939. 113. Bandier, E.: Quantitative Estimation of Nicotinic Acid in Urine , Biochem. J. 33:1787-1793 ( (Nov.) ) 1939. 114. Harris. L. J., and Raymond, W. D.: Assessment of the Level of Nutrition: A Method for the Estimation of Nicotinic Acid in Urine , Biochem. J. 33:2037-2051 ( (Dec.) ) 1939. 115. Melnick, D., and Field, H., Jr.: Determination of Nicotinic Acid in Biological Materials by Means of Photoelectric Colorimetry , J. Biol. Chem. 134:1-16 ( (June) ) 1940. 116. Schindel, L.: A Contribution to the Question of the Determination of Nicotinic Acid in Urine , J. Lab. & Clin. Med. 25:515-516 ( (Feb.) ) 1940. 117. Melnick, D., and Field, H., Jr.: Chemical Determination of Nicotinic Acid: Inhibitory Effect of Cyanogen Bromide upon the Aniline Side Reactions , J. Biol. Chem. 135: 53-58 ( (Aug.) ) 1940. 118. Najjar, V. A., and Wood, R. W.: Presence of a Hitherto Unrecognized Nicotinic Acid Derivative in Human Urine , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 44:386-390 ( (June) ) 1940. 119. Rosenblum, L. A., and Jolliffe, N.: Porphyrinuria in Pellagra , Am. J. M. Sc. 199:853-858 ( (June) ) 1940 120. Application to Urine of Bandier and Hald's Method for Determination of Nicotinic Acid , J. Biol. Chem. 134:137-141 ( (June) ) 1940. 121. Melnick, D.; Robinson, W. D., and Field, H., Jr.: Influence of the Excretion of Other Pyridine Compounds upon the Interpretation of the Urinary Nicotinic Acid Values , J. Biol. Chem. 136:131-144 ( (Oct.) ) 1940 122. Urinary Excretion of Nicotinic Acid and Its Derivatives by Normal Individuals , Melnick J. Biol. Chem. 136:145-156 ( (Oct.) ) 1940 123. Factors Affecting the Concentration and Distribution of Nicotinic Acid in the Blood , Melnick J. Biol. Chem. 136:157-166 ( (Oct.) ) 1940. 124. Vilter, S. P.; Spies, T. D., and Mathews, A. P.: A Method for the Determination of Nicotinic Acid, Nicotinamide, and Possibly Other Pyridine-Like Substances in Human Urine , J. Biol. Chem. 125:85-98 ( (Sept.) ) 1938. 125. Elvehjem, C. A.; Waisman, H. A., and Axelrod, A. E.: Nicotinic Acid: Its Distribution, Function and Relation to the Other Members of the B Complex , J. Nutrition ( (supp.) ) 17:11, 1939. 126. Woolley, D. W.; Strong, F. M.; Madden, R. J., and Elvehjem, C. A.: Anti-Black Tongue Activity of Various Pyridine Derivatives , J. Biol. Chem. 124: 715-723 ( (Aug.) ) 1938. 127. Spies, T. D.; Bean, W. B., and Stone, R. E.: The Treatment of Subclinical and Classic Pellagra: Use of Nicotinic Acid, Nicotinic Acid Amide and Sodium Nicotinate, with Special Reference to the Vasodilator Action and the Effect on Mental Symptoms , J. A. M. A. 111:584-590 ( (Aug. 13) ) 1938.Crossref 128. Sydenstricker, V. P.; Schmidt, H. L., Jr.; Fulton, M. C.; New, J. S., and Geeslin, L. E.: Treatment of Pellagra with Nicotinic Acid: Observations in Forty-Five Cases , South. M. J. 31:1155-1163 ( (Nov.) ) 1938.Crossref 129. Weinberg, M. H.: Case of Subclinical Pellagra—Psychotic Type—Treated Successfully with Coramine (Nicotinic Acid) , Am. J. Psychiat. 96:701-704 ( (Nov.) ) 1939. 130. Bills, C. E.; McDonald, F. G., and Spies, T. D.: Antipellagric Action of Pyrazine-2, 3-Dicarboxylic Acid and Pyrazine Monocarboxylic Acid , South. M. 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A.: Effect of Nicotinic Acid on Peripheral Blood Flow in Man , Am. J. M. Sc. 200:96-102 ( (July) ) 1940. 138. Bean, W. B., and Spies, T. D.: A Study of the Effects of Nicotinic Acid and Related Pyridine and Pyrazine Compounds on the Temperature of the Skin of Human Beings , Am. Heart J. 20:62-76 ( (July) ) 1940. 139. Frostig, J. P., and Spies, T. D.: The Initial Nervous Syndrome of Pellagra and Associated Deficiency Diseases , Am. J. M. Sc. 199:268-274 ( (Feb.) ) 1940. 140. Field, H. J., and Robinson, W. D.: The Absence of Reactions Following Therapeutic Doses of Nicotinic Acid Amide , Am. J. M. Sc. 199:275-276 ( (Feb.) ) 1940. 141. Selfridge, G.: Nicotinic Acid in the Eighth Nerve: Preliminary Report , Ann. Otol., Rhin. & Laryng. 48:39-53 ( (March) ) 1939 142. The Eighth Nerve in Relation to Thiamin Chloride and Nicotinic Acid: A Comparative Study , Selfridge Ann. Otol., Rhin. & Laryng. 48:419-432 ( (June) ) 1939. 143. King, J. 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J.: Oral and Parenteral Toxicity of Vitamin K1, Phthiocol and 2 Methyl 1,4 Naphthoquinone , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 43:125-128 ( (Jan.) ) 1940. 334. Warner, E. D., in discussion on Butt, Snell and Osterberg.229 335. Butt, H. R.; Snell, A. M., and Osterberg, A. E.: Oral and Intramuscular Administration of Vitamin K in Hemorrhagic Diathesis of Obstructive Jaundice , J. A. M. A. 112:879-880 ( (March 4) ) 1939. 336. Rhoads, J. E.: Physiological Factors Regulating the Level of the Plasma Prothrombin , Ann. Surg. 111:916 ( (May) ) 1940. 337. Bollman, J. L.; Butt, H. R., and Snell, A. M.: The Influence of the Liver on the Utilization of Vitamin K , J. A. M. A. 115:1087-1091 ( (Sept. 28) ) 1940. 338. Brinkhous, K. M., and Warner, E. D.: Effect of Vitamin K on Hypoprothrombinemia of Experimental Liver Injury , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 44: 609-610 ( (June) ) 1940. 339. Brinkhous, K. M.: Plasma Prothrombin: Vitamin K , Medicine 19:329-416 ( (Sept.) ) 1940. 340. 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P.: Effect of Cooking upon the Thiamin Content of Foods , J. Nutrition 19:285-296 ( (March) ) 1940. 388. Rose, M. S.: The Effect of Quick Freezing on the Nutritive Values of Foods , J. A. M. A. 114:1356-1361 ( (April 6) ) 1940.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Internal Medicine American Medical Association

DISEASES OF NUTRITION: REVIEW OF CERTAIN RECENT CONTRIBUTIONS

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American Medical Association
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Copyright © 1941 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0730-188X
DOI
10.1001/archinte.1941.00200020173011
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Abstract

Abstract Within the past year vitamins again have been the main attraction in the study of nutrition. More and more evidence has accumulated to indicate that vitamins form an integral part of the enzyme system of the body and that clinical deficiencies of vitamins are usually multiple rather than singular. In addition, the broad aspect of national defense has again brought forward many timely discussions of national standards of nutrition and the controversial issue of fortification of foods. These general advances have been supplemented by numerous experimental and chemical contributions to knowledge of each separate vitamin, but space allows detailed discussion only of those of the greatest clinical significance. VITAMIN A Chemical and Physiologic Properties. —It appears from recent reports that the chemical structure of vitamin (A1) is closely related to that of vitamin A2. Most observations are in accord with the view that vitamin A2 contains the References 1. Gray, E. LeB., and Cawley, J. D.: The Influence of Structure on the Elimination Maximum: I. The Structure of Vitamin A2 , J. Biol. Chem. 143:397-401 ( (June) ) 1940. 2. Baxter, J. G., and Robeson, C. D.: Crystalline Vitamin A Palmitate and Vitamin A Alcohol , Science 92:203-204 ( (Aug. 30) ) 1940.Crossref 3. Gray, E. L.; Morgareidge, K., and Cawley, J. D.: Intestinal Absorption of Vitamin A in the Normal Rat , J. Nutrition 20:67-74 ( (July 10) ) 1940. 4. Groth, H., and Skurnik, L.: Intravenous Saturation with Vitamin-A , Acta med. Scandinav. 101:333-337, 1939.Crossref 5. Clausen, S. W.; Baum, W. S.; McCoord, A. B.; Rydeen, J. O., and Breese, B. B.: Mobilization of Vitamin A from Its Stores in the Tissues by Ethyl Alcohol , Science 91:318-319 ( (March 29) ) 1940.Crossref 6. Pett, L. B.: Mobilization of Vitamin A by Alcohol , Science 92:63 ( (July 19) ) 1940.Crossref 7. With, T. K.: Investigations on Transformation of Carotene to Vitamin A in Liver of Rats, with Special Reference to Rate of Process , Nord. med. (Hospitalstid.) 3:2901-2903 ( (Sept. 23) ) 1939. 8. Popper, H.: Histological Demonstration of Vitamin A in the Human Liver by Means of Fluorescence Microscopy , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 43:234-236 ( (Feb.) ) 1940 9. Vitamin A: The Distribution of Vitamin A in the Body , J. Mt. Sinai Hosp. 7:119-132 ( (Sept.-Oct.) ) 1940. 10. Popper, H., and Greenburg, R.: Distribution of Vitamin A in the Rat as Studied by Fluorescence Microscopy , Am. J. Physiol. 129:442 ( (May) ) 1940. 11. von Querner, F. R.: Der mikroskopische Nachweis von Vitamin A im animalen Gewebe. Zur Kenntnis der paraplasmatischen Leberzelleinschlusse: III , Klin. Wchnschr. 14:1213-1217 ( (Aug. 24) ) 1935. 12. May, C. D.; Blackfan, K. D.; McCreary, J. F., and Allen, F. H., Jr.: Clinical Studies of Vitamin A in Infants and in Children , Am. J. Dis. Child. 59: 1167-1184 ( (June) ) 1940. 13. The values are expressed, not in U. S. P. units, but abstract units directly related to the galvanometer readings on the Evelyn colorimeter, as described by May (page 1170 10). 14. Lewis, J. M., and Haig, C.: Vitamin A Requirements in Infancy as Determined by Dark Adaptation , J. Pediat. 15:812-823 ( (Dec.) ) 1939 15. correction, Lewis Vitamin A Requirements in Infancy as Determined by Dark Adaptation J. Pediat. 16:274 ( (Feb.) ) 1940. 16. Booher, L. E., and Callison, E. C.: The Minimum Vitamin-A Requirements of Normal Adults, the Utilization of Carotene as Affected by Certain Dietary Factors and Variations in Light Exposure , J. Nutrition 18:459-471 ( (Nov.) ) 1939. 17. Dornbush, A. C.; Peterson, W. H., and Olson, F. R.: The Carotene and Vitamin A Content of Market Milks , J. A. M. A. 114:1748-1751 ( (May 4) ) 1940. 18. Steele, E. J. P.: Effect of Vitamin-A Therapy Estimated by a Rapid Optical Test , Lancet 2:205-206 ( (Aug. 17) ) 1940. 19. Sheftel, A. G.: Dark Adaptation and Vitamin A Deficiency: A New Technic , Am. J. Clin. Path. 10:168-175 ( (Feb.) ) 1940. 20. Pett, L. B.: Vitamin A Deficiency: Its Prevalence and Importance as Shown by a New Test , J. Lab. & Clin. Med. 25:149-160 ( (Nov.) ) 1939. 21. Blanchard, E. L., and Harper, H. A.: Measurement of Vitamin A Status of Young Adults by the Dark Adaptation Technic , Arch. Int. Med. 66:661-669 ( (Sept.) ) 1940. 22. McDonald, R., and Adler, F. H.: Effect of Anoxemia on the Dark Adaptation of the Normal and of the Vitamin A-Deficient Subject , Arch. Ophth. 22:980-988 ( (Dec.) ) 1939.Crossref 23. Steininger, G., and Roberts, L. J.: Biophotometer Test as an Index of Nutritional Status for Vitamin A , Arch. Int. Med. 64:1170-1186 ( (Dec.) ) 1939.Crossref 24. Harris, L. J., and Abbasy, M. A.: The Dark-Adaptation Test: Its Reliability as a Test for Vitamin-A Deficiency , Lancet 2:1299-1305 ( (Dec. 23) ) 25. 1355-1359 (Dec. 30) 1939. 26. Isaacs, B. L.; Jung, F. T., and Ivy, A. 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Journal

Archives of Internal MedicineAmerican Medical Association

Published: Feb 1, 1941

References