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Dietary Calcium and Bone Mineral Status of Children and Adolescents

Dietary Calcium and Bone Mineral Status of Children and Adolescents Abstract • We studied 164 healthy, white children aged 2 to 16 years; there were 88 boys and 76 girls. By the method of single photon absorptiometry, we found that age, height, and weight correlated positively with bone mineral content of the radius bone. In the children's diet, most of those aged 2 to 11 years met the recommended dietary allowance (800 mg daily) for calcium. Children older than 11 years had low dietary calcium intake; only 15% met the recommended dietary allowance for calcium (1200 mg daily). Dietary calcium intake was associated with bone mineral status. Children ingesting more than 1000 mg of calcium daily had higher bone mineral content than those ingesting less. Almost all serum determinations of calcium, phosphate, magnesium, alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D were within normal limits and had no correlation with children's bone mineral status. (AJDC. 1991;145:631-634) References 1. Avioli LV. Calcium and phosphorus . In: Shels ME, Young VR, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease . 7th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lea & Febiger; 1988:142-158. 2. Heaney RP, Gallagher JC, Johnston CC, Neer R, Parfitt AM, Whedon GD. Calcium nutrition and bone health in the elderly . Am J Clin Nutr. 1982;36( (suppl) ):986-1013. 3. Hamill PVV, Drizd TA, Johnson CL, Reed RB, Roche AF, Moore WM. Physical growth: national center for health statistics percentiles . Am J Clin Nutr. 1979;32:607-629. 4. Chan GM, McMurray M, Westover K, Engelbert-Fenton K, Thomas MR. Effects of increased dietary calcium intake upon the calcium and bone mineral status of lactating adolescent and adult women . Am J Clin Nutr. 1987;46:319-323. 5. Cameron JR, Mazess RB, Sorensen JA. Precision and accuracy of bone mineral determination by direct photon absorptiometry . Invest Radiol. 1968;3:141-150.Crossref 6. Manzke E, Chestnut CH III, Wergedal JE, Baylink DJ, Nelp WB. Relationship between local and total bone mass in osteoporosis . Metabolism . 1975;24:605-615.Crossref 7. Landin L, Nilsson BE. Forearm bone mineral content in children: normative data . Acta Paediatr Scand. 1981;70:919-923.Crossref 8. Trotter M, Broman GE, Peterson PR. Densities of bones of white and negro skeletons . J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1960;42:50-58. 9. Garn SM. The phenomenon of bone formation and bone loss . In: DeLuca HF, Frost HM, Jee WSS, Johnston CC, Parfitt AM, eds. Osteoporosis: Recent Advances in Pathogenesis and Treatment . Baltimore, Md: University Park Press; 1980:1-18. 10. Lutz J. Bone mineral, serum calcium, and dietary intakes of mother/daughter pairs . Am J Clin Nutr. 1986;44:99-106. 11. Seeman E, Hopper JL, Bach L, et al. Reduced bone mass in daughters of women with osteoporosis . N Engl J Med. 1989;320:554-558.Crossref 12. Mazess RB, Cameron VR. Growth of bone in school children: comparison of radiographic and photon absorptiometry . Growth . 1972;36:77-92. 13. Specker BL, Brazerol W, Tsang RC, Levin R, Searcy J, Steichen J. Bone mineral content in children 1 to 6 years of age: detectable sex differences after 4 years of age . AJDC. 1987;141:343-344. 14. Osteoporosis: Cause, Treatment, Prevention . Washington, DC: US Public Health Service; 1986. US Department of Health and Human Services publication NIH 86-2226. 15. Chan GM. Calcium and bone mineral status in infants' and children's nutrition . In: Lebenthal E, ed. Textbook on Gastroenterology and Nutrition in Early Childhood . New York, NY: Raven Press; 1989:403-413. 16. St Jeor ST, Guthrie HA, Jones MB. Variability in nutrient intake in a 28-day period . J Am Diet Assoc. 1983;83:144-146. 17. Mahalko JR, Johnson LK, Gallagher SK, Milne DB. Comparison of dietary histories and seven-day food records in a nutritional assessment of older adults . Am J Clin Nutr. 1985;42:542-553. 18. Morgan KJ, Stampley GL, Zabek ME, Fisher DR. Magnesium and calcium dietary intakes of the US population . J Am Coll Nutr. 1985;4( (2) ):195-206.Crossref 19. Evans MD, Cronin FJ. Diets of school-age children and teenagers . Fam Econ Rev. 1986;3:14-21. 20. Amschler DH. Calcium intake: a lifelong proposition . J Sch Health . 1985;55:360-363.Crossref 21. Yano K, Heilbrun LK, Wasnich RD, Hankin JH, Vogel JM. The relationship between diet and bone mineral content of multiple skeletal sites in elderly Japanese-American men and women living in Hawaii . Am J Clin Nutr. 1985;42:877-888. 22. Lindergard B. Bone mineral content measured with photon absorptiometry: a methodological study carried out on normal individuals . Scand J Urol Nephrol Suppl. 1981;59:1-37. 23. Sandler RB, Slemenda CW, LaPorte RE, et al. Post menopausal bone density and milk consumption in childhood and adolescence . Am J Clin Nutr. 1985;42:270-274. 24. Chan GM, Hess M, Hollis J, Book LS. Bone mineral status in childhood accidental fractures . AJDC. 1984;138:569-570. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png American Journal of Diseases of Children American Medical Association

Dietary Calcium and Bone Mineral Status of Children and Adolescents

American Journal of Diseases of Children , Volume 145 (6) – Jun 1, 1991

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1991 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0002-922X
DOI
10.1001/archpedi.1991.02160060049019
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract • We studied 164 healthy, white children aged 2 to 16 years; there were 88 boys and 76 girls. By the method of single photon absorptiometry, we found that age, height, and weight correlated positively with bone mineral content of the radius bone. In the children's diet, most of those aged 2 to 11 years met the recommended dietary allowance (800 mg daily) for calcium. Children older than 11 years had low dietary calcium intake; only 15% met the recommended dietary allowance for calcium (1200 mg daily). Dietary calcium intake was associated with bone mineral status. Children ingesting more than 1000 mg of calcium daily had higher bone mineral content than those ingesting less. Almost all serum determinations of calcium, phosphate, magnesium, alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D were within normal limits and had no correlation with children's bone mineral status. (AJDC. 1991;145:631-634) References 1. Avioli LV. Calcium and phosphorus . In: Shels ME, Young VR, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease . 7th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lea & Febiger; 1988:142-158. 2. Heaney RP, Gallagher JC, Johnston CC, Neer R, Parfitt AM, Whedon GD. Calcium nutrition and bone health in the elderly . Am J Clin Nutr. 1982;36( (suppl) ):986-1013. 3. Hamill PVV, Drizd TA, Johnson CL, Reed RB, Roche AF, Moore WM. Physical growth: national center for health statistics percentiles . Am J Clin Nutr. 1979;32:607-629. 4. Chan GM, McMurray M, Westover K, Engelbert-Fenton K, Thomas MR. Effects of increased dietary calcium intake upon the calcium and bone mineral status of lactating adolescent and adult women . Am J Clin Nutr. 1987;46:319-323. 5. Cameron JR, Mazess RB, Sorensen JA. Precision and accuracy of bone mineral determination by direct photon absorptiometry . Invest Radiol. 1968;3:141-150.Crossref 6. Manzke E, Chestnut CH III, Wergedal JE, Baylink DJ, Nelp WB. Relationship between local and total bone mass in osteoporosis . Metabolism . 1975;24:605-615.Crossref 7. Landin L, Nilsson BE. Forearm bone mineral content in children: normative data . Acta Paediatr Scand. 1981;70:919-923.Crossref 8. Trotter M, Broman GE, Peterson PR. Densities of bones of white and negro skeletons . J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1960;42:50-58. 9. Garn SM. The phenomenon of bone formation and bone loss . In: DeLuca HF, Frost HM, Jee WSS, Johnston CC, Parfitt AM, eds. Osteoporosis: Recent Advances in Pathogenesis and Treatment . Baltimore, Md: University Park Press; 1980:1-18. 10. Lutz J. Bone mineral, serum calcium, and dietary intakes of mother/daughter pairs . Am J Clin Nutr. 1986;44:99-106. 11. Seeman E, Hopper JL, Bach L, et al. Reduced bone mass in daughters of women with osteoporosis . N Engl J Med. 1989;320:554-558.Crossref 12. Mazess RB, Cameron VR. Growth of bone in school children: comparison of radiographic and photon absorptiometry . Growth . 1972;36:77-92. 13. Specker BL, Brazerol W, Tsang RC, Levin R, Searcy J, Steichen J. Bone mineral content in children 1 to 6 years of age: detectable sex differences after 4 years of age . AJDC. 1987;141:343-344. 14. Osteoporosis: Cause, Treatment, Prevention . Washington, DC: US Public Health Service; 1986. US Department of Health and Human Services publication NIH 86-2226. 15. Chan GM. Calcium and bone mineral status in infants' and children's nutrition . In: Lebenthal E, ed. Textbook on Gastroenterology and Nutrition in Early Childhood . New York, NY: Raven Press; 1989:403-413. 16. St Jeor ST, Guthrie HA, Jones MB. Variability in nutrient intake in a 28-day period . J Am Diet Assoc. 1983;83:144-146. 17. Mahalko JR, Johnson LK, Gallagher SK, Milne DB. Comparison of dietary histories and seven-day food records in a nutritional assessment of older adults . Am J Clin Nutr. 1985;42:542-553. 18. Morgan KJ, Stampley GL, Zabek ME, Fisher DR. Magnesium and calcium dietary intakes of the US population . J Am Coll Nutr. 1985;4( (2) ):195-206.Crossref 19. Evans MD, Cronin FJ. Diets of school-age children and teenagers . Fam Econ Rev. 1986;3:14-21. 20. Amschler DH. Calcium intake: a lifelong proposition . J Sch Health . 1985;55:360-363.Crossref 21. Yano K, Heilbrun LK, Wasnich RD, Hankin JH, Vogel JM. The relationship between diet and bone mineral content of multiple skeletal sites in elderly Japanese-American men and women living in Hawaii . Am J Clin Nutr. 1985;42:877-888. 22. Lindergard B. Bone mineral content measured with photon absorptiometry: a methodological study carried out on normal individuals . Scand J Urol Nephrol Suppl. 1981;59:1-37. 23. Sandler RB, Slemenda CW, LaPorte RE, et al. Post menopausal bone density and milk consumption in childhood and adolescence . Am J Clin Nutr. 1985;42:270-274. 24. Chan GM, Hess M, Hollis J, Book LS. Bone mineral status in childhood accidental fractures . AJDC. 1984;138:569-570.

Journal

American Journal of Diseases of ChildrenAmerican Medical Association

Published: Jun 1, 1991

References