Abstract Systematic psychiatric assessment was undertaken on 131 patients (the American cohort of the International Pilot Study of Schizophrenia). Nine areas of outcome functioning were assessed five years later at follow-up evaluation on 63% of these patients. An analysis of 66 clinical and demographic variables established that the patients successfully followed-up were representatives of the entire cohort. Diagnostic data from initial evaluations and follow-up outcome assessment were used to examine the relationship between diagnostic criteria and outcome in schizophrenia. Applying the criteria for schizophrenic diagnosis defined by Langfeldt, by Schneider, and Carpenter et al failed to define a poor outcome group. No difference in outcome was found when traditional schizophrenic subtypes were contrasted. Overall outcome in 61 patients with conditions diagnosed as schizophrenic was heterogeneous. However, despite overlap, the mean outcome in the schizophrenic cohort was poorer than in the 19 nonschizophrenic patients. References 1. Strauss JS, Carpenter WT Jr: Characteristic symptoms and outcome in schizophrenia . Arch Gen Psychiatry 30:429-434, 1974.Crossref 2. Kraepelin E: Dementia Praecox . RM Barclay (trans-ed), Edinburgh, ES Livingston Ltd, 1919. 3. Bleuler E: Dementia Praecox or the Group of Schizophrenias . J Zinkin (trans-ed), New York, International Universities Press, 1950. 4. Kleist K: Schizophrenic symptoms and cerebral pathology . J Ment Science 106:246-253, 1960. 5. Leonhard K: The cycloid psychoses . J Ment Science 107:633-648, 1961. 6. Langfeldt G: The Prognosis in Schizophrenia and the Factors Influencing the Course of the Disease . Copenhagen, E Munksgaard, 1937. 7. Langfeldt G: The Schizophrenic States . Copenhagen, E Munksgaard, 1939. 8. Eitinger L, Laane CL, Langfeldt G: The prognostic value of the clinical picture and the therapeutic value of physical treatment in schizophrenia and the schizophreniform states . Acta Psychiatr Scand 33:33-53, 1958.Crossref 9. Stephens JH, Astrup C: Treatment outcome in "process" and "non-process" schizophrenics treated by "A" and "B" types of therapists . J Nerv Ment Dis 140:449-456, 1965.Crossref 10. Astrup C, Noreik K: Functional Psychoses: Diagnostic and Prognostic Models . Springfield, Ill, Charles C Thomas Publisher, 1966. 11. Achte KA: On Prognosis and Rehabilitation in Schizophrenia and Paranoid Psychoses . Copenhagen, E Munksgaard, 1967. 12. Cooper JE, Kendell RE, Gurlend BJ, et al: Psychiatric Diagnosis in New York and London: A Comparative Study of Mental Hospital Admissions . London, Oxford University Press, 1972. 13. Strauss JS, Carpenter WT Jr: Evaluation of outcome in schizophrenia , in Ricks D. Thomas A. Roff M (eds): Life History Research in Psychopathology . Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 1974, vol 3. 14. Carpenter WT Jr, Strauss JS, Muleh S: Are there pathognomonic symptoms in schizophrenia? An empiric investigation of Schneider's first-rank symptoms . Arch Gen Psychiatry 28:847-852, 1973.Crossref 15. DSM II: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, ed 2. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 1968. 16. Carpenter WT Jr, Strauss JS, Bartko JJ: Flexible system for the diagnosis of schizophrenia: Report from the WHO International Pilot Study of Schizophrenia . Science 182:1275-1278, 1973.Crossref 17. World Health Organization (ed): The International Pilot Study of Schizophrenia . Geneva, World Health Organization Press, 1973, vol 1. 18. Wing JK, Cooper JE, Sartorius N: The Measurement and Classification of Psychiatric Symptoms . London, Cambridge University Press, 1974. 19. Strauss JS, Carpenter WT Jr: The prediction of outcome in schizophrenia: I. Characteristics of outcome . Arch Gen Psychiatry 27:739-746, 1972.Crossref 20. Carpenter WT Jr, Strauss JS: Cross-cultural evaluation of Schneider's first-rank symptoms of schizophrenia: A report from the International Pilot Study of Schizophrenia . Am J Psychiatry 131:682-687, 1974.
Archives of General Psychiatry – American Medical Association
Published: Mar 1, 1975