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Deleterious Effects of Criminal Victimization on Women's Health and Medical Utilization

Deleterious Effects of Criminal Victimization on Women's Health and Medical Utilization Abstract The long-term consequences of criminal victimization on physical health were examined among 390 adult women (74 nonvictims and 316 victims of crime). Data included health status self-ratings and objective service utilization. Findings indicated that severely victimized women, compared with nonvictims, reported more distress and less well-being, made physician visits twice as frequently in the index year, and had outpatient costs that were 2.5 times greater. Criminal victimization severity was the most powerful predictor of physician visits and outpatient costs. Utilization data across 5 years preceding and following crime were obtained from 15 rape victims, 26 physical assault victims, and 27 noncontact crime victims and were compared with five continuous years of utilization among 26 nonvictims. Victims' physician visits increased 15% to 24% during the year of the crime compared with less than 2% change among nonvictims. We conclude that these long-term deleterious effects suggest that criminally victimized women's needs for medical treatment transcend the traditional focus on emergency care and forensic evaluation. (Arch Intern Med. 1991;151:342-347) References 1. Jamison KM, Flanagan TJ. Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics: 1988 . Washington, DC: US Dept of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics; 1989. 2. Bloom BL. Stressful Life Event Theory and Research: Implications for Primary Prevention. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office; 1985. US Dept of Health and Human Services publication ADM 85-1385. 3. Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Glaser R. Psychosocial moderators of immune function . Ann Behav Med. 1987;9:16-20.Crossref 4. Burnam MA, Stein JA, Golding JM, et al. Sexual assault and mental disorders in a community population . J Consult Clin Psychol. 1988;56:843-850.Crossref 5. KilpatrickDG, Best CL, Veronen LJ, Amick AE, Villeponteaux LA, Ruff GA. Mental health correlates of criminal victimization: a random community survey . J Consult Clin Psychol. 1985;53:866-873.Crossref 6. Kilpatrick DG, Saunders BE, Veronen LJ, Best CL, Von JM. Criminal victimization: lifetime prevalence, reporting to police, and psychological impact . Crime Deling. 1988;33:479-489.Crossref 7. Leymann H. Somatic and psychological symptoms after the experience of life threatening events: a profile analysis . Victimology. 1985;10:512-538. 8. Sorenson SB. Health service utilization following sexual assault . Am J Community Psychol. 1988;16:625-643.Crossref 9. Waigandt CA, Miller DA. Maladaptive responses during the reorganization phase of rape trauma syndrome . Res Victim Women Children. 1986;9:20-21. 10. Hicks DJ. The patient who's been raped . Emerg Med. 1988;20:106-122. 11. Martin CA, Warfield MC, Braen R. Physician's management of the psychological aspects of rape . JAMA. 1983;249:501-503.Crossref 12. Hochbaum SR. The evaluation and treatment of the sexually assaulted patient . Obstet Gynecol Emerg. 1987;5:601-621. 13. Sorenson SB, Stein JA, Siegel JM, Golding JM, Burnam MA. Prevalence of adult sexual assault: the Los Angeles Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study . Am J Epidemiol. 1988;126:1154-1164. 14. Strauss MA, Gelles RS, Steinmetz JK. Behind Closed Doors: Violence in the American Family . Garden City, NJ: Anchor/Doubleday; 1980. 15. Russell DEH. Sexual Exploitation: Rape, Child Sexual Abuse, and Workplace Harassment . Newbury Park, Calif: Sage; 1984. 16. Koss MP. Violence against women: a research agenda . Am Psychol. 1990;45:374-380.Crossref 17. Bureau of Justice Statistics. Criminal Victimization in the United States: 1987. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office; 1989. 18. Verbrugge LM. Gender and health: an update on hypotheses and evidence . J Health Soc Behav. 1985;26:156-182.Crossref 19. Waldron I. Sex differences in illness incidence, prognosis, and mortality . Soc Sci Med. 1983;17:321-333.Crossref 20. US Dept of Health and Human Services. Women's Health: Report of the Public Health Service Task Force on Women's Health. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office; 1985. US Dept of Health and Human Services publication PHS 85-50206. 21. Strickland BR. Sex-related differences in health and illness . Psych Women Q. 1989;12:381-390.Crossref 22. Reiger DA, Goldberg IE, Taube CA. The de facto mental health services system . Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1978;35:685-693.Crossref 23. Kessler LG, Burns BJ, Shapiro S, et al. Psychiatric diagnoses of medical service users: evidence from the Epidemiologic Catchment Area Program . Am J Public Health. 1987;77:18-24.Crossref 24. Block CR, Block RL. Crime definition, crime measurement, and victim surveys . J Soc Issues. 1984;40:137-160.Crossref 25. Koss MP. Rape incidence and prevalence: a review and assessment of the data . Presented at the National Institute of Mental Health conference; September 1989; Charleston, SC . 26. Ohio Revised Code for Rape. 1907.01A (Definitions), 2907.02 (Provisions). Annotated as of 1988. 27. Searles PB, Berger RJ. The current status of rape reform legislation: an examination of state statutes . Women's Rights Law Rep. 1987;10:25-41. 28. Veit CT, Ware JE. The structure of psychological distress and wellbeing in general populations . J Clin Consult Psychol. 1983;51:730-742.Crossref 29. Brook RH, Ware JE, Davies-Avery A, et al. Conceptualization and Measurement of Health for Adults in the Health Insurance Study . Santa Monica, Calif: RAND Corp; 1979;7. 30. Ware JE. The General Health Rating Index . In: Wenger NK, Mattson ME, Furberg CD, Elinson J, eds. Assessment of Quality of Life in Clinical Trials of Cardiovascular Disease . New York, NY: Le Jacq Publishing Co; 1984:184-188. 31. Stewart AL, Ware JE, Brook RH. Construction and Scoring of Aggregate Functional Status Measures . Santa Monica, Calif: RAND Corp; 1982;1. 32. Stewart AL, Brook RH, Kane RL. Conceptualization and Measurement of Health Habits for Adults in the Health Insurance Study . Santa Monica, Calif: RAND Corp; 1980;2. 33. Abramson JH, Terespolsky L, Brook JG, Kark L. Cornell Medical Index as a health measure in epidemiological studies: a test of the validity of a health questionnaire . Br J Prev Med. 1965;19:103-110. 34. Resick PA. Reactions of Female and Male Victims of Rape and Robbery . Bethesda, Md: Antisocial and Violent Behavior Branch, National Institute of Mental Health. In press. 35. Pope GC. Medical conditions, health status, and health services utilization . Health Serv Res. 1988;22:857-877. 36. Connelly JE, Philbrick JT, Smith GR, Kaiser DL, Wymer A. Health perceptions of primary care patients and the influence on health care utilization . Med Care. 1989;27:99-109.Crossref 37. Wolfgang M, Figlio R, Tracey P, Singer S. Wolfgang Crime Severity Index . Washington, DC: US Dept of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics; 1985. 38. Steinwachs DM, Weiner JP, Shapiro S, Batalden P, Coltin K, Wasserman F. A comparison of the requirements for primary care physicians in HMOs with projections made by the GMENAC . N Engl J Med. 1986;314:217-222.Crossref 39. US Dept of Health and Human Services, US Dept of Justice. Surgeon General's Workshop on Violence and Public Health . Washington, DC: US Dept of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service; 1986. 40. US Dept of Justice. Attorney General's Task Force on Family Violence: Final Report . Washington, DC: US Dept of Justice; 1984. 41. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. The Battered Woman . Washington, DC: American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists; 1989. 42. Centers for Disease Control. Education about adult domestic violence in US and Canadian medical schools: 1987-1988 . MMWR. 1989;38:17-19. 43. Ende J, Rockwell S, Glasgow M. The sexual history in general medical practice . Arch Intern Med. 1984;144:558-561.Crossref 44. Smith RP. Sexual counseling made simple . Res Staff Phys. 1989;35:85-87. 45. Liese BS, Larson MW, Johnson CA, Hourigan RJ. An experimental study of two methods for teaching sexual history taking skills . Fam Med. 1989;21:21-24. 46. Lewis CE, Freeman HE. The sexual history-taking and counseling practices of primary care physicians . West J Med. 1987;147:165-167. 47. Stark E, Flitcraft A, Zuckerman D, Grey A, Robison J, Frazier W. Wife Abuse in the Medical Setting: An Introduction for Health Personnel . Rockville, Md: National Clearinghouse on Domestic Violence; 1981. 48. Jacobson A, Richardson B. Assault experiences of 100 psychiatric inpatients: evidence of the need for routine inquiry . Am J Psychol. 1987;144:908-913. 49. Jacobson A, Koehler JE, Jones-Brown C. The failure of routine assessment to detect histories of assault experienced by psychiatric patients . Hosp Community Psychiatry. 1987;38:386-389. 50. Katon W, Ries RK, Kleinman A. The prevalence of somatization in primary care . Compr Psychiatry. 1984;25:208-215.Crossref 51. Pennebaker JW, Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Glaser R. Disclosure of traumas and immune function: health implications for psychotherapy . J Consult Clin Psychol. 1988;56:239-245.Crossref 52. Zimet CN. The mental health care revolution: will psychology survive? Am Psychol. 1989;44:703-708.Crossref 53. Maurana CA, Eichorn RL, Longquist LW. The Use of Health Services: Indices and Correlates . Washington, DC: US Dept of Health and Human Services, National Center for Health Services Research; 1981. 54. Pipel D. Factors affecting health services utilization (HSU), II: self-rated health and HSU for a population covered by an integrated, comprehensive prepayment plan . Public Health Rev. 1987;15:231-240. 55. Bard M, Sangrey D. The Crime Victim's Book . New York, NY: Basic Books Inc Publishers; 1979. 56. Wickramasekera I. A model of people at high risk to develop chronic stress-related somatic symptoms: some predictions . Prof Psychol. 1986;17:437-447.Crossref 57. Friedman K, Bischoff H, Davis R, Person A. Victims and Helpers: Reactions to Crime. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office; 1985. 58. Smith CB. Response to victims: are the institutional mandates of police and medicine sufficient? Victimology. 1985;10:560-572. 59. Kamerow DB, Pincus HA, Macdonald DI. Alcohol abuse, other drug abuse, and mental disorders in medical practice: prevalence, costs, recognition, and treatment . JAMA. 1986;255:2054-2057.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Internal Medicine American Medical Association

Deleterious Effects of Criminal Victimization on Women's Health and Medical Utilization

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1991 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-9926
eISSN
1538-3679
DOI
10.1001/archinte.1991.00400020092019
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Abstract

Abstract The long-term consequences of criminal victimization on physical health were examined among 390 adult women (74 nonvictims and 316 victims of crime). Data included health status self-ratings and objective service utilization. Findings indicated that severely victimized women, compared with nonvictims, reported more distress and less well-being, made physician visits twice as frequently in the index year, and had outpatient costs that were 2.5 times greater. Criminal victimization severity was the most powerful predictor of physician visits and outpatient costs. Utilization data across 5 years preceding and following crime were obtained from 15 rape victims, 26 physical assault victims, and 27 noncontact crime victims and were compared with five continuous years of utilization among 26 nonvictims. Victims' physician visits increased 15% to 24% during the year of the crime compared with less than 2% change among nonvictims. We conclude that these long-term deleterious effects suggest that criminally victimized women's needs for medical treatment transcend the traditional focus on emergency care and forensic evaluation. (Arch Intern Med. 1991;151:342-347) References 1. Jamison KM, Flanagan TJ. Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics: 1988 . Washington, DC: US Dept of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics; 1989. 2. Bloom BL. Stressful Life Event Theory and Research: Implications for Primary Prevention. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office; 1985. US Dept of Health and Human Services publication ADM 85-1385. 3. Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Glaser R. Psychosocial moderators of immune function . Ann Behav Med. 1987;9:16-20.Crossref 4. Burnam MA, Stein JA, Golding JM, et al. Sexual assault and mental disorders in a community population . J Consult Clin Psychol. 1988;56:843-850.Crossref 5. KilpatrickDG, Best CL, Veronen LJ, Amick AE, Villeponteaux LA, Ruff GA. Mental health correlates of criminal victimization: a random community survey . J Consult Clin Psychol. 1985;53:866-873.Crossref 6. Kilpatrick DG, Saunders BE, Veronen LJ, Best CL, Von JM. Criminal victimization: lifetime prevalence, reporting to police, and psychological impact . Crime Deling. 1988;33:479-489.Crossref 7. Leymann H. Somatic and psychological symptoms after the experience of life threatening events: a profile analysis . Victimology. 1985;10:512-538. 8. Sorenson SB. Health service utilization following sexual assault . Am J Community Psychol. 1988;16:625-643.Crossref 9. Waigandt CA, Miller DA. Maladaptive responses during the reorganization phase of rape trauma syndrome . Res Victim Women Children. 1986;9:20-21. 10. Hicks DJ. The patient who's been raped . Emerg Med. 1988;20:106-122. 11. Martin CA, Warfield MC, Braen R. Physician's management of the psychological aspects of rape . JAMA. 1983;249:501-503.Crossref 12. Hochbaum SR. The evaluation and treatment of the sexually assaulted patient . Obstet Gynecol Emerg. 1987;5:601-621. 13. Sorenson SB, Stein JA, Siegel JM, Golding JM, Burnam MA. Prevalence of adult sexual assault: the Los Angeles Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study . Am J Epidemiol. 1988;126:1154-1164. 14. Strauss MA, Gelles RS, Steinmetz JK. Behind Closed Doors: Violence in the American Family . Garden City, NJ: Anchor/Doubleday; 1980. 15. Russell DEH. Sexual Exploitation: Rape, Child Sexual Abuse, and Workplace Harassment . Newbury Park, Calif: Sage; 1984. 16. Koss MP. Violence against women: a research agenda . Am Psychol. 1990;45:374-380.Crossref 17. Bureau of Justice Statistics. Criminal Victimization in the United States: 1987. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office; 1989. 18. Verbrugge LM. Gender and health: an update on hypotheses and evidence . J Health Soc Behav. 1985;26:156-182.Crossref 19. Waldron I. Sex differences in illness incidence, prognosis, and mortality . Soc Sci Med. 1983;17:321-333.Crossref 20. US Dept of Health and Human Services. Women's Health: Report of the Public Health Service Task Force on Women's Health. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office; 1985. US Dept of Health and Human Services publication PHS 85-50206. 21. Strickland BR. Sex-related differences in health and illness . Psych Women Q. 1989;12:381-390.Crossref 22. Reiger DA, Goldberg IE, Taube CA. The de facto mental health services system . Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1978;35:685-693.Crossref 23. Kessler LG, Burns BJ, Shapiro S, et al. Psychiatric diagnoses of medical service users: evidence from the Epidemiologic Catchment Area Program . Am J Public Health. 1987;77:18-24.Crossref 24. Block CR, Block RL. Crime definition, crime measurement, and victim surveys . J Soc Issues. 1984;40:137-160.Crossref 25. Koss MP. Rape incidence and prevalence: a review and assessment of the data . Presented at the National Institute of Mental Health conference; September 1989; Charleston, SC . 26. Ohio Revised Code for Rape. 1907.01A (Definitions), 2907.02 (Provisions). Annotated as of 1988. 27. Searles PB, Berger RJ. The current status of rape reform legislation: an examination of state statutes . Women's Rights Law Rep. 1987;10:25-41. 28. Veit CT, Ware JE. The structure of psychological distress and wellbeing in general populations . J Clin Consult Psychol. 1983;51:730-742.Crossref 29. Brook RH, Ware JE, Davies-Avery A, et al. Conceptualization and Measurement of Health for Adults in the Health Insurance Study . Santa Monica, Calif: RAND Corp; 1979;7. 30. Ware JE. The General Health Rating Index . In: Wenger NK, Mattson ME, Furberg CD, Elinson J, eds. Assessment of Quality of Life in Clinical Trials of Cardiovascular Disease . New York, NY: Le Jacq Publishing Co; 1984:184-188. 31. Stewart AL, Ware JE, Brook RH. Construction and Scoring of Aggregate Functional Status Measures . Santa Monica, Calif: RAND Corp; 1982;1. 32. Stewart AL, Brook RH, Kane RL. Conceptualization and Measurement of Health Habits for Adults in the Health Insurance Study . Santa Monica, Calif: RAND Corp; 1980;2. 33. Abramson JH, Terespolsky L, Brook JG, Kark L. Cornell Medical Index as a health measure in epidemiological studies: a test of the validity of a health questionnaire . Br J Prev Med. 1965;19:103-110. 34. Resick PA. Reactions of Female and Male Victims of Rape and Robbery . Bethesda, Md: Antisocial and Violent Behavior Branch, National Institute of Mental Health. In press. 35. Pope GC. Medical conditions, health status, and health services utilization . Health Serv Res. 1988;22:857-877. 36. Connelly JE, Philbrick JT, Smith GR, Kaiser DL, Wymer A. Health perceptions of primary care patients and the influence on health care utilization . Med Care. 1989;27:99-109.Crossref 37. Wolfgang M, Figlio R, Tracey P, Singer S. Wolfgang Crime Severity Index . Washington, DC: US Dept of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics; 1985. 38. Steinwachs DM, Weiner JP, Shapiro S, Batalden P, Coltin K, Wasserman F. A comparison of the requirements for primary care physicians in HMOs with projections made by the GMENAC . N Engl J Med. 1986;314:217-222.Crossref 39. US Dept of Health and Human Services, US Dept of Justice. Surgeon General's Workshop on Violence and Public Health . Washington, DC: US Dept of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service; 1986. 40. US Dept of Justice. Attorney General's Task Force on Family Violence: Final Report . Washington, DC: US Dept of Justice; 1984. 41. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. The Battered Woman . Washington, DC: American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists; 1989. 42. Centers for Disease Control. Education about adult domestic violence in US and Canadian medical schools: 1987-1988 . MMWR. 1989;38:17-19. 43. Ende J, Rockwell S, Glasgow M. The sexual history in general medical practice . Arch Intern Med. 1984;144:558-561.Crossref 44. Smith RP. Sexual counseling made simple . Res Staff Phys. 1989;35:85-87. 45. Liese BS, Larson MW, Johnson CA, Hourigan RJ. An experimental study of two methods for teaching sexual history taking skills . Fam Med. 1989;21:21-24. 46. Lewis CE, Freeman HE. The sexual history-taking and counseling practices of primary care physicians . West J Med. 1987;147:165-167. 47. Stark E, Flitcraft A, Zuckerman D, Grey A, Robison J, Frazier W. Wife Abuse in the Medical Setting: An Introduction for Health Personnel . Rockville, Md: National Clearinghouse on Domestic Violence; 1981. 48. Jacobson A, Richardson B. Assault experiences of 100 psychiatric inpatients: evidence of the need for routine inquiry . Am J Psychol. 1987;144:908-913. 49. Jacobson A, Koehler JE, Jones-Brown C. The failure of routine assessment to detect histories of assault experienced by psychiatric patients . Hosp Community Psychiatry. 1987;38:386-389. 50. Katon W, Ries RK, Kleinman A. The prevalence of somatization in primary care . Compr Psychiatry. 1984;25:208-215.Crossref 51. Pennebaker JW, Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Glaser R. Disclosure of traumas and immune function: health implications for psychotherapy . J Consult Clin Psychol. 1988;56:239-245.Crossref 52. Zimet CN. The mental health care revolution: will psychology survive? Am Psychol. 1989;44:703-708.Crossref 53. Maurana CA, Eichorn RL, Longquist LW. The Use of Health Services: Indices and Correlates . Washington, DC: US Dept of Health and Human Services, National Center for Health Services Research; 1981. 54. Pipel D. Factors affecting health services utilization (HSU), II: self-rated health and HSU for a population covered by an integrated, comprehensive prepayment plan . Public Health Rev. 1987;15:231-240. 55. Bard M, Sangrey D. The Crime Victim's Book . New York, NY: Basic Books Inc Publishers; 1979. 56. Wickramasekera I. A model of people at high risk to develop chronic stress-related somatic symptoms: some predictions . Prof Psychol. 1986;17:437-447.Crossref 57. Friedman K, Bischoff H, Davis R, Person A. Victims and Helpers: Reactions to Crime. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office; 1985. 58. Smith CB. Response to victims: are the institutional mandates of police and medicine sufficient? Victimology. 1985;10:560-572. 59. Kamerow DB, Pincus HA, Macdonald DI. Alcohol abuse, other drug abuse, and mental disorders in medical practice: prevalence, costs, recognition, and treatment . JAMA. 1986;255:2054-2057.Crossref

Journal

Archives of Internal MedicineAmerican Medical Association

Published: Feb 1, 1991

References