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CYTOPATHOLOGY OF THE BRAIN AND RETICULOENDOTHELIAL ORGANS IN ALLERGIC ENCEPHALITIS IN GUINEA PIGS

CYTOPATHOLOGY OF THE BRAIN AND RETICULOENDOTHELIAL ORGANS IN ALLERGIC ENCEPHALITIS IN GUINEA PIGS Abstract EPISODES of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis following infectious disease and a variety of immunization procedures have long been an enigma to pediatricians, neurologists and neuropathologists. Causative factors in these episodes may be placed in three categories, namely, virus invasion of the nerve tissue, allergic reaction to the infecting or inoculated agent and a specific autoallergic reaction to nerve tissue itself. Investigations during the past fifteen years have increased the cogency of the last hypothesis. Extensive studies with a variety of approaches have established beyond reasonable doubt that the nerve tissue, like other tissues of the body, responds violently to antigenantibody reactions.1 Miyagawa and Ishii,2 Koritschoner and Schweinburg3 and others showed that repeated injection of emulsions of normal homologous nerve tissue in experimental animals occasionally produces symptoms of disease of the central nervous system. Rivers, Sprunt and Berry4 found that persistence with frequent injections of homologous or heterologous References 1. Alexander, L., and Campbell, A. P. C.: Local Anaphylactic Lesions in the Brains of Guinea Pigs , Am. J. Path. 13:229, 1937. 2. Stevenson, L. D., and Alvord, E. C.: Allergy in the Nervous System , Am, J. Med. 3:614, 1947.Crossref 3. Miyagawa, Y., and Ishii, S.: On the Influence of the Constituents of the Central Nerve Cells Parenterally Injected in the Living Organism , Jap. J. Exper. Med. 5:331, 1923. 4. Koritschoner, R., and Schweinburg, F.: Klinische und experimentelle Beobachtungen über Lähmungen nach Wutschutzimpfung , Ztschr. f. Immunitätsforsch. u. exper. Therap. 42:217, 1925. 5. Rivers, T. M.; Sprunt, O. H., and Berry, G. P.: Observations on Attempts to Produce Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis in Monkeys , J. Exper. Med. 58:39, 1933.Crossref 6. Rivers, T. M., and Schwentker, F.: Encephalomyelitis Accompanied by Myelin Destruction Experimentally Produced in the Monkey , J. Exper. Med. 61: 689, 1935.Crossref 7. Schwentker, F. F., and Rivers, T. M.: The Antibody Response of Rabbits to Injections of Emulsions and Extracts of Homologous Brain , J. Exper. Med. 60:559, 1934.Crossref 8. Ferraro, A., and Jervis, G. A.: Experimental Disseminated Encephalopathy in the Monkey , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 43:195 ( (Feb.) ) 1940. 9. Kopeloff, L. M., and Kopeloff, N.: The Production of Anti-Brain Antibodies in the Monkey , J. Immunol. 48:297, 1944. 10. Lewis, P. A., and Loomis, D.: Allergic Irritability: The Formation of Antisheep Hemolytic Amboceptor in the Normal and Tuberculous Guinea Pig , J. Exper. Med. 40:503, 1924. 11. Freund, J., and McDermott, K.: Sensitization to Horse Serum by Means of Adjuvants , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 49:548, 1942. 12. Freund, J., and Walter, A. W.: The Effect of Paraffin Oil, Lanolin-Like Substances and Killed Tubercle Bacilli on Immunization with Diphtheria Toxoid and Bact. Typhosum , J. Immunol. 48:325, 1944. 13. Morgan, I. M.: Allergic Encephalomyelitis in Monkeys in Response to Injection of Normal Monkey Nervous Tissues , J. Bact. 51:53, 1946. 14. Kabat, E. A.; Wolf, A., and Bezer, A. E.: The Rapid Production of Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis in Rhesus Monkeys by Injections of Heterologous and Homologous Brain Tissue with Adjuvants , Science 104:362, 1946. 15. Morrison, L. R.: Disseminated Encephalomyelitis Experimentally Produced by the Use of Homologous Antigen , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 58:391 ( (Oct.) ) 1947. 16. Freund, J.; Stern, E. R., and Pisani, T. M.: Isoallergic Encephalomyelitis and Radiculitis in Guinea Pigs After One Injection of Brain and Mycobacterium in Water in Oil Emulsion , J. Immunol. 57:179 ( (Oct.) ) 1947. 17. Jervis, G. A., and Koprowski, H.: Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis , J. Neuropath. & Exper. Neurol. 7:390, 1948. 18. Alvord, E. C.: Distribution and Nature of the "Antigen" Responsible for Experimental Meningoencephalomyelitis in the Guinea Pig , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 67:459, 1948. 19. Koprowski, H., and Jervis, G. A.: Further Studies in Experimental Allergic Encephalitis in the Guinea Pig , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 69:472, 1948. 20. Putnam, T. J.: Newer Concepts of Post-Infectious and Related Forms of Encephalitis , Bull. New York Acad. Med. 17:337, 1941. 21. Ferraro, A.: Pathology of Demyelinating Diseases as an Allergic Reaction of the Brain , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 52:443, 1944. 22. Burky, E. L.: Production in Rabbit of Hypersensitive Reactions to Lens, Rabbit Muscle and Low Ragweed Extractions by the Action of Staphylococcus Toxin , J. Allergy 5:466, 1934. 23. Hecht, R.; Sulzberger, M. B., and Weil, H.: Studies in Sensitization to Skin: I. Production of Antibodies to Skin by Means of Synergistic Action of Homologous Skin Antigen and Staphylococcus Toxin , J. Exper. Med. 78:59, 1943. 24. Schwentker, F. F., and Comploier, F. C.: Production of Kidney Antibodies by Injection of Homologous Kidney Plus Bacterial Toxins , J. Exper. Med. 70:223, 1939. 25. Cavelti, P. A., and Cavelti, E. A.: Studies on the Pathogenesis of Glomerulonephritis: III. Clinical and Pathological Aspects of the Experimental Glomerulonephritis Produced in Rats by Means of Auto-Antibodies , Arch. Path. 40:158 ( (Sept.) ) 1945. 26. Kerr, W. J., and Cavelti, P. A.: New Immunological Aspects of the Pathogenesis of Glomerulonephritis and Rheumatic Fever , Tr. Am. A. Physicians 60:264, 1947. 27. Heyman, W., and Lund, H. Z.: Lipemic Nephrosis in Rats , Science 108: 448, 1948. 28. Kolouch, F.: Origin of Bone Marrow Plasma Cell Associated with Allergic and Immune States in Rabbits , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 39:147, 1938. 29. Fleischhacker, H.: Ueber die Plasmazellen und das reticuloendotheliale System des Knochenmarkes: Beitrag zur Herkunft der Plasmaeiweisskörper , Deutsche Arch. f. klin. Med. 186:506, 1940. 30. Bjørneboe, M., and Gormsen, H.: Experimental Studies on the Role of Plasma Cells as Antibody Producers , Acta path. et microbiol. Scandinav. 20:649, 1943. 31. Fagraeus, A.: Antibody Production in Relationship to the Development of Plasma Cells , Acta med. Scandinav. ( (supp. 9) ) 130:1, 1948. 32. Kolouch, F.; Good, R. A., and Campbell, B.: The Reticulo-Endothelial Origin of the Bone Marrow Plasma Cell in Hypersensitive States , J. Lab. & Clin. Med. 32:749, 1947. 33. Good, R. A.: Experimental Allergic Brain Inflammation: A Morphological Study , J. Neuropath. & Exper. Neurol. , to be published. 34. Campbell, B.: Early Plasma Cell Formation in Acute Herpetic Encephalitis , J. Neuropath. & Exper. Neurol. 8:347, 1949. 35. Alessio, F.: Di alcune alterazioni istologiche ottenute nel fegato di conigli sensibilizzati colle iniezioni di antigene , Pathologica 21:121, 1929. 36. Klinge, F.: Die Eiweissüberempfindlichkeit (Gewebsanaphylaxie) der Gelenke. Experimentelle pathologischanatomische Studie zur Pathogenese des Gelenkrheumatismus , Beitr. z. path. Anat. u. z. allg. Path. 83:185, 1930. 37. Goddard, J. W.: Granuloma, Characteristic "Qualitative" Change in Focal Anaphylactic Inflammation , Am. J. Path. 23:493, 1947. 38. Good, R. A., and Good, T. A.: Early Plasmacytosis of Spleen, Liver, Lymph Node and Connective Tissue , Anat. Rec. 103:123, 1949. 39. Good, R. A.; Campbell, B., and Good, T. A.: Prophylactic and Therapeutic Effect of Para-Aminobenzoic Acid and Sodium Salicylate on Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 72:341, 1949. 40. Dougherty, T.: Studies on the Cytogenesis of the Microglia and Their Relation to the Cells of the Reticulo-Endothelial System , Am. J. Anat. 74:61, 1944. 41. Ekola, M.: Reactions of Subcutaneous Tissue to Sodium Ricinoleate and Other Foreign Substances , Folia haemat. 43:454, 1931. 42. Kolouch, F.: The Lymphocyte in Acute Inflammation , Am. J. Path. 15: 413, 1939. 43. Townsend, W. A., and Campbell, B.: The Effects of Roentgen Rays on the Inflammatory Cells of the Mouse and Rabbit ; Blood , to be published. 44. Rohr, K.: Blut- und Knochenmarksmorphologie der Agranulocytosen , Folia haemat. 55:305, 1936. 45. Hydén, H.: Protein Metabolism in the Nerve Cell During Growth and Function , Acta physiol. Scandinav. ( (supp. 17) ) 6:1, 1943. 46. Moeschlin, S.: Die Herkunft der Blutplasma-Zellen bei der Hepatitis epidemica anhand von Milzpunktaten , Gasteroenterología 71:97, 1946.Crossref 47. del Rio Hortega, P., and Penfield, W., in Penfield, W.: Cytology and Cellular Pathology of the Nervous System , New York, Paul Hoeber, 1932. 48. Maculla, E. S.: The Immunochemistry of Mouse Tissue Components: I. Comparative Antigenic Composition of Normal Mouse Tissue , Yale J. Biol. & Med. 20:299, 1947. 49. Steiner, G.: Multiple und diffuse Sklerose , in Bumke, O.: Handbuch der Geisteskrankheiten , Berlin, Julius Springer, vol. 11, p. 289, 1930. 50. Michels, N. A., and Globus, J.: So-Called Small Round Cell Infiltration: II. Syphilis of the Central Nervous System , Arch. Path. 8:371 ( (Sept.) ) 1929. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry American Medical Association

CYTOPATHOLOGY OF THE BRAIN AND RETICULOENDOTHELIAL ORGANS IN ALLERGIC ENCEPHALITIS IN GUINEA PIGS

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American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1950 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0096-6754
DOI
10.1001/archneurpsyc.1950.02310200106009
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Abstract

Abstract EPISODES of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis following infectious disease and a variety of immunization procedures have long been an enigma to pediatricians, neurologists and neuropathologists. Causative factors in these episodes may be placed in three categories, namely, virus invasion of the nerve tissue, allergic reaction to the infecting or inoculated agent and a specific autoallergic reaction to nerve tissue itself. Investigations during the past fifteen years have increased the cogency of the last hypothesis. Extensive studies with a variety of approaches have established beyond reasonable doubt that the nerve tissue, like other tissues of the body, responds violently to antigenantibody reactions.1 Miyagawa and Ishii,2 Koritschoner and Schweinburg3 and others showed that repeated injection of emulsions of normal homologous nerve tissue in experimental animals occasionally produces symptoms of disease of the central nervous system. Rivers, Sprunt and Berry4 found that persistence with frequent injections of homologous or heterologous References 1. Alexander, L., and Campbell, A. P. C.: Local Anaphylactic Lesions in the Brains of Guinea Pigs , Am. J. Path. 13:229, 1937. 2. Stevenson, L. D., and Alvord, E. C.: Allergy in the Nervous System , Am, J. Med. 3:614, 1947.Crossref 3. Miyagawa, Y., and Ishii, S.: On the Influence of the Constituents of the Central Nerve Cells Parenterally Injected in the Living Organism , Jap. J. Exper. Med. 5:331, 1923. 4. Koritschoner, R., and Schweinburg, F.: Klinische und experimentelle Beobachtungen über Lähmungen nach Wutschutzimpfung , Ztschr. f. Immunitätsforsch. u. exper. Therap. 42:217, 1925. 5. Rivers, T. M.; Sprunt, O. H., and Berry, G. P.: Observations on Attempts to Produce Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis in Monkeys , J. Exper. Med. 58:39, 1933.Crossref 6. Rivers, T. M., and Schwentker, F.: Encephalomyelitis Accompanied by Myelin Destruction Experimentally Produced in the Monkey , J. Exper. Med. 61: 689, 1935.Crossref 7. Schwentker, F. F., and Rivers, T. M.: The Antibody Response of Rabbits to Injections of Emulsions and Extracts of Homologous Brain , J. Exper. Med. 60:559, 1934.Crossref 8. Ferraro, A., and Jervis, G. A.: Experimental Disseminated Encephalopathy in the Monkey , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 43:195 ( (Feb.) ) 1940. 9. Kopeloff, L. M., and Kopeloff, N.: The Production of Anti-Brain Antibodies in the Monkey , J. Immunol. 48:297, 1944. 10. Lewis, P. A., and Loomis, D.: Allergic Irritability: The Formation of Antisheep Hemolytic Amboceptor in the Normal and Tuberculous Guinea Pig , J. Exper. Med. 40:503, 1924. 11. Freund, J., and McDermott, K.: Sensitization to Horse Serum by Means of Adjuvants , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 49:548, 1942. 12. Freund, J., and Walter, A. W.: The Effect of Paraffin Oil, Lanolin-Like Substances and Killed Tubercle Bacilli on Immunization with Diphtheria Toxoid and Bact. Typhosum , J. Immunol. 48:325, 1944. 13. Morgan, I. M.: Allergic Encephalomyelitis in Monkeys in Response to Injection of Normal Monkey Nervous Tissues , J. Bact. 51:53, 1946. 14. Kabat, E. A.; Wolf, A., and Bezer, A. E.: The Rapid Production of Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis in Rhesus Monkeys by Injections of Heterologous and Homologous Brain Tissue with Adjuvants , Science 104:362, 1946. 15. Morrison, L. R.: Disseminated Encephalomyelitis Experimentally Produced by the Use of Homologous Antigen , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 58:391 ( (Oct.) ) 1947. 16. Freund, J.; Stern, E. R., and Pisani, T. M.: Isoallergic Encephalomyelitis and Radiculitis in Guinea Pigs After One Injection of Brain and Mycobacterium in Water in Oil Emulsion , J. Immunol. 57:179 ( (Oct.) ) 1947. 17. Jervis, G. A., and Koprowski, H.: Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis , J. Neuropath. & Exper. Neurol. 7:390, 1948. 18. Alvord, E. C.: Distribution and Nature of the "Antigen" Responsible for Experimental Meningoencephalomyelitis in the Guinea Pig , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 67:459, 1948. 19. Koprowski, H., and Jervis, G. A.: Further Studies in Experimental Allergic Encephalitis in the Guinea Pig , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 69:472, 1948. 20. Putnam, T. J.: Newer Concepts of Post-Infectious and Related Forms of Encephalitis , Bull. New York Acad. Med. 17:337, 1941. 21. Ferraro, A.: Pathology of Demyelinating Diseases as an Allergic Reaction of the Brain , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 52:443, 1944. 22. Burky, E. L.: Production in Rabbit of Hypersensitive Reactions to Lens, Rabbit Muscle and Low Ragweed Extractions by the Action of Staphylococcus Toxin , J. Allergy 5:466, 1934. 23. Hecht, R.; Sulzberger, M. B., and Weil, H.: Studies in Sensitization to Skin: I. Production of Antibodies to Skin by Means of Synergistic Action of Homologous Skin Antigen and Staphylococcus Toxin , J. Exper. Med. 78:59, 1943. 24. Schwentker, F. F., and Comploier, F. C.: Production of Kidney Antibodies by Injection of Homologous Kidney Plus Bacterial Toxins , J. Exper. Med. 70:223, 1939. 25. Cavelti, P. A., and Cavelti, E. A.: Studies on the Pathogenesis of Glomerulonephritis: III. Clinical and Pathological Aspects of the Experimental Glomerulonephritis Produced in Rats by Means of Auto-Antibodies , Arch. Path. 40:158 ( (Sept.) ) 1945. 26. Kerr, W. J., and Cavelti, P. A.: New Immunological Aspects of the Pathogenesis of Glomerulonephritis and Rheumatic Fever , Tr. Am. A. Physicians 60:264, 1947. 27. Heyman, W., and Lund, H. Z.: Lipemic Nephrosis in Rats , Science 108: 448, 1948. 28. Kolouch, F.: Origin of Bone Marrow Plasma Cell Associated with Allergic and Immune States in Rabbits , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 39:147, 1938. 29. Fleischhacker, H.: Ueber die Plasmazellen und das reticuloendotheliale System des Knochenmarkes: Beitrag zur Herkunft der Plasmaeiweisskörper , Deutsche Arch. f. klin. Med. 186:506, 1940. 30. Bjørneboe, M., and Gormsen, H.: Experimental Studies on the Role of Plasma Cells as Antibody Producers , Acta path. et microbiol. Scandinav. 20:649, 1943. 31. Fagraeus, A.: Antibody Production in Relationship to the Development of Plasma Cells , Acta med. Scandinav. ( (supp. 9) ) 130:1, 1948. 32. Kolouch, F.; Good, R. A., and Campbell, B.: The Reticulo-Endothelial Origin of the Bone Marrow Plasma Cell in Hypersensitive States , J. Lab. & Clin. Med. 32:749, 1947. 33. Good, R. A.: Experimental Allergic Brain Inflammation: A Morphological Study , J. Neuropath. & Exper. Neurol. , to be published. 34. Campbell, B.: Early Plasma Cell Formation in Acute Herpetic Encephalitis , J. Neuropath. & Exper. Neurol. 8:347, 1949. 35. Alessio, F.: Di alcune alterazioni istologiche ottenute nel fegato di conigli sensibilizzati colle iniezioni di antigene , Pathologica 21:121, 1929. 36. Klinge, F.: Die Eiweissüberempfindlichkeit (Gewebsanaphylaxie) der Gelenke. Experimentelle pathologischanatomische Studie zur Pathogenese des Gelenkrheumatismus , Beitr. z. path. Anat. u. z. allg. Path. 83:185, 1930. 37. Goddard, J. W.: Granuloma, Characteristic "Qualitative" Change in Focal Anaphylactic Inflammation , Am. J. Path. 23:493, 1947. 38. Good, R. A., and Good, T. A.: Early Plasmacytosis of Spleen, Liver, Lymph Node and Connective Tissue , Anat. Rec. 103:123, 1949. 39. Good, R. A.; Campbell, B., and Good, T. A.: Prophylactic and Therapeutic Effect of Para-Aminobenzoic Acid and Sodium Salicylate on Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 72:341, 1949. 40. Dougherty, T.: Studies on the Cytogenesis of the Microglia and Their Relation to the Cells of the Reticulo-Endothelial System , Am. J. Anat. 74:61, 1944. 41. Ekola, M.: Reactions of Subcutaneous Tissue to Sodium Ricinoleate and Other Foreign Substances , Folia haemat. 43:454, 1931. 42. Kolouch, F.: The Lymphocyte in Acute Inflammation , Am. J. Path. 15: 413, 1939. 43. Townsend, W. A., and Campbell, B.: The Effects of Roentgen Rays on the Inflammatory Cells of the Mouse and Rabbit ; Blood , to be published. 44. Rohr, K.: Blut- und Knochenmarksmorphologie der Agranulocytosen , Folia haemat. 55:305, 1936. 45. Hydén, H.: Protein Metabolism in the Nerve Cell During Growth and Function , Acta physiol. Scandinav. ( (supp. 17) ) 6:1, 1943. 46. Moeschlin, S.: Die Herkunft der Blutplasma-Zellen bei der Hepatitis epidemica anhand von Milzpunktaten , Gasteroenterología 71:97, 1946.Crossref 47. del Rio Hortega, P., and Penfield, W., in Penfield, W.: Cytology and Cellular Pathology of the Nervous System , New York, Paul Hoeber, 1932. 48. Maculla, E. S.: The Immunochemistry of Mouse Tissue Components: I. Comparative Antigenic Composition of Normal Mouse Tissue , Yale J. Biol. & Med. 20:299, 1947. 49. Steiner, G.: Multiple und diffuse Sklerose , in Bumke, O.: Handbuch der Geisteskrankheiten , Berlin, Julius Springer, vol. 11, p. 289, 1930. 50. Michels, N. A., and Globus, J.: So-Called Small Round Cell Infiltration: II. Syphilis of the Central Nervous System , Arch. Path. 8:371 ( (Sept.) ) 1929.

Journal

Archives of Neurology & PsychiatryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Feb 1, 1950

References