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Cutaneous Manifestations of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: Part II

Cutaneous Manifestations of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: Part II Abstract Part I appeared in the September issue of the Archives. Bacterial Infections Staphylococcus aureus Infection.— Staphylococcus aureus is the most common pathogen in cutaneous and systemic bacterial infections occurring in HIV-infected individuals. Staphylococcus aureus colonizes the nose initially and may subsequently infect various sites. In both asymptomatic and symptomatic HIV-infected individuals, the S aureus nasal carriage rate is twice that of control groups. Staphylococcus aureus may also be locally invasive at the carriage site causing nasal abscess.The incidence of S aureus infection in HIV-infected patients is high, causing significant morbidity and mortality. In a study of 46 adult patients with AIDS, autopsy examination revealed that 83% had had a bacterial (nonmycobacterial) infection at some time during the course of their illness, of which 54% had been caused by S aureus. Nosocomial infections occur in HIV-infected patients at the rate of 3.46 per thousand hospital days compared with the rate References 1. Piot P, Plummer FA, Mhalu FS, et al. AIDS. An international perspective . Science . 1988;239:573-579.Crossref 2. St. Louis ME, Rauch KJ, Petersen R, et al. Seroprevalence rates of human immunodeficiency virus infection at sentinel hospitals in the United States . N Engl J Med. 1990;323:213-218.Crossref 3. CDC. Classification system for human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus infections . MMWR . 1986;35:334-339. 4. Hulsebosch HJ, Claussen FAP, van Ginkel CJW, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus exanthem . J Am Acad Dermatol. 1990; 23:483-486.Crossref 5. Biggar RJ, Burnett W, Mikl J, et al. Cancer among New York men at risk of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome . Int J Cancer. 1989;43:979-985.Crossref 6. Friedman-Kien AE, Saltzman BR. Clinical manifestations of classical, endemic African, and epidemic AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma . J Am Acad Dermatol. 1990;22:1237-1250.Crossref 7. Beral V, Peterman TA, Berkelman RL, et al. Kaposi's sarcoma among persons with AIDS: a sexually transmitted infection? Lancet . 1990;335:123-128.Crossref 8. Rutherford GW, Kahn JO. The epidemiology of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma . J AIDS . 1990;3( (suppl 1) ). 9. Salahudin SZ, Nakamura S, Biberfield P, et al. Angiogenic properties of Kaposi's sarcoma-derived cells after long term culture in vitro . Science . 1989;242:430-433.Crossref 10. Friedman-Kien AE, Saltzman BR, Cao T, et al. Kaposi's sarcoma in HIV-infected homosexual men . Lancet . 1990;335:168-169.Crossref 11. Chachoua A, Krigel RL, Friedman-Kien AE, et al. Prognostic factors and staging classifications of patients with epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma . J Clin Oncol. 1989;7:774-780. 12. Epstein JB. Oral Kaposi's sarcoma with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Review of management and report of the efficacy of intralesional vinblastine . Cancer . 1989;64:2424-2430.Crossref 13. Sulis ML, Floris C, Sulis ML. Interferon administered intralesionally in skin, conjunctiva and oral cavity lesions in patients with AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma . Eur J Cancer Clin Oncol. 1989; 25:759-761.Crossref 14. Gill PS, Rarick U, Espina B, et al. Advanced AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma: results of pilot studies using combination chemotherapy . Cancer . 1990;65:1074-1078.Crossref 15. Myskowski PL, Strauss DJ, Safai B. Lymphoma and other HIV-associated malignancies . J Am Acad Dermatol. 1990;22:1253-1260.Crossref 16. Siegal FP, Lopez C, Hammer GS, et al. Severe acquired immunodeficiency in male homosexuals, manifested by chronic perianal ulcerative herpes simplex lesions . N Engl J Med. 1981;305:1439-1444.Crossref 17. Horn TD, Hood AF. Cytomegalovirus is predictably present in perineal ulcers from immunosuppressed patients . Arch Dermatol. 1990;126:642-644.Crossref 18. Friedman-Kien AE, Lafleur FL, Gendler E, et al. Herpes zoster: a possible early clinical sign for development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in high-risk individuals . J Am Acad Dermatol. 1986;14:1023-1028.Crossref 19. Gulick RM, Heath-Chiozzi M, Crumpacker CS. Varicella-zoster virus disease in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection . Arch Dermatol. 1990;126:1086-1088.Crossref 20. Greenspan D, Greenspan JS, Hearst NG, et al. Relation of oral hairy leukoplakia to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus and the risk of developing AIDS . J Infect Dis. 1987;155:475-481.Crossref 21. Scholefield JH, Sonnex C, Talbot IC, et al. Anal and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: possible parallel . Lancet. 1989;2:765-769.Crossref 22. Relman DA, Loutit JS, Schmidt TM, et al. The agent of bacillary angiomatosis: an approach to the identification of uncultured pathogens . N Engl J Med. 1990;323:1573-1580.Crossref 23. Cockerell CJ, Webster GF, Whitlow MA, et al. Epithelioid angiomatosis: a distinct vascular disorder in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or AIDS-related complex . Lancet . 1987;2:654-656.Crossref 24. Gregory N, Sanchez M, Buchness MR. The spectrum of syphilis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection . J Am Acad Dermatol. 1990;22:1061-1067.Crossref 25. Centers for Disease Control. 1989 sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines . MMWR . 1989;38( (suppl 8) ):S12-S13. 26. Gottlieb MS, Schroff R, Schanker HM, et al. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and mucosal candidiasis in previously healthy homosexual men: evidence of a new acquired cellular immunodeficiency . N Engl J Med. 1981;305:1425-1430.Crossref 27. Heng MCY, Henderson CL, Barker DC, et al. Correlation of Pityrosporum ovale density with clinical severity of seborrheic dermatitis as assessed by a simplified technique . J Am Acad Dermatol. 1990;23:82-86.Crossref 28. Torssander J, Karlsson A, Morfeldt-Manson L, et al. Dermatophytosis and HIV infection: a study in homosexual men . Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) . 1988;68:53-565. 29. Chuck SL, Sande MA. Infections with Cryptococcus neoformans in AIDS . N Engl J Med. 1989;321:794-799.Crossref 30. Nightingale SD, Parks JM, Pounders SM, et al. Disseminated histoplasmosis in patients with AIDS . South Med J. 1990;83:624-630.Crossref 31. Dominey A, Rosen R, Tschen J. Papulonodular demodicidosis associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome . J Am Acad Dermatol. 1989;20:197.Crossref 32. Raviglione MC. Extrapulmonary pneumocystosis: the first 50 cases . Rev Infect Dis. 1990;12:1127-1137.Crossref 33. Duvic M, Johnson TM, Rapini RP, et al. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated psoriasis and Reiter's syndrome . Arch Dermatol. 1987;123:1622-1623.Crossref 34. Kaplan MH, Sadick NS, Wieder J, et al. Antipsoriatic effects of zidovudine in human immunodeficiency virus-associated psoriasis . J Am Acad Dermatol. 1989;20:76-82.Crossref 35. Kaye BR. Rheumatologic manifestations of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) . Ann Intern Med. 1989;111:158-167.Crossref 36. Valle S-L. Dermatologic findings related to HIV infection in high-risk individuals . J Am Acad Dermatol. 1987;17:951.Crossref 37. Goodman DS, Teplitz ED, Wishner A, et al. Prevalence of cutaneous disease in patients with AIDS or ARC . J Am Acad Dermatol. 1987;17:210-220.Crossref 38. Coldiron BM, Bergstesser PR. Prevalence and clinical spectrum of skin disease in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus . Arch Dermatol. 1989;125:357-361.Crossref 39. Liautaud B, Pape JW, DeHovitz JA, et al. Pruritic skin lesions: a common initial presentation of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome . Arch Dermatol. 1989;125:629-632.Crossref 40. Rosenthal D, LeBoit PE, Klumpp L, Berger TG. HIV-associated eosinophilic folliculitis: a unique dermatosis associated with advanced HIV infection . Arch Dermatol. 1991;127:206-209.Crossref 41. Phelan JA, Saltzman BR, Friedland GH, et al. Oral findings in patients with AIDS . Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1987;64:50-56.Crossref 42. Bach MC, Valent AJ, Howell DA, et al. Odynophagia from aphthous ulcers of the pharynx and esophagus in AIDS . Ann Intern Med. 1988;109:338-339.Crossref 43. Youle M, Farthing C, Hawkins D, et al. Treatment of resistant aphthous ulcerations in HIV seropositive patients using thalidomide . VI International Conference on AIDS. Stockholm, June 12-16, 1988 ;2:321. Abstract. 44. Ghadially R, Sibbald RG, Walter JB, et al. Granuloma annulare in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection . J Am Acad Dermatol. 1989;20:232-235.Crossref 45. >Gordin FM, Simon GL, Wofsy CB, et al. Adverse reactions to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome . Ann Intern Med. 1984;100:495-499.Crossref 46. Roujeau JC, Chosidow O, Saiag P, Guillaume JC. Toxic epidermal necrolysis . J Am Acad Dermatol. 1990;23:1039-1058.Crossref 47. Don PC, Fusco F, Fried P, et al. Nail dyschromia associated with zidovudine . Ann Intern Med. 1990;112:145-146.Crossref 48. Prose NS. Human immunodeficiency virus infection in childhood: the disease and its cutaneous manifestations . Adv Dermatol. 1990;5:113-130. 49. Straka BF, Whitaker DL, Morrison SH, et al. Cutaneous manifestations of AIDS in children . J Am Acad Dermatol. 1988;18:1089-1102.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Dermatology American Medical Association

Cutaneous Manifestations of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: Part II

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1991 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-987X
eISSN
1538-3652
DOI
10.1001/archderm.1991.01680090113015
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Abstract

Abstract Part I appeared in the September issue of the Archives. Bacterial Infections Staphylococcus aureus Infection.— Staphylococcus aureus is the most common pathogen in cutaneous and systemic bacterial infections occurring in HIV-infected individuals. Staphylococcus aureus colonizes the nose initially and may subsequently infect various sites. In both asymptomatic and symptomatic HIV-infected individuals, the S aureus nasal carriage rate is twice that of control groups. Staphylococcus aureus may also be locally invasive at the carriage site causing nasal abscess.The incidence of S aureus infection in HIV-infected patients is high, causing significant morbidity and mortality. In a study of 46 adult patients with AIDS, autopsy examination revealed that 83% had had a bacterial (nonmycobacterial) infection at some time during the course of their illness, of which 54% had been caused by S aureus. Nosocomial infections occur in HIV-infected patients at the rate of 3.46 per thousand hospital days compared with the rate References 1. Piot P, Plummer FA, Mhalu FS, et al. AIDS. An international perspective . Science . 1988;239:573-579.Crossref 2. St. Louis ME, Rauch KJ, Petersen R, et al. Seroprevalence rates of human immunodeficiency virus infection at sentinel hospitals in the United States . N Engl J Med. 1990;323:213-218.Crossref 3. CDC. Classification system for human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus infections . MMWR . 1986;35:334-339. 4. Hulsebosch HJ, Claussen FAP, van Ginkel CJW, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus exanthem . J Am Acad Dermatol. 1990; 23:483-486.Crossref 5. Biggar RJ, Burnett W, Mikl J, et al. Cancer among New York men at risk of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome . Int J Cancer. 1989;43:979-985.Crossref 6. Friedman-Kien AE, Saltzman BR. Clinical manifestations of classical, endemic African, and epidemic AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma . J Am Acad Dermatol. 1990;22:1237-1250.Crossref 7. Beral V, Peterman TA, Berkelman RL, et al. Kaposi's sarcoma among persons with AIDS: a sexually transmitted infection? Lancet . 1990;335:123-128.Crossref 8. Rutherford GW, Kahn JO. The epidemiology of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma . J AIDS . 1990;3( (suppl 1) ). 9. Salahudin SZ, Nakamura S, Biberfield P, et al. Angiogenic properties of Kaposi's sarcoma-derived cells after long term culture in vitro . Science . 1989;242:430-433.Crossref 10. Friedman-Kien AE, Saltzman BR, Cao T, et al. Kaposi's sarcoma in HIV-infected homosexual men . Lancet . 1990;335:168-169.Crossref 11. Chachoua A, Krigel RL, Friedman-Kien AE, et al. Prognostic factors and staging classifications of patients with epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma . J Clin Oncol. 1989;7:774-780. 12. Epstein JB. Oral Kaposi's sarcoma with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Review of management and report of the efficacy of intralesional vinblastine . Cancer . 1989;64:2424-2430.Crossref 13. Sulis ML, Floris C, Sulis ML. Interferon administered intralesionally in skin, conjunctiva and oral cavity lesions in patients with AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma . Eur J Cancer Clin Oncol. 1989; 25:759-761.Crossref 14. Gill PS, Rarick U, Espina B, et al. Advanced AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma: results of pilot studies using combination chemotherapy . Cancer . 1990;65:1074-1078.Crossref 15. Myskowski PL, Strauss DJ, Safai B. Lymphoma and other HIV-associated malignancies . J Am Acad Dermatol. 1990;22:1253-1260.Crossref 16. Siegal FP, Lopez C, Hammer GS, et al. Severe acquired immunodeficiency in male homosexuals, manifested by chronic perianal ulcerative herpes simplex lesions . N Engl J Med. 1981;305:1439-1444.Crossref 17. Horn TD, Hood AF. Cytomegalovirus is predictably present in perineal ulcers from immunosuppressed patients . Arch Dermatol. 1990;126:642-644.Crossref 18. Friedman-Kien AE, Lafleur FL, Gendler E, et al. Herpes zoster: a possible early clinical sign for development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in high-risk individuals . J Am Acad Dermatol. 1986;14:1023-1028.Crossref 19. Gulick RM, Heath-Chiozzi M, Crumpacker CS. Varicella-zoster virus disease in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection . Arch Dermatol. 1990;126:1086-1088.Crossref 20. Greenspan D, Greenspan JS, Hearst NG, et al. Relation of oral hairy leukoplakia to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus and the risk of developing AIDS . J Infect Dis. 1987;155:475-481.Crossref 21. Scholefield JH, Sonnex C, Talbot IC, et al. Anal and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: possible parallel . Lancet. 1989;2:765-769.Crossref 22. Relman DA, Loutit JS, Schmidt TM, et al. The agent of bacillary angiomatosis: an approach to the identification of uncultured pathogens . N Engl J Med. 1990;323:1573-1580.Crossref 23. Cockerell CJ, Webster GF, Whitlow MA, et al. Epithelioid angiomatosis: a distinct vascular disorder in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or AIDS-related complex . Lancet . 1987;2:654-656.Crossref 24. Gregory N, Sanchez M, Buchness MR. The spectrum of syphilis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection . J Am Acad Dermatol. 1990;22:1061-1067.Crossref 25. Centers for Disease Control. 1989 sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines . MMWR . 1989;38( (suppl 8) ):S12-S13. 26. Gottlieb MS, Schroff R, Schanker HM, et al. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and mucosal candidiasis in previously healthy homosexual men: evidence of a new acquired cellular immunodeficiency . N Engl J Med. 1981;305:1425-1430.Crossref 27. Heng MCY, Henderson CL, Barker DC, et al. Correlation of Pityrosporum ovale density with clinical severity of seborrheic dermatitis as assessed by a simplified technique . J Am Acad Dermatol. 1990;23:82-86.Crossref 28. Torssander J, Karlsson A, Morfeldt-Manson L, et al. Dermatophytosis and HIV infection: a study in homosexual men . Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) . 1988;68:53-565. 29. Chuck SL, Sande MA. Infections with Cryptococcus neoformans in AIDS . N Engl J Med. 1989;321:794-799.Crossref 30. Nightingale SD, Parks JM, Pounders SM, et al. Disseminated histoplasmosis in patients with AIDS . South Med J. 1990;83:624-630.Crossref 31. Dominey A, Rosen R, Tschen J. Papulonodular demodicidosis associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome . J Am Acad Dermatol. 1989;20:197.Crossref 32. Raviglione MC. Extrapulmonary pneumocystosis: the first 50 cases . Rev Infect Dis. 1990;12:1127-1137.Crossref 33. Duvic M, Johnson TM, Rapini RP, et al. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated psoriasis and Reiter's syndrome . Arch Dermatol. 1987;123:1622-1623.Crossref 34. Kaplan MH, Sadick NS, Wieder J, et al. Antipsoriatic effects of zidovudine in human immunodeficiency virus-associated psoriasis . J Am Acad Dermatol. 1989;20:76-82.Crossref 35. Kaye BR. Rheumatologic manifestations of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) . Ann Intern Med. 1989;111:158-167.Crossref 36. Valle S-L. Dermatologic findings related to HIV infection in high-risk individuals . J Am Acad Dermatol. 1987;17:951.Crossref 37. Goodman DS, Teplitz ED, Wishner A, et al. Prevalence of cutaneous disease in patients with AIDS or ARC . J Am Acad Dermatol. 1987;17:210-220.Crossref 38. Coldiron BM, Bergstesser PR. Prevalence and clinical spectrum of skin disease in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus . Arch Dermatol. 1989;125:357-361.Crossref 39. Liautaud B, Pape JW, DeHovitz JA, et al. Pruritic skin lesions: a common initial presentation of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome . Arch Dermatol. 1989;125:629-632.Crossref 40. Rosenthal D, LeBoit PE, Klumpp L, Berger TG. HIV-associated eosinophilic folliculitis: a unique dermatosis associated with advanced HIV infection . Arch Dermatol. 1991;127:206-209.Crossref 41. Phelan JA, Saltzman BR, Friedland GH, et al. Oral findings in patients with AIDS . Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1987;64:50-56.Crossref 42. Bach MC, Valent AJ, Howell DA, et al. Odynophagia from aphthous ulcers of the pharynx and esophagus in AIDS . Ann Intern Med. 1988;109:338-339.Crossref 43. Youle M, Farthing C, Hawkins D, et al. Treatment of resistant aphthous ulcerations in HIV seropositive patients using thalidomide . VI International Conference on AIDS. Stockholm, June 12-16, 1988 ;2:321. Abstract. 44. Ghadially R, Sibbald RG, Walter JB, et al. Granuloma annulare in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection . J Am Acad Dermatol. 1989;20:232-235.Crossref 45. >Gordin FM, Simon GL, Wofsy CB, et al. Adverse reactions to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome . Ann Intern Med. 1984;100:495-499.Crossref 46. Roujeau JC, Chosidow O, Saiag P, Guillaume JC. Toxic epidermal necrolysis . J Am Acad Dermatol. 1990;23:1039-1058.Crossref 47. Don PC, Fusco F, Fried P, et al. Nail dyschromia associated with zidovudine . Ann Intern Med. 1990;112:145-146.Crossref 48. Prose NS. Human immunodeficiency virus infection in childhood: the disease and its cutaneous manifestations . Adv Dermatol. 1990;5:113-130. 49. Straka BF, Whitaker DL, Morrison SH, et al. Cutaneous manifestations of AIDS in children . J Am Acad Dermatol. 1988;18:1089-1102.Crossref

Journal

Archives of DermatologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Oct 1, 1991

References