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CORRELATION OF LINGUAL CHANGES WITH OTHER CLINICAL DATA

CORRELATION OF LINGUAL CHANGES WITH OTHER CLINICAL DATA Abstract The study of the tongue is as ancient as the practice of medicine. Hippocrates1 has left many notes of his observations of this organ. Repeated references in his clinical descriptions of the fevers are found to the tongue that is dry or parched. Sooty and dry is another qualifying expression used by Hippocrates relative to the tongue. Again he says, "If in a winter fever, the tongue be rough, and if there be swooning, it is likely to be the remission of the fever." An even more characteristic example is to be found in the following quotation: "When there is a chronic sore on the side of the tongue the surgeon should examine whether it be not occasioned by the sharp edge of a tooth." Through the generations down to the modern period of medicine the study of the tongue has been held in high esteem not only by References 1. The Genuine Works of Hippocrates , translated by F. Wood, New York, William Wood & Company. 2. Lewis, G. E.: The Smooth Tongue: A Study in Deficiency Disease , Practitioner 125:749 ( (Dec.) ) 1930. 3. Larrabee, R. C.: The Severe Anemia of Pregnancy and the Puerperium , Am. J. M. Sc. 170:371 ( (Sept.) ) 1925.Crossref 4. Isaacs, R.; Sturgis, C. C., and Smith, M.: Tapeworm Anemia , Arch. Int. Med. 42: 313 ( (Sept.) ) 1928.Crossref 5. Keefer, C. S., and Yang, C. S.: Anemia of Undernutrition , Nat. M. J. China 15:701 ( (Dec.) ) 1929. 6. Witts, L. J.: Simple Achlorhydric Anemia , Guy's Hosp. Rep. 80:253 ( (July) ) 1930. 7. Hunter, William: Severest Anaemias , New York, The Macmillan Company, 1909, vol. 1. 8. Barclay: M. Times, 1851, p. 480 9. Hunter (footnote 7). 10. Müller, H.: Die progressive perniciose Anämie , Zurich, 1877, p. 207. 11. Dawson, J.: Thoughts on the Tongue as an Element in Diagnosis , West. J. Med. & Surg. 6:277 ( (Oct.) ) 1846. 12. Laache, S.: Die Anämie , Christiania, Malling, 1883, p. 144. 13. McPhedran, A.: Pernicious Anemia: With a Report of Five Cases , M. News 57:362 ( (Oct. 11) ) 1890. 14. Hunter, William: Further Observations on Pernicious Anemia (Seven Cases): A Chronic Infective Disease; Its Relation to Infection from the Mouth and Stomach; Suggested Serum Treatment , Lancet 1:221, 296 and 371, 1900. 15. Hunter (footnotes 8 and 13). 16. Schneider, J. P., and Carey, J. B.: The Nature of the Glossitis in Pernicious Anemia , Minnesota Med. 10:214 ( (April) ) 1927. 17. Minot, G. R., and Murphy, W. P.: A Diet Rich in Liver in the Treatment of Pernicious Anemia , J. A. M. A. 89:759 ( (Sept. 3) ) 1927. 18. Starr, P.: Results of Liver Feeding in Pernicious Anemia , Am. J. M. Sc. 175:312, 1928. 19. Heath, E. H.: Pernicious Anemia Treated with Liver Diet and Liver Extract , J. A. M. A. 91:928 ( (Sept. 29) ) 1928. 20. Ungley, C. C.: The Stomach and Pernicious Anemia , Newcastle M. J. 10:14 ( (Oct.) ) 1929. 21. Huston, John: Further Observations with the Diet Rich in Liver for the Treatment of Pernicious Anemia , Am. J. M. Sc. 174:520 ( (Oct.) ) 1927. 22. Starr (footnote 17). 23. Isaacs, R.; Sturgis, C. C., and Smith, M.: Treatment of Pernicious Anemia , J. A. M. A. 91:1687 ( (Dec. 1) ) 1928. 24. Isaacs, R.: Systemic Relapses During Liver Induced Hemopoietic Remissions in Pernicious Anemia , Am. J. M. Sc. 178:500 ( (Oct.) ) 1929. 25. Castle, W. B., and Locke, E. A.: Observations on the Etiologic Relationship of Achylia Gastrica to Pernicious Anemia , J. Clin. Investigation 6:2, 1929. 26. Castle, W. B.: Observations on the Etiologic Relationship of Achylia Gastrica to Pernicious Anemia: I. The Effect of the Administration to Patients with Pernicious Anemia of the Contents of the Human Stomach Recovered After the Ingestion of Beef Muscle , Am. J. M. Sc. 178:748 ( (Dec.) ) 1929. 27. Castle, W. B., and Townsend, W. C.: II. The Effect of the Administration to Patients with Pernicious Anemia of Beef Muscle After Incubation with Normal Human Gastric Juice , Am. J. M. Sc. 178:764 ( (Dec.) ) 1929. 28. Castle, W. B.; Townsend, W. C., and Heath, C. W.: III. The Nature of the Reaction Between Normal Human Gastric Juice and Beef Muscle Leading to Clinical Improvement and Increased Blood Formation Similar to the Effect of Liver Feeding , Am. J. M. Sc. 180:305 ( (Sept.) ) 1930. 29. Riesman, D.: The Tongue , in Osler, William, and McCrae, Thomas: Modern Medicine , ed. 2, Philadelphia, Lea & Febiger, 1914, vol. 3, p. 60. 30. Wilkinson, J. F., and Oliver, T. H.: Lancet 1:66 ( (Jan. 10) ) 1931.Crossref 31. Elsom, J. E.: Personal communication to the authors. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Internal Medicine American Medical Association

CORRELATION OF LINGUAL CHANGES WITH OTHER CLINICAL DATA

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Publisher
American Medical Association
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Copyright © 1932 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
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0730-188X
DOI
10.1001/archinte.1932.00150120150014
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Abstract

Abstract The study of the tongue is as ancient as the practice of medicine. Hippocrates1 has left many notes of his observations of this organ. Repeated references in his clinical descriptions of the fevers are found to the tongue that is dry or parched. Sooty and dry is another qualifying expression used by Hippocrates relative to the tongue. Again he says, "If in a winter fever, the tongue be rough, and if there be swooning, it is likely to be the remission of the fever." An even more characteristic example is to be found in the following quotation: "When there is a chronic sore on the side of the tongue the surgeon should examine whether it be not occasioned by the sharp edge of a tooth." Through the generations down to the modern period of medicine the study of the tongue has been held in high esteem not only by References 1. The Genuine Works of Hippocrates , translated by F. Wood, New York, William Wood & Company. 2. Lewis, G. E.: The Smooth Tongue: A Study in Deficiency Disease , Practitioner 125:749 ( (Dec.) ) 1930. 3. Larrabee, R. C.: The Severe Anemia of Pregnancy and the Puerperium , Am. J. M. Sc. 170:371 ( (Sept.) ) 1925.Crossref 4. Isaacs, R.; Sturgis, C. C., and Smith, M.: Tapeworm Anemia , Arch. Int. Med. 42: 313 ( (Sept.) ) 1928.Crossref 5. Keefer, C. S., and Yang, C. S.: Anemia of Undernutrition , Nat. M. J. China 15:701 ( (Dec.) ) 1929. 6. Witts, L. J.: Simple Achlorhydric Anemia , Guy's Hosp. Rep. 80:253 ( (July) ) 1930. 7. Hunter, William: Severest Anaemias , New York, The Macmillan Company, 1909, vol. 1. 8. Barclay: M. Times, 1851, p. 480 9. Hunter (footnote 7). 10. Müller, H.: Die progressive perniciose Anämie , Zurich, 1877, p. 207. 11. Dawson, J.: Thoughts on the Tongue as an Element in Diagnosis , West. J. Med. & Surg. 6:277 ( (Oct.) ) 1846. 12. Laache, S.: Die Anämie , Christiania, Malling, 1883, p. 144. 13. McPhedran, A.: Pernicious Anemia: With a Report of Five Cases , M. News 57:362 ( (Oct. 11) ) 1890. 14. Hunter, William: Further Observations on Pernicious Anemia (Seven Cases): A Chronic Infective Disease; Its Relation to Infection from the Mouth and Stomach; Suggested Serum Treatment , Lancet 1:221, 296 and 371, 1900. 15. Hunter (footnotes 8 and 13). 16. Schneider, J. P., and Carey, J. B.: The Nature of the Glossitis in Pernicious Anemia , Minnesota Med. 10:214 ( (April) ) 1927. 17. Minot, G. R., and Murphy, W. P.: A Diet Rich in Liver in the Treatment of Pernicious Anemia , J. A. M. A. 89:759 ( (Sept. 3) ) 1927. 18. Starr, P.: Results of Liver Feeding in Pernicious Anemia , Am. J. M. Sc. 175:312, 1928. 19. Heath, E. H.: Pernicious Anemia Treated with Liver Diet and Liver Extract , J. A. M. A. 91:928 ( (Sept. 29) ) 1928. 20. Ungley, C. C.: The Stomach and Pernicious Anemia , Newcastle M. J. 10:14 ( (Oct.) ) 1929. 21. Huston, John: Further Observations with the Diet Rich in Liver for the Treatment of Pernicious Anemia , Am. J. M. Sc. 174:520 ( (Oct.) ) 1927. 22. Starr (footnote 17). 23. Isaacs, R.; Sturgis, C. C., and Smith, M.: Treatment of Pernicious Anemia , J. A. M. A. 91:1687 ( (Dec. 1) ) 1928. 24. Isaacs, R.: Systemic Relapses During Liver Induced Hemopoietic Remissions in Pernicious Anemia , Am. J. M. Sc. 178:500 ( (Oct.) ) 1929. 25. Castle, W. B., and Locke, E. A.: Observations on the Etiologic Relationship of Achylia Gastrica to Pernicious Anemia , J. Clin. Investigation 6:2, 1929. 26. Castle, W. B.: Observations on the Etiologic Relationship of Achylia Gastrica to Pernicious Anemia: I. The Effect of the Administration to Patients with Pernicious Anemia of the Contents of the Human Stomach Recovered After the Ingestion of Beef Muscle , Am. J. M. Sc. 178:748 ( (Dec.) ) 1929. 27. Castle, W. B., and Townsend, W. C.: II. The Effect of the Administration to Patients with Pernicious Anemia of Beef Muscle After Incubation with Normal Human Gastric Juice , Am. J. M. Sc. 178:764 ( (Dec.) ) 1929. 28. Castle, W. B.; Townsend, W. C., and Heath, C. W.: III. The Nature of the Reaction Between Normal Human Gastric Juice and Beef Muscle Leading to Clinical Improvement and Increased Blood Formation Similar to the Effect of Liver Feeding , Am. J. M. Sc. 180:305 ( (Sept.) ) 1930. 29. Riesman, D.: The Tongue , in Osler, William, and McCrae, Thomas: Modern Medicine , ed. 2, Philadelphia, Lea & Febiger, 1914, vol. 3, p. 60. 30. Wilkinson, J. F., and Oliver, T. H.: Lancet 1:66 ( (Jan. 10) ) 1931.Crossref 31. Elsom, J. E.: Personal communication to the authors.

Journal

Archives of Internal MedicineAmerican Medical Association

Published: May 1, 1932

References