Abstract The relationship between intraocular pressure, corneal hydration, and transparency has received attention in the past and the subject deserves a review. As early as 1873 Leber1 had found that in freshly enucleated eyes an intraocular pressure of around 200 mm Hg caused bullous epithelial edema within a few hours. He also described the oft-quoted experiment of inducing stromal opacification by squeezing the eye, and the clearing which takes place when pressure is released. Bullot (1904)2 suspended rabbit eyes, with epithelium removed, in sodium chloride solutions of varying tonicity. The use of hypotonic solutions caused a temporarily increased intraocular pressure and the corneas remained relatively thin and transparent. Conversely, when the eyes were bathed in hypertonic saline solutions, low intraocular pressure and swollen corneas were the result. The author ascribed the different hydrations of the cornea to the level of the intraocular pressure. Kinsey and Cogan (1942)3 immersed References 1. Leber, T.: Studies on the Fluid Circulation in the Eye , Graefe Arch Ophthal 2:87, 1873.Crossref 2. Bullot, G.: On the Swelling of Organic Tissues: Researches on the Cornea , Amer J Physiol 12:297, 1904. 3. Kinsey, V.E., and Cogan, D.G.: The Cornea. IV. Hydration Properties of the Whole Cornea , Arch Ophthal 28:449, 1942.Crossref 4. Harris, J.E.; Gehrsitz, L.; and Gruber, L.: The Hydration of the Cornea. II. The Effect of the Intraocular Pressure , Amer J Ophthal 42:325, 1956. 5. Maurice, D.M.: The Structure and Transparency of the Cornea , J Physiol 136:263, 1957. 6. Anseth, A., and Dohlman, C.H.: Influence of the Intraocular Pressure on Hydration of the Corneal Stroma , Acta Ophthal 35:85, 1957. 7. Potts, A.M., and Friedman, B.C.: Studies on Corneal Transparency , Amer J Ophthal 48:480, 1959. 8. Hedbys, B.O.; Mishima, S.; and Maurice, D.M.: The Imbibition Pressure of the Corneal Stroma , Exp Eye Res 2:99, 1963.Crossref 9. Maurice, D.M.: " The Cornea and Sclera " in Davson, H. (Ed.): The Eye , New York: Academic Press, 1962, vol 1, p 312. 10. Maurice, D.M., and Giardini, A.A.: Swelling of the Cornea in Vivo After the Destruction of Its Limiting Layers , Brit J Ophthal 35:791, 1951b.Crossref 11. Maurice, D.M., and Giardini, A.A.: A Simple Optical Apparatus for Measuring the Corneal Thickness, and the Average Thickness of the Human Cornea , Brit J Ophthal 35:169, 1951a.Crossref 12. Hedbys, B.O., and Mishima, S.: To be published. 13. Ytteborg, J., and Dohlman, C.H.: Corneal Edema and Intraocular Pressure. II. Clinical Results, Arch Ophthal, to be published. 14. Maurice, D.M.: The Permeability to Sodium Ions of the Living Rabbit's Cornea , J Physiol 112:367, 1951. 15. Mishima, S., and Hedbys, B.O.: To be published. 16. Davson, H.: The Hydration of the Cornea , Biochem J 59:24, 1955. 17. Harris, J.E., and Nordquiest, L.T.: The Hydration of the Cornea I. The Transport of Water From the Cornea , Amer J Ophthal 40:100, 1955. 18. Langham, M.E., and Taylor, I.S.: Factors Affecting the Hydration of the Cornea in the Excised Eye and in the Living Animal , Brit J Ophthal 40:321, 1956.Crossref 19. Donn, A.; Maurice, D.M.; and Mills, N.L.: Studies on the Living Cornea in Vitro. I. Method and Physiologic Measurements , Arch Ophthal 62:741, 1959.Crossref
Archives of Ophthalmology – American Medical Association
Published: Sep 1, 1965
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