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COPPER AND IRON IN HUMAN BLOOD

COPPER AND IRON IN HUMAN BLOOD Abstract Copper and iron are essential elements in the human organism, and recent enlightening research has given increased evidence of their importance in the blood stream. In our first experiments, nine years ago, on the iron content of whole blood, we found it necessary to establish a large series of determinations on normal persons.1 The average iron content of whole blood for 200 men was 50.13 ± 0.15 mg. per hundred cubic centimeters, and for 100 women it was 43.42 ± 0.19. The mathematical index, the mode, the figure which appears most frequently in the series of determinations and around which the majority of figures group themselves, was 50 mg. of iron per hundred cubic centimeters for 200 men and 45 mg. for 100 women.1b The fact that in women the average fell below the mode illustrates the tendency toward the anemic state in women. The determination of iron References 1. Sachs, A.; Levine, V. E., and Appelsis, A.: Iron in Human Blood , Arch. Int. Med. 52:366 ( (Sept.) ) 1933.Crossref 2. Sachs, A.; Levine, V. E., and Fabian, A. A.: Copper and Iron in Human Blood , Arch. Int. Med. 55:227 ( (Feb.) ) 1935.Crossref 3. Karshan, M., and Freeman, R. G., Jr.: Study of Hemoglobin Methods , J. Lab. & Clin. Med. 15:74 ( (Oct.) ) 1929. 4. Butterfield, E.: Ueber die Lichtextinktion, das Gasbindungsvermögen und den Eisengehalt des menschlichen Blutfarbstoffs in normalen und krankhaften Zuständen , Ztschr. f. physiol. Chem. 62:173, 1909. 5. Sachs, A.; Levine, V. E., and Fabian, A. A.: Copper and Iron in Human Blood: Normal Children , Arch. Int. Med. 58:523 ( (Sept.) ) 1936. 6. Williamson, C. S.: Influence of Age and Sex on Hemoglobin , Arch. Int. Med. 18:505 ( (Oct.) ) 1916. 7. Wilke, E.: Ueber den Gehalt des Blutes gesunder Kinder vom zweiten bis vierzehnten Lebensjahr an roten Blutkörperchen, an Blutfarbstoff, an Retikulocyten und an Thrombocyten , Folia haemat. 52:291, 1934. 8. Merritt, K. K., and Davidson, L. T.: The Blood During the First Year of Life , Am. J. Dis. Child. 46:990 ( (Nov.) ) 1933. 9. Kotikoff, I. A.: Ueber den Eisengehalt im Blute der Säuglinge , Jahrb. f. Kinderh. 132:180 ( (July) ) 1931. 10. Mackary, H. M. M.: The Normal Hemoglobin Level During the First Year of Life: Revised Figures , Arch. Dis. Childhood 8:221 ( (June) ) 1933. 11. Elvehjem, C. A.; Peterson, W. H., and Mendenhall, D. R.: Hemoglobin Content of the Blood of Infants , Am. J. Dis. Child. 46:105 ( (July) ) 1933. 12. Drucker, P.: Investigations on the Normal Values for the Hemoglobin and the Cell Volume in the Small Child , Acta pædiat. 3:1, 1923. 13. Kato, K., and Emery, O. J.: Hemoglobin Content of the Blood in Infancy , Folia haemat. 49:106, 1933. 14. Sachs, A.: The Effect of Bleeding Ulcers and Hemorrhagic Anemia upon Whole Blood Copper and Iron , Am. J. Digest. Dis. & Nutrition 4:803 ( (Feb.) ) 1937. 15. Elvehjem, C. A., and Sherman, W. C.: Action of Copper in Iron Metabolism , J. Biol. Chem. 98:309 ( (Oct.) ) 1932. 16. Elvehjem, C. A.; Steenbock, H., and Hart, E. B.: Is Copper a Constituent of the Hemoglobin Molecule? J. Biol. Chem. 83:21 ( (July) ) 1929. 17. Sheldon, J. H.: Some Consideration on the Influence of Copper and Manganese on the Therapeutic Activity of Iron , Brit. M. J. 2:869 ( (Nov. 12) ) 1932. 18. Sachs, A.; Levine, V. E.; Griffith, W. O., and Hansen, C. H.: Copper and Iron in Human Blood: Comparison of Maternal and Fetal Blood After Normal Delivery and After Cesarean Section , Am. J. Dis. Child. 56:787 ( (Oct.) ) 1938. 19. Moore, C. V.; Quiligan, J. J., Jr., and Read, J. T.: The Chemical Methods and Normal Values for Plasma Iron and "Easily Split-Off" Blood Iron , J. Clin. Investigation 15:613 ( (July) ) 1937. 20. Moore, C. V.; Doan, C. A., and Arrowsmith, W. R.: The Mechanism of Iron Transportation: Its Significance in Iron Utilization in Anemic States of Varied Etiology , J. Clin. Investigation 15:627 ( (July) ) 1937. 21. Barkan, G.: Ueber das leicht abspaltbare Bluteisen und sein Verhältnis zum Hämoglobin , Ztschr. f. physiol. Chem. 148:124, 1925.Crossref 22. Warburg, O.: Enzyme Problem and Biological Oxidations , Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 46:431 ( (June) ) 1930. 23. Keith, N. M.; Rowntree, L. F., and Geraghty, J. T.: A Method for the Determination of Plasma and Blood Volume , Arch. Int. Med. 16:547 ( (Oct.) ) 1915.Crossref 24. Chang, N. C., and Harrop, G. A., Jr.: Determination of Circulating Blood Volume with Carbon Monoxide , J. Clin. Investigation 5:393 ( (April) ) 1928.Crossref 25. Fowler, W. M.: Iron Deficiency Anemias , J. Omaha Mid-West Clin. Soc. 2:16 ( (Jan.) ) 1941. 26. Menkin, V.: Studies on Inflammation; Fixation of Metal in Inflamed Areas , J. Exper. Med. 51:879 ( (June) ) 1930Crossref 27. Accumulation of Iron in Tuberculous Areas , Am. J. M. Sc. 185:40 ( (Jan.) ) 1933.Crossref 28. Sachs, A., and Russum, C.: Hemochromatosis , Nebraska M. J. 22:121 ( (April) ) 1937. 29. Allison, R. N.; Bryan, O. C., and Hunter, J. H.: Bulletin 190, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, 1927. 30. Flinn, F. B., and Inouye, J. M.: Some Physiological Aspects of Copper in the Organism , J. Biol. Chem. 84:10 ( (Oct.) ) 1929. 31. Cunningham, I. J.: Some Biochemical and Physiological Aspects of Copper in Animal Nutrition , Biochem. J. 25:1267, 1930. 32. Morrison, D. B., and Nash, T. P., Jr.: Copper Content of Infant Livers , J. Biol. Chem. 88:479 ( (Sept.) ) 1930. 33. Sachs, Levine and Fabian.1b 34. Sachs, Levine, Griffith and Hansen.9 35. McCollum, E. V.; Orent-Keiles, E., and Day, H. G.: The Newer Knowledge of Nutrition , ed. 5, New York, The Macmillan Company, 1939, p. 211. 36. Quartaroli, A.: Il binomino ferro-rame in chimica e in biologia , Ann. di chim. applic. 22:517, 1932. 37. Voegtlin, C.; Johnson, J. M., and Rosenthal, S. M.: Catalytic Action of Copper in Oxidation of Crystalline Glutathion , Pub. Health Rep. 46:2234 ( (Sept. 18) ) 1931.Crossref 38. Stein, H. B., and Lewis, E. C.: Stimulating Action of Copper on Erythropoiesis . J. Nutrition 6:465 ( (Sept.) ) 1933. 39. Moore, C. V.; Bierman, H. O.; Minnich, V., and Arrowsmith, W. R.: Studies in Iron Absorption with Special Reference to the Relationship of Iron Metabolism to Ascorbic Acid , in Blood, Heart and Circulation: Symposium , Publication 13, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, D. C., 1940, pp. 34-37. 40. Moore, C. V.; Arrowsmith, W. R.; Welch, J., and Minnich, V.: Studies in Iron Transportation and Metabolism: Observations on the Absorption of Iron from the Gastro-Intestinal Tract , J. Clin. Investigation 18:543 ( (Sept.) ) 1939.Crossref 41. Chou, T. P., and Adolph, W. H.: Copper Metabolism in Man , Biochem. J. 19:476, 1935. 42. Harrow, B.: Text Book of Biochemistry , Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders Company, 1940. 43. Conferences on Therapy [from Cornell University Medical School and New York Hospital]: Treatment of Blood Disorders; The Use of Iron and Other Metals , J. A. M. A. 114:2301 ( (June 8) ) 1940.Crossref 44. Moore, C. V., in Round Table Discussion on the Therapeutics of Anemia , J. Pediat. 17:554 ( (Oct.) ) 1940. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Internal Medicine American Medical Association

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American Medical Association
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Copyright © 1943 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
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10.1001/archinte.1943.00210040048006
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Abstract

Abstract Copper and iron are essential elements in the human organism, and recent enlightening research has given increased evidence of their importance in the blood stream. In our first experiments, nine years ago, on the iron content of whole blood, we found it necessary to establish a large series of determinations on normal persons.1 The average iron content of whole blood for 200 men was 50.13 ± 0.15 mg. per hundred cubic centimeters, and for 100 women it was 43.42 ± 0.19. The mathematical index, the mode, the figure which appears most frequently in the series of determinations and around which the majority of figures group themselves, was 50 mg. of iron per hundred cubic centimeters for 200 men and 45 mg. for 100 women.1b The fact that in women the average fell below the mode illustrates the tendency toward the anemic state in women. The determination of iron References 1. Sachs, A.; Levine, V. E., and Appelsis, A.: Iron in Human Blood , Arch. Int. Med. 52:366 ( (Sept.) ) 1933.Crossref 2. Sachs, A.; Levine, V. E., and Fabian, A. A.: Copper and Iron in Human Blood , Arch. Int. Med. 55:227 ( (Feb.) ) 1935.Crossref 3. Karshan, M., and Freeman, R. G., Jr.: Study of Hemoglobin Methods , J. Lab. & Clin. Med. 15:74 ( (Oct.) ) 1929. 4. Butterfield, E.: Ueber die Lichtextinktion, das Gasbindungsvermögen und den Eisengehalt des menschlichen Blutfarbstoffs in normalen und krankhaften Zuständen , Ztschr. f. physiol. Chem. 62:173, 1909. 5. Sachs, A.; Levine, V. E., and Fabian, A. A.: Copper and Iron in Human Blood: Normal Children , Arch. Int. Med. 58:523 ( (Sept.) ) 1936. 6. Williamson, C. S.: Influence of Age and Sex on Hemoglobin , Arch. Int. Med. 18:505 ( (Oct.) ) 1916. 7. Wilke, E.: Ueber den Gehalt des Blutes gesunder Kinder vom zweiten bis vierzehnten Lebensjahr an roten Blutkörperchen, an Blutfarbstoff, an Retikulocyten und an Thrombocyten , Folia haemat. 52:291, 1934. 8. Merritt, K. K., and Davidson, L. T.: The Blood During the First Year of Life , Am. J. Dis. Child. 46:990 ( (Nov.) ) 1933. 9. Kotikoff, I. A.: Ueber den Eisengehalt im Blute der Säuglinge , Jahrb. f. Kinderh. 132:180 ( (July) ) 1931. 10. Mackary, H. M. M.: The Normal Hemoglobin Level During the First Year of Life: Revised Figures , Arch. Dis. Childhood 8:221 ( (June) ) 1933. 11. Elvehjem, C. A.; Peterson, W. H., and Mendenhall, D. R.: Hemoglobin Content of the Blood of Infants , Am. J. Dis. Child. 46:105 ( (July) ) 1933. 12. Drucker, P.: Investigations on the Normal Values for the Hemoglobin and the Cell Volume in the Small Child , Acta pædiat. 3:1, 1923. 13. Kato, K., and Emery, O. J.: Hemoglobin Content of the Blood in Infancy , Folia haemat. 49:106, 1933. 14. Sachs, A.: The Effect of Bleeding Ulcers and Hemorrhagic Anemia upon Whole Blood Copper and Iron , Am. J. Digest. Dis. & Nutrition 4:803 ( (Feb.) ) 1937. 15. Elvehjem, C. A., and Sherman, W. C.: Action of Copper in Iron Metabolism , J. Biol. Chem. 98:309 ( (Oct.) ) 1932. 16. Elvehjem, C. A.; Steenbock, H., and Hart, E. B.: Is Copper a Constituent of the Hemoglobin Molecule? J. Biol. Chem. 83:21 ( (July) ) 1929. 17. Sheldon, J. H.: Some Consideration on the Influence of Copper and Manganese on the Therapeutic Activity of Iron , Brit. M. J. 2:869 ( (Nov. 12) ) 1932. 18. Sachs, A.; Levine, V. E.; Griffith, W. O., and Hansen, C. H.: Copper and Iron in Human Blood: Comparison of Maternal and Fetal Blood After Normal Delivery and After Cesarean Section , Am. J. Dis. Child. 56:787 ( (Oct.) ) 1938. 19. Moore, C. V.; Quiligan, J. J., Jr., and Read, J. T.: The Chemical Methods and Normal Values for Plasma Iron and "Easily Split-Off" Blood Iron , J. Clin. Investigation 15:613 ( (July) ) 1937. 20. Moore, C. V.; Doan, C. A., and Arrowsmith, W. R.: The Mechanism of Iron Transportation: Its Significance in Iron Utilization in Anemic States of Varied Etiology , J. Clin. Investigation 15:627 ( (July) ) 1937. 21. Barkan, G.: Ueber das leicht abspaltbare Bluteisen und sein Verhältnis zum Hämoglobin , Ztschr. f. physiol. Chem. 148:124, 1925.Crossref 22. Warburg, O.: Enzyme Problem and Biological Oxidations , Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 46:431 ( (June) ) 1930. 23. Keith, N. M.; Rowntree, L. F., and Geraghty, J. T.: A Method for the Determination of Plasma and Blood Volume , Arch. Int. Med. 16:547 ( (Oct.) ) 1915.Crossref 24. Chang, N. C., and Harrop, G. A., Jr.: Determination of Circulating Blood Volume with Carbon Monoxide , J. Clin. Investigation 5:393 ( (April) ) 1928.Crossref 25. Fowler, W. M.: Iron Deficiency Anemias , J. Omaha Mid-West Clin. Soc. 2:16 ( (Jan.) ) 1941. 26. Menkin, V.: Studies on Inflammation; Fixation of Metal in Inflamed Areas , J. Exper. Med. 51:879 ( (June) ) 1930Crossref 27. Accumulation of Iron in Tuberculous Areas , Am. J. M. Sc. 185:40 ( (Jan.) ) 1933.Crossref 28. Sachs, A., and Russum, C.: Hemochromatosis , Nebraska M. J. 22:121 ( (April) ) 1937. 29. Allison, R. N.; Bryan, O. C., and Hunter, J. H.: Bulletin 190, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, 1927. 30. Flinn, F. B., and Inouye, J. M.: Some Physiological Aspects of Copper in the Organism , J. Biol. Chem. 84:10 ( (Oct.) ) 1929. 31. Cunningham, I. J.: Some Biochemical and Physiological Aspects of Copper in Animal Nutrition , Biochem. J. 25:1267, 1930. 32. Morrison, D. B., and Nash, T. P., Jr.: Copper Content of Infant Livers , J. Biol. Chem. 88:479 ( (Sept.) ) 1930. 33. Sachs, Levine and Fabian.1b 34. Sachs, Levine, Griffith and Hansen.9 35. McCollum, E. V.; Orent-Keiles, E., and Day, H. G.: The Newer Knowledge of Nutrition , ed. 5, New York, The Macmillan Company, 1939, p. 211. 36. Quartaroli, A.: Il binomino ferro-rame in chimica e in biologia , Ann. di chim. applic. 22:517, 1932. 37. Voegtlin, C.; Johnson, J. M., and Rosenthal, S. M.: Catalytic Action of Copper in Oxidation of Crystalline Glutathion , Pub. Health Rep. 46:2234 ( (Sept. 18) ) 1931.Crossref 38. Stein, H. B., and Lewis, E. C.: Stimulating Action of Copper on Erythropoiesis . J. Nutrition 6:465 ( (Sept.) ) 1933. 39. Moore, C. V.; Bierman, H. O.; Minnich, V., and Arrowsmith, W. R.: Studies in Iron Absorption with Special Reference to the Relationship of Iron Metabolism to Ascorbic Acid , in Blood, Heart and Circulation: Symposium , Publication 13, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, D. C., 1940, pp. 34-37. 40. Moore, C. V.; Arrowsmith, W. R.; Welch, J., and Minnich, V.: Studies in Iron Transportation and Metabolism: Observations on the Absorption of Iron from the Gastro-Intestinal Tract , J. Clin. Investigation 18:543 ( (Sept.) ) 1939.Crossref 41. Chou, T. P., and Adolph, W. H.: Copper Metabolism in Man , Biochem. J. 19:476, 1935. 42. Harrow, B.: Text Book of Biochemistry , Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders Company, 1940. 43. Conferences on Therapy [from Cornell University Medical School and New York Hospital]: Treatment of Blood Disorders; The Use of Iron and Other Metals , J. A. M. A. 114:2301 ( (June 8) ) 1940.Crossref 44. Moore, C. V., in Round Table Discussion on the Therapeutics of Anemia , J. Pediat. 17:554 ( (Oct.) ) 1940.

Journal

Archives of Internal MedicineAmerican Medical Association

Published: Apr 1, 1943

References