Get 20M+ Full-Text Papers For Less Than $1.50/day. Start a 14-Day Trial for You and Your Team.

Learn More →

CONTROL OF OCULAR MOVEMENTS AND VISUAL INTERPRETATION OF ENVIRONMENT

CONTROL OF OCULAR MOVEMENTS AND VISUAL INTERPRETATION OF ENVIRONMENT Abstract EVIDENCE1 has been advanced that the eye lacks position sense; furthermore, evidence2 has appeared that the muscle spindles found by Daniel3 in the extraocular muscles do not effectively contribute to a position sense of the eye. Furthermore, in recent years substantial doubt has arisen as to whether muscles and tendons contribute to the position sense of skeletal muscle or whether this position sense is mediated chiefly or solely by the joint, or articular, sensitivity.4 The problem thus arises as to how the individual controls his eyes and interprets the movement, or lack thereof, of environment when he is not consciously aware of the position of his eyes. It is with this problem that the present paper is concerned. The classic explanation for the control of bodily movements, including eye movements, is by means of what has been characterized as the ``proprioceptivepyramidal circuit.5'' The expression "feedback" References 1. Irvine, S. R., and Ludvigh, E. J.: Is Ocular Proprioceptive Sense Concerned in Vision? Arch. Ophth. 15:1037, 1936.Crossref 2. Ludvigh, E. J.:; Possible Role of Proprioception in the Extraocular Muscles , A. M. A. Arch. Ophth. , this issue. 3. Daniel,P.: Spiral Nerve Endings in Extrinsic Eye Muscles of Man , J.Anat. 80:189, 1946. 4. Gardner,E.:: Physiology of Movable Joints , Physiol. Rev. 30:127, 1950. 5. Sarnoff, S.J., and Arrowood, J.S.:: Differential Spinal-Block:: III. Block of Cutaneous and Stretch Reflexes in the Presence of Unimpaired Position Sense , J.Neurophysiol.. 10:205,, 1947. 6. McIntyre,, A.K., and Lloyd, D. P.C.:: Spinal Projection ofHindlimb Afferent Fibers , FederationProc. 7:79, 1948. 7. Troland, L.T.:: Principles of Psychophysiology , New York, D. Van Nostrand Company, nc., 1932, Vol. 3, pp. 364,362-363. 8. Dodge, R.: Five Types of Eye Movements in the Horizontal Meridian Plane of the Field of Regard , Am. J. Physiol. 8:307, 1903. 9. James, H. M., and Others, Editors: Theory of Servo-Mechanisms , Office of Scientific Research and Development, National Defense Research Committee, New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1947, p. 26. 10. Hazen, H. L.: Theory of Servo-Mechanisms , J. Franklin Inst., 1934, p. 218. 11. Lord, M. P., and Wright, W. D.: Small Voluntary Flicking and Following Eye Movements , Nature, London 163:803, 1949.Crossref 12. Verhoeff, F. H.: A New Theory of Binocular Vision , Arch. Ophth. 13:151, 1935.Crossref 13. Cogan, D. G.: Neurology of the Ocular Muscles , Springfield, Ill., Charles C Thomas, Publisher, 1948, p. 93. 14. van Heuven, J. A.: La Vision binoculaire , Arch. Neurol. de Physiol. 11:83, 1926. 15. Ludvigh, E. J.: Extrafoveal Visual Acuity as Measured with Snellen Test-Letters , Am. J. Ophth. 24:303, 1941. 16. Trimmer, J. D.: Response of Physical Systems , New York, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1950, p. 200. 17. Adler, F. H., and Fliegelman, M.: Influence of Fixation on the Visual Acuity , Arch. Ophth. 12:475, 1934.Crossref 18. Riggs, L. A., and Ratliff, F.: Coordination of the Eyes in Maintaining Fixation , Am. Psychologist 5:260, 1950. 19. Minorsky, N.: On Parametric Excitation , J. Franklin Inst. 240:25, 1945.Crossref 20. Gellhorn, E.: Proprioception and the Motor Cortex , Brain 72:35, 1949.Crossref 21. Adler, F. H.: Pathologic Physiology of Convergent Strabismus: Motor Aspects of Nonaccommodational Type , Arch. Ophth. 33:362, 1945.Crossref 22. Adler, F. H.: Physiology of the Eye: Clinical Application , St. Louis, C. V. Mosby Company, 1950, p. 339. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png A.M.A. Archives of Ophthalmology American Medical Association

CONTROL OF OCULAR MOVEMENTS AND VISUAL INTERPRETATION OF ENVIRONMENT

A.M.A. Archives of Ophthalmology , Volume 48 (4) – Oct 1, 1952

Loading next page...
 
/lp/american-medical-association/control-of-ocular-movements-and-visual-interpretation-of-environment-uVxzwEvUkH
Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1952 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0096-6339
DOI
10.1001/archopht.1952.00920010451008
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract EVIDENCE1 has been advanced that the eye lacks position sense; furthermore, evidence2 has appeared that the muscle spindles found by Daniel3 in the extraocular muscles do not effectively contribute to a position sense of the eye. Furthermore, in recent years substantial doubt has arisen as to whether muscles and tendons contribute to the position sense of skeletal muscle or whether this position sense is mediated chiefly or solely by the joint, or articular, sensitivity.4 The problem thus arises as to how the individual controls his eyes and interprets the movement, or lack thereof, of environment when he is not consciously aware of the position of his eyes. It is with this problem that the present paper is concerned. The classic explanation for the control of bodily movements, including eye movements, is by means of what has been characterized as the ``proprioceptivepyramidal circuit.5'' The expression "feedback" References 1. Irvine, S. R., and Ludvigh, E. J.: Is Ocular Proprioceptive Sense Concerned in Vision? Arch. Ophth. 15:1037, 1936.Crossref 2. Ludvigh, E. J.:; Possible Role of Proprioception in the Extraocular Muscles , A. M. A. Arch. Ophth. , this issue. 3. Daniel,P.: Spiral Nerve Endings in Extrinsic Eye Muscles of Man , J.Anat. 80:189, 1946. 4. Gardner,E.:: Physiology of Movable Joints , Physiol. Rev. 30:127, 1950. 5. Sarnoff, S.J., and Arrowood, J.S.:: Differential Spinal-Block:: III. Block of Cutaneous and Stretch Reflexes in the Presence of Unimpaired Position Sense , J.Neurophysiol.. 10:205,, 1947. 6. McIntyre,, A.K., and Lloyd, D. P.C.:: Spinal Projection ofHindlimb Afferent Fibers , FederationProc. 7:79, 1948. 7. Troland, L.T.:: Principles of Psychophysiology , New York, D. Van Nostrand Company, nc., 1932, Vol. 3, pp. 364,362-363. 8. Dodge, R.: Five Types of Eye Movements in the Horizontal Meridian Plane of the Field of Regard , Am. J. Physiol. 8:307, 1903. 9. James, H. M., and Others, Editors: Theory of Servo-Mechanisms , Office of Scientific Research and Development, National Defense Research Committee, New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1947, p. 26. 10. Hazen, H. L.: Theory of Servo-Mechanisms , J. Franklin Inst., 1934, p. 218. 11. Lord, M. P., and Wright, W. D.: Small Voluntary Flicking and Following Eye Movements , Nature, London 163:803, 1949.Crossref 12. Verhoeff, F. H.: A New Theory of Binocular Vision , Arch. Ophth. 13:151, 1935.Crossref 13. Cogan, D. G.: Neurology of the Ocular Muscles , Springfield, Ill., Charles C Thomas, Publisher, 1948, p. 93. 14. van Heuven, J. A.: La Vision binoculaire , Arch. Neurol. de Physiol. 11:83, 1926. 15. Ludvigh, E. J.: Extrafoveal Visual Acuity as Measured with Snellen Test-Letters , Am. J. Ophth. 24:303, 1941. 16. Trimmer, J. D.: Response of Physical Systems , New York, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1950, p. 200. 17. Adler, F. H., and Fliegelman, M.: Influence of Fixation on the Visual Acuity , Arch. Ophth. 12:475, 1934.Crossref 18. Riggs, L. A., and Ratliff, F.: Coordination of the Eyes in Maintaining Fixation , Am. Psychologist 5:260, 1950. 19. Minorsky, N.: On Parametric Excitation , J. Franklin Inst. 240:25, 1945.Crossref 20. Gellhorn, E.: Proprioception and the Motor Cortex , Brain 72:35, 1949.Crossref 21. Adler, F. H.: Pathologic Physiology of Convergent Strabismus: Motor Aspects of Nonaccommodational Type , Arch. Ophth. 33:362, 1945.Crossref 22. Adler, F. H.: Physiology of the Eye: Clinical Application , St. Louis, C. V. Mosby Company, 1950, p. 339.

Journal

A.M.A. Archives of OphthalmologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Oct 1, 1952

References

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.


DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Search

Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly

Organize

Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.

Access

Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

DeepDyve

Freelancer

DeepDyve

Pro

Price

FREE

$49/month
$499/year

Save searches from
Google Scholar,
PubMed

Create folders to
organize your research

Export folders, citations

Read DeepDyve articles

Abstract access only

Unlimited access to over
18 million full-text articles

Print

20 pages / month