Abstract EVIDENCE1 has been advanced that the eye lacks position sense; furthermore, evidence2 has appeared that the muscle spindles found by Daniel3 in the extraocular muscles do not effectively contribute to a position sense of the eye. Furthermore, in recent years substantial doubt has arisen as to whether muscles and tendons contribute to the position sense of skeletal muscle or whether this position sense is mediated chiefly or solely by the joint, or articular, sensitivity.4 The problem thus arises as to how the individual controls his eyes and interprets the movement, or lack thereof, of environment when he is not consciously aware of the position of his eyes. It is with this problem that the present paper is concerned. The classic explanation for the control of bodily movements, including eye movements, is by means of what has been characterized as the ``proprioceptivepyramidal circuit.5'' The expression "feedback" References 1. Irvine, S. R., and Ludvigh, E. J.: Is Ocular Proprioceptive Sense Concerned in Vision? Arch. Ophth. 15:1037, 1936.Crossref 2. Ludvigh, E. J.:; Possible Role of Proprioception in the Extraocular Muscles , A. M. A. Arch. Ophth. , this issue. 3. Daniel,P.: Spiral Nerve Endings in Extrinsic Eye Muscles of Man , J.Anat. 80:189, 1946. 4. Gardner,E.:: Physiology of Movable Joints , Physiol. Rev. 30:127, 1950. 5. Sarnoff, S.J., and Arrowood, J.S.:: Differential Spinal-Block:: III. Block of Cutaneous and Stretch Reflexes in the Presence of Unimpaired Position Sense , J.Neurophysiol.. 10:205,, 1947. 6. McIntyre,, A.K., and Lloyd, D. P.C.:: Spinal Projection ofHindlimb Afferent Fibers , FederationProc. 7:79, 1948. 7. Troland, L.T.:: Principles of Psychophysiology , New York, D. Van Nostrand Company, nc., 1932, Vol. 3, pp. 364,362-363. 8. Dodge, R.: Five Types of Eye Movements in the Horizontal Meridian Plane of the Field of Regard , Am. J. Physiol. 8:307, 1903. 9. James, H. M., and Others, Editors: Theory of Servo-Mechanisms , Office of Scientific Research and Development, National Defense Research Committee, New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1947, p. 26. 10. Hazen, H. L.: Theory of Servo-Mechanisms , J. Franklin Inst., 1934, p. 218. 11. Lord, M. P., and Wright, W. D.: Small Voluntary Flicking and Following Eye Movements , Nature, London 163:803, 1949.Crossref 12. Verhoeff, F. H.: A New Theory of Binocular Vision , Arch. Ophth. 13:151, 1935.Crossref 13. Cogan, D. G.: Neurology of the Ocular Muscles , Springfield, Ill., Charles C Thomas, Publisher, 1948, p. 93. 14. van Heuven, J. A.: La Vision binoculaire , Arch. Neurol. de Physiol. 11:83, 1926. 15. Ludvigh, E. J.: Extrafoveal Visual Acuity as Measured with Snellen Test-Letters , Am. J. Ophth. 24:303, 1941. 16. Trimmer, J. D.: Response of Physical Systems , New York, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1950, p. 200. 17. Adler, F. H., and Fliegelman, M.: Influence of Fixation on the Visual Acuity , Arch. Ophth. 12:475, 1934.Crossref 18. Riggs, L. A., and Ratliff, F.: Coordination of the Eyes in Maintaining Fixation , Am. Psychologist 5:260, 1950. 19. Minorsky, N.: On Parametric Excitation , J. Franklin Inst. 240:25, 1945.Crossref 20. Gellhorn, E.: Proprioception and the Motor Cortex , Brain 72:35, 1949.Crossref 21. Adler, F. H.: Pathologic Physiology of Convergent Strabismus: Motor Aspects of Nonaccommodational Type , Arch. Ophth. 33:362, 1945.Crossref 22. Adler, F. H.: Physiology of the Eye: Clinical Application , St. Louis, C. V. Mosby Company, 1950, p. 339.
A.M.A. Archives of Ophthalmology – American Medical Association
Published: Oct 1, 1952
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