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CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE PHYSIOLOGY OF THE CONDITIONED REFLEX

CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE PHYSIOLOGY OF THE CONDITIONED REFLEX Abstract DEDICATION It is a joy and a privilege to be one of those participating in the Seventy Year Jubilee for Adolf Meyer. This article is proffered with a full sense of its shortcomings as a positive contribution to the psychobiology for which he stands. The choice of this limited material was based on the fact that it represents a group of completed and related experiments. The laboratory from which these data are reported owes its origin to Dr. Meyer; it is therefore fitting and with a deep sense of personal gratitude for his encouragement and guiding criticisms that this survey of completed work is dedicated to him. HISTORICAL REVIEW As early as 500 B. C. Pythagoras spoke of the brain as the central organ of the higher forms of activity, a view upheld by Hippocrates and Galen but denied by Aristotle. About the beginning of the nineteenth century the attention References 1. Clark L. Hull (in Murchison, C. A.: Handbook of General Experimental Psychology , Worcester, Mass., Clark University Press, 1934, pp. 382-455). 2. Some of this material I presented at a meeting of the Toronto Physiological Society, Nov. 11, 1935. 3. Coghill, G. E.: Science 78:131-138, 1933.Crossref 4. G. H. S. Razran ( Psychol. Bull. 30:261-324 [ (April) ] 1933).Crossref 5. Katzenelbogen, Loucks and me at the Fifteenth International Physiological Congress , Leningrad, U. S. S. R., Aug. 14, 1935. 6. Hull.1 7. Crisler, G.: Salivation Is Unnecessary for the Establishment of the Salivary Conditioned Reflex Induced by Morphine , Am. J. Physiol. 94:553-556, 1930. 8. Light, J. S., and Gantt, W. H.: J. Comp. Psychol. 21:19-36, 1936.Crossref 9. Cannon, W. B., and Bard, Philip: The Neuro-Humoral Basis of Emotional Reactions , in Murchison, C. A.: Handbook of General Experimental Psychology , Worcester, Mass., Clark University Press, 1934, pp. 264-311. 10. These experiments were performed in collaboration with Dr. R. B. Loucks. 11. Loucks, R. B.: J. Comp. Psychol. 18:305-313 ( (Dec.) ) 1934.Crossref 12. Although there was an orienting reflex on stimulation of the dorsal root and the spinal cord, indicating "awareness" of a new stimulus, there was no evidence of pain either then or in the stimulation of the cerebellum. 13. Bykov, K. M., and Alexejew-Berkmann, I. A.: Die Ausbildung bedingter Reflexe auf die Harnauscheidung , Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol. 224:710-721, 1930Crossref 14. Die Ausbildung bedingter Reflexe auf die Harnausscheidung; bedingte Reflexe bei denervierter Niere , Bykov Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol. 227:301-308, 1931.Crossref 15. A recent striking example of this relation of function to structure, irrespective of the needs of the organism, is the response of the fetus in utero (shown in E. K. Marshall's laboratory by Snyder and Rosenfeld), before it can have any purpose for the organism and even when it may lead to disastrous results (drowning or pneumonia). In the present state of knowledge of these events, one cannot say more than that function is related to structure in such a way that when the respiratory units reach a certain development they begin to function, regardless of needs and external stimuli. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry American Medical Association

CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE PHYSIOLOGY OF THE CONDITIONED REFLEX

Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry , Volume 37 (4) – Apr 1, 1937

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1937 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0096-6754
DOI
10.1001/archneurpsyc.1937.02260160148014
Publisher site
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Abstract

Abstract DEDICATION It is a joy and a privilege to be one of those participating in the Seventy Year Jubilee for Adolf Meyer. This article is proffered with a full sense of its shortcomings as a positive contribution to the psychobiology for which he stands. The choice of this limited material was based on the fact that it represents a group of completed and related experiments. The laboratory from which these data are reported owes its origin to Dr. Meyer; it is therefore fitting and with a deep sense of personal gratitude for his encouragement and guiding criticisms that this survey of completed work is dedicated to him. HISTORICAL REVIEW As early as 500 B. C. Pythagoras spoke of the brain as the central organ of the higher forms of activity, a view upheld by Hippocrates and Galen but denied by Aristotle. About the beginning of the nineteenth century the attention References 1. Clark L. Hull (in Murchison, C. A.: Handbook of General Experimental Psychology , Worcester, Mass., Clark University Press, 1934, pp. 382-455). 2. Some of this material I presented at a meeting of the Toronto Physiological Society, Nov. 11, 1935. 3. Coghill, G. E.: Science 78:131-138, 1933.Crossref 4. G. H. S. Razran ( Psychol. Bull. 30:261-324 [ (April) ] 1933).Crossref 5. Katzenelbogen, Loucks and me at the Fifteenth International Physiological Congress , Leningrad, U. S. S. R., Aug. 14, 1935. 6. Hull.1 7. Crisler, G.: Salivation Is Unnecessary for the Establishment of the Salivary Conditioned Reflex Induced by Morphine , Am. J. Physiol. 94:553-556, 1930. 8. Light, J. S., and Gantt, W. H.: J. Comp. Psychol. 21:19-36, 1936.Crossref 9. Cannon, W. B., and Bard, Philip: The Neuro-Humoral Basis of Emotional Reactions , in Murchison, C. A.: Handbook of General Experimental Psychology , Worcester, Mass., Clark University Press, 1934, pp. 264-311. 10. These experiments were performed in collaboration with Dr. R. B. Loucks. 11. Loucks, R. B.: J. Comp. Psychol. 18:305-313 ( (Dec.) ) 1934.Crossref 12. Although there was an orienting reflex on stimulation of the dorsal root and the spinal cord, indicating "awareness" of a new stimulus, there was no evidence of pain either then or in the stimulation of the cerebellum. 13. Bykov, K. M., and Alexejew-Berkmann, I. A.: Die Ausbildung bedingter Reflexe auf die Harnauscheidung , Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol. 224:710-721, 1930Crossref 14. Die Ausbildung bedingter Reflexe auf die Harnausscheidung; bedingte Reflexe bei denervierter Niere , Bykov Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol. 227:301-308, 1931.Crossref 15. A recent striking example of this relation of function to structure, irrespective of the needs of the organism, is the response of the fetus in utero (shown in E. K. Marshall's laboratory by Snyder and Rosenfeld), before it can have any purpose for the organism and even when it may lead to disastrous results (drowning or pneumonia). In the present state of knowledge of these events, one cannot say more than that function is related to structure in such a way that when the respiratory units reach a certain development they begin to function, regardless of needs and external stimuli.

Journal

Archives of Neurology & PsychiatryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Apr 1, 1937

References