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Computed Tomographic Scans in Patients With Schizophrenia, Schizoaffective, and Bipolar Affective Disorder

Computed Tomographic Scans in Patients With Schizophrenia, Schizoaffective, and Bipolar Affective... Abstract • Computed tomographic (CT) scans of 28 chronic schizophrenic patients, 15 chronic schizoaffective patients, and 19 patients with bipolar affective disorder were compared on three measures: ventricular size, sulcal prominence (cortical atrophy), and cerebellar atrophy. Because the patients with bipolar disorder were older, measures were adjusted by controlling for age statistically or excluding patients over age 50 years. After age correction, there were no significant differences across diagnostic groups. Each group contained some subjects with enlarged ventricles, sulcal prominence, and/or cerebellar atrophy. The similarity of CT scan results across the three groups argues against ascribing these abnormalities to any one psychiatric disorder or to a specific drug effect. Sampling effects and the possibility of differential causes of the findings in the different diagnostic groups must be considered. Examination of the correlations of these three CT scan measures found them to be significantly related to each other. Age correlated with all measures when patients over age 50 years were included in the analysis, but not for patients aged 50 years and younger. References 1. Corsellis JAN: Psychoses of obscure pathology , in Blackwood H, Corsellis JAN (eds): Greenfield's Neuropathology . Chicago, Year Book Medical Publishers, 1976, pp 903-915. 2. Huber G: Pneumoencephalographic und psychopathologische: Bilder beiendogenen Psychosen . Berlin, Springer-Verlag, 1957. 3. Haug J: Pneumoencephalographic studies in mental disease . Acta Psychiatr Scand 1962;38( (suppl 165) ):1-114.Crossref 4. Asano N: Pneumoencephalographic study of schizophrenia , in Mitsuda H (ed): Clinical Genetics in Psychiatry: Problems in Nosological Classification . Tokyo, Igaku-Shoin Ltd, 1967, pp 209-219. 5. Nagy K: Pneumencephalographische Befunde bei Endogenen Psychosen . Nervenarzt 1963;34:543-548. 6. Johnstone EC, Crow TJ, Frith CD, et al: The dementia of dementia praecox . Acta Psychiatr Scand 1978;57:305-324.Crossref 7. Weinberger DR, Torrey EF, Neophytides AN, et al: Lateral cerebral ventricular enlargement in chronic schizophrenia . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1979;36:735-739.Crossref 8. Weinberger DR, Torrey EF, Neophytides AN, et al: Structural abnormalities in the cerebral cortex of chronic schizophrenic patients . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1979;36:935-939.Crossref 9. Rieder RO, Donelly EF, Herdt JR, et al: Sulcal prominence in young chronic schizophrenic patients: CT scan findings associated with impairment on neuropsychological tests . Psychiatry Res 1979;1:1-8.Crossref 10. Weinberger DR, Torrey EF, Wyatt RJ: Cerebellar atrophy in chronic schizophrenia . Lancet 1979;1:718-719.Crossref 11. Luchins DJ, Weinberger DR, Wyatt RJ: Schizophrenia: Evidence for a subgroup with reversed cerebral asymmetry . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1979;36:1309-1311.Crossref 12. Golden CJ, Graber B, Coffman J, et al: Brain density deficits in chronic schizophrenia . Psychiatry Res 1980;3:179-184.Crossref 13. Mundt CH, Radie W, Gluck E: Computer Tomographische untersuchungen der Liquorraume an chronisch schizphrenen Patrenten . Nervenarzt 1980;51:743-748. 14. Tonaka T, Hazama H, Karahara R, et al: Computerized tomography of the brain in schizophrenic patients . Acta Psychiatr Scand 1981;63:191-197.Crossref 15. Golden CJ, Graber B, Coffman J, et al: Structural brain deficits in schizophrenia: Identification by computed tomographic scan measurements . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1981;38:1014-1017.Crossref 16. Coffman JA, Mefferd J, Golden CJ, et al: Cerebellar atrophy in chronic schizophrenia . Lancet 1981;1:666.Crossref 17. Andreasen NC, Smith MR, Jacobs CG, et al: Ventricular enlargement in schizophrenia: Definition and prevalence . Am J Psychiatry 1982;139:292-296. 18. Jernigan TL, Zatz LM, Moses JA, et al: Computed tomography in schizophrenics and normal volunteers: I. Fluid volume . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1982;39:765-770.Crossref 19. Nasrallah HA, Jacoby CG, McCalley-Whitters M, et al: Cerebral ventricular enlargement in subtypes of chronic schizophrenia . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1982;39:774-777.Crossref 20. Weinberger DR, DeLisi LE, Perman GP, et al: Computed tomography in schizophreniform disorder and other acute psychiatric disorders . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1982;39:778-783.Crossref 21. Pearlson GD, Veroff AE: Computerized tomographic scan changes in manic-depressive illness . Lancet 1981;2:470.Crossref 22. Nasrallah HA, McCalley-Whitters M, Jacoby CG: Cerebral ventricular enlargement in young manic males . J Affective Disord 1982;4:15-19.Crossref 23. Luchins DJ: Computed tomography in schizophrenia . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1982;39:859-860.Crossref 24. Jacoby RJ, Levy R: Computed tomography in the elderly: III. Affective disorder . Br J Psychiatry 1980;136:270-275.Crossref 25. Jacoby RJ, Levy R, Bird JM: Computed tomography and the outcome of affective disorder: A follow-up study of elderly patients . Br J Psychiatry 1981;139:288-292.Crossref 26. Jacoby RJ, Levy R: Computed tomography in the elderly: I. The normal population . Br J Psychiatry 1980;136:270-275.Crossref 27. Jernigan TL, Zatz IM, Naeser MS: Semiautomated methods for quantitating CSF volume on cranial computed tomography . Radiology 1979;132:463-466. 28. Spitzer R, Endicott J, Robins E: Research diagnostic criteria: Rationale and reliability . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1978;35:773-782.Crossref 29. Rothman SL, Glanz S: Cerebellar atrophy: The differential diagnosis by computed tomography . Neuroradiology 1978;16:123-126.Crossref 30. Allen JH, Martin JT, McLain LW: Computerized tomography in cerebellar atrophic processes . Radiology 1979;130:379-382. 31. Jacobs L, Kinkel WR, Painer F, et al: Computerized tomography in dementia with special reference to changes in size of normal ventricles during aging and normal pressure hydrocephalus , in Katzman R, Terry R, Bick KL (eds): Alzheimer's Disease, Senile Dementia and Related Disorders . New York, Raven Press, 1978, pp 241-260. 32. Earnest MP, Heaton RK, Williamson WE: Cortical atrophy, ventricular enlargement and intellectual impairment in the aged . Neuroradiology 1979;29:1138-1143. 33. Van Kammen DP, Mann LS, Sternberg DE, et al: Spinal fluid dopamine beta-hydroxylase activity and homovanillic acid levels in schizophrenic patients with brain atrophy . Science , in press. 34. Kellner CH, Rubinow DR, Gold PW, et al: Relationship of cortisol hypersecretion to brain CAT-scan alterations in depressed patients . Psychiatry Res , in press. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of General Psychiatry American Medical Association

Computed Tomographic Scans in Patients With Schizophrenia, Schizoaffective, and Bipolar Affective Disorder

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1983 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-990X
eISSN
1598-3636
DOI
10.1001/archpsyc.1983.01790060033004
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Abstract

Abstract • Computed tomographic (CT) scans of 28 chronic schizophrenic patients, 15 chronic schizoaffective patients, and 19 patients with bipolar affective disorder were compared on three measures: ventricular size, sulcal prominence (cortical atrophy), and cerebellar atrophy. Because the patients with bipolar disorder were older, measures were adjusted by controlling for age statistically or excluding patients over age 50 years. After age correction, there were no significant differences across diagnostic groups. Each group contained some subjects with enlarged ventricles, sulcal prominence, and/or cerebellar atrophy. The similarity of CT scan results across the three groups argues against ascribing these abnormalities to any one psychiatric disorder or to a specific drug effect. Sampling effects and the possibility of differential causes of the findings in the different diagnostic groups must be considered. Examination of the correlations of these three CT scan measures found them to be significantly related to each other. Age correlated with all measures when patients over age 50 years were included in the analysis, but not for patients aged 50 years and younger. References 1. Corsellis JAN: Psychoses of obscure pathology , in Blackwood H, Corsellis JAN (eds): Greenfield's Neuropathology . Chicago, Year Book Medical Publishers, 1976, pp 903-915. 2. Huber G: Pneumoencephalographic und psychopathologische: Bilder beiendogenen Psychosen . Berlin, Springer-Verlag, 1957. 3. Haug J: Pneumoencephalographic studies in mental disease . Acta Psychiatr Scand 1962;38( (suppl 165) ):1-114.Crossref 4. Asano N: Pneumoencephalographic study of schizophrenia , in Mitsuda H (ed): Clinical Genetics in Psychiatry: Problems in Nosological Classification . Tokyo, Igaku-Shoin Ltd, 1967, pp 209-219. 5. Nagy K: Pneumencephalographische Befunde bei Endogenen Psychosen . Nervenarzt 1963;34:543-548. 6. Johnstone EC, Crow TJ, Frith CD, et al: The dementia of dementia praecox . Acta Psychiatr Scand 1978;57:305-324.Crossref 7. Weinberger DR, Torrey EF, Neophytides AN, et al: Lateral cerebral ventricular enlargement in chronic schizophrenia . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1979;36:735-739.Crossref 8. Weinberger DR, Torrey EF, Neophytides AN, et al: Structural abnormalities in the cerebral cortex of chronic schizophrenic patients . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1979;36:935-939.Crossref 9. Rieder RO, Donelly EF, Herdt JR, et al: Sulcal prominence in young chronic schizophrenic patients: CT scan findings associated with impairment on neuropsychological tests . Psychiatry Res 1979;1:1-8.Crossref 10. Weinberger DR, Torrey EF, Wyatt RJ: Cerebellar atrophy in chronic schizophrenia . Lancet 1979;1:718-719.Crossref 11. Luchins DJ, Weinberger DR, Wyatt RJ: Schizophrenia: Evidence for a subgroup with reversed cerebral asymmetry . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1979;36:1309-1311.Crossref 12. Golden CJ, Graber B, Coffman J, et al: Brain density deficits in chronic schizophrenia . Psychiatry Res 1980;3:179-184.Crossref 13. Mundt CH, Radie W, Gluck E: Computer Tomographische untersuchungen der Liquorraume an chronisch schizphrenen Patrenten . Nervenarzt 1980;51:743-748. 14. Tonaka T, Hazama H, Karahara R, et al: Computerized tomography of the brain in schizophrenic patients . Acta Psychiatr Scand 1981;63:191-197.Crossref 15. Golden CJ, Graber B, Coffman J, et al: Structural brain deficits in schizophrenia: Identification by computed tomographic scan measurements . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1981;38:1014-1017.Crossref 16. Coffman JA, Mefferd J, Golden CJ, et al: Cerebellar atrophy in chronic schizophrenia . Lancet 1981;1:666.Crossref 17. Andreasen NC, Smith MR, Jacobs CG, et al: Ventricular enlargement in schizophrenia: Definition and prevalence . Am J Psychiatry 1982;139:292-296. 18. Jernigan TL, Zatz LM, Moses JA, et al: Computed tomography in schizophrenics and normal volunteers: I. Fluid volume . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1982;39:765-770.Crossref 19. Nasrallah HA, Jacoby CG, McCalley-Whitters M, et al: Cerebral ventricular enlargement in subtypes of chronic schizophrenia . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1982;39:774-777.Crossref 20. Weinberger DR, DeLisi LE, Perman GP, et al: Computed tomography in schizophreniform disorder and other acute psychiatric disorders . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1982;39:778-783.Crossref 21. Pearlson GD, Veroff AE: Computerized tomographic scan changes in manic-depressive illness . Lancet 1981;2:470.Crossref 22. Nasrallah HA, McCalley-Whitters M, Jacoby CG: Cerebral ventricular enlargement in young manic males . J Affective Disord 1982;4:15-19.Crossref 23. Luchins DJ: Computed tomography in schizophrenia . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1982;39:859-860.Crossref 24. Jacoby RJ, Levy R: Computed tomography in the elderly: III. Affective disorder . Br J Psychiatry 1980;136:270-275.Crossref 25. Jacoby RJ, Levy R, Bird JM: Computed tomography and the outcome of affective disorder: A follow-up study of elderly patients . Br J Psychiatry 1981;139:288-292.Crossref 26. Jacoby RJ, Levy R: Computed tomography in the elderly: I. The normal population . Br J Psychiatry 1980;136:270-275.Crossref 27. Jernigan TL, Zatz IM, Naeser MS: Semiautomated methods for quantitating CSF volume on cranial computed tomography . Radiology 1979;132:463-466. 28. Spitzer R, Endicott J, Robins E: Research diagnostic criteria: Rationale and reliability . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1978;35:773-782.Crossref 29. Rothman SL, Glanz S: Cerebellar atrophy: The differential diagnosis by computed tomography . Neuroradiology 1978;16:123-126.Crossref 30. Allen JH, Martin JT, McLain LW: Computerized tomography in cerebellar atrophic processes . Radiology 1979;130:379-382. 31. Jacobs L, Kinkel WR, Painer F, et al: Computerized tomography in dementia with special reference to changes in size of normal ventricles during aging and normal pressure hydrocephalus , in Katzman R, Terry R, Bick KL (eds): Alzheimer's Disease, Senile Dementia and Related Disorders . New York, Raven Press, 1978, pp 241-260. 32. Earnest MP, Heaton RK, Williamson WE: Cortical atrophy, ventricular enlargement and intellectual impairment in the aged . Neuroradiology 1979;29:1138-1143. 33. Van Kammen DP, Mann LS, Sternberg DE, et al: Spinal fluid dopamine beta-hydroxylase activity and homovanillic acid levels in schizophrenic patients with brain atrophy . Science , in press. 34. Kellner CH, Rubinow DR, Gold PW, et al: Relationship of cortisol hypersecretion to brain CAT-scan alterations in depressed patients . Psychiatry Res , in press.

Journal

Archives of General PsychiatryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Jul 1, 1983

References