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Comparative Anesthetic Effects on Aqueous Humor Dynamics in the Cynomolgus Monkey

Comparative Anesthetic Effects on Aqueous Humor Dynamics in the Cynomolgus Monkey Abstract • Cynomolgus monkeys were anesthetized with either intravenous (IV) ketamine hydrochloride, IV ketamine and intramuscular (IM) diazepam, IM methohexital sodium and IM pentobarbital sodium, or endotracheal halothane. Intraocular pressure, aqueous humor flow rate (F), anterior chamber volume, corneal endothelial transfer coefficient (Ka), and anterior chamber elimination coefficient (Ke) were determined noninvasively, using applanation tonometry, keratometry, pachymetry, and fluorophotometry. Arterial blood gases (ABG), acid-base balance, and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were monitored. The IOP was highest with ketamine and lowest with pentobarbital. The F and Ke were about 30% lower with halothane than with the other regimens, while Ka was highest with ketamine. The ABG and MAP were within normal physiologic limits with the three noninhalation regimens; pH was within normal limits with all four regimens. The MAP was lowest and Po2 highest with halothane, while pH was highest with pentobarbital. References 1. Miller RD (ed): Anesthesia . New York, Churchill Livingstone, 1981, chap 12, 13, 16, 25, 39 . 2. Goodman LS, Gilman A (eds): The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics , ed 5. New York, Macmillan Publishing Co Inc, 1975, chap 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14 . 3. Manning W, Miller D: Increasing the range of the keratometer . Surv Ophthalmol 1978;22:413-414.Crossref 4. Erickson KA, Gonnering RS, Kaufman PL, et al: The cynomolgus monkey as a model for orbital research: III. Effects on ocular physiology of lateral orbitotomy and isolation of the ciliary ganglion . Curr Eye Res 1984;3:557-564.Crossref 5. Klein R, Ernest JT, Engerman RL: Fluorophotometry: I. Technique . Arch Ophthalmol 1980; 98:2231-2232.Crossref 6. Goldmann H: Über Fluorescein in der menschlichen Vorderkammer: Das Kammerwasser-Minutenvolumen des Menschen . Ophthalmologica 1950;119:65-95.Crossref 7. Jones RF, Maurice DM: New methods of measuring the rate of aqueous flow in man with fluorescein . Exp Eye Res 1966;5:208-220.Crossref 8. Kaufman PL, Davis GE: Minified Goldmann applanating prism for tonometry in monkeys and humans . Arch Ophthalmol 1980;98:542-546.Crossref 9. Banerjee CM: Alveolar-arterial O2 tension difference in monkeys under captivity in cages . Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1969;130:95-96.Crossref 10. Banerjee CM, Alarie Y, Wollard M: Gas tension in conscious monkeys . Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1968;128:1183-1185.Crossref 11. Munson ES, Gillespie JR, Wagman IH: Respiratory blood gases and pH in two species of unanesthetized monkeys . J Appl Physiol 1970; 28:108-109. 12. Newfield P, Cottrell JE (eds): Handbook of Neuroanesthesia: Clinical and Physiologic Essentials . Boston, Little Brown & Co, 1983, chap 4, 13 . 13. Hahnenberger R: Applanation tonometry in the conscious cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) . Acta Ophthalmol 1976;54:311-319.Crossref 14. Hahnenberger RW: Influence of cataleptoid anesthetic agents on the intraocular pressure in monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) . Acta Ophthalmol 1976;54:491-499.Crossref 15. Bito LZ, Merritt SQ, DeRousseau CJ: Intraocular pressure of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta): I. An initial survey of two free-breeding colonies . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1979; 18:785-793. 16. Camras CB, Bito LZ: Reduction of intraocular pressure in normal and hypertensive primate (Aotus trivirgatus) eyes by topically applied prostaglandin F2α . Curr Eye Res 1981;1:205-209.Crossref 17. Bartels S, Delori FC, Neufeld AH: Aqueous humor formation rate determined in conscious owl monkeys using fluorophotometry . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1983;24( (ARVO suppl) ):88. 18. Bankes JLK, Perkins ES, Tsokalis S, et al: Bedford Glaucoma Survey . Br Med J 1968;1:791-796.Crossref 19. Krupin T, Feitl M, Roshe R, et al: Halothane anesthesia and aqueous humor dynamics in laboratory animals . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1980;19:518-521. 20. Yoshikawa K, Murai Y: The effect of ketamine on intraocular pressure in children . Anesth Analg 1971;50:199-202.Crossref 21. Corssen G, Hoy JE: A new parenteral anesthetic—CI-581: Its effect on intraocular pressure . J Pediatr Ophthalmol 1967;4:20-23. 22. Peuler M, Glass DD, Arens JF: Ketamine and intraocular pressure . Anesthesiology 1975; 43:575-578.Crossref 23. Duncalf FD, Foldes FF: Effect of anesthetic drugs and muscle relaxants on intraocular pressure . Int Ophthalmol Clin 1973;13:21-33. 24. Antal M, Mucsi G, Foludi A: Ketamine anesthesia and intraocular pressure . Ann Ophthalmol 1978;10:1281-1289. 25. Bárány EH: Applanation tonometry and ophthalmoscopy of the vervet monkey (Cercopithecus ethiops) in phencyclidine catalepsia . Invest Ophthalmol 1963;2:322-324. 26. Krupin T, Podos SM, Lehman RAW, et al: Effects of optic nerve transection on intraocular pressure in monkeys . Arch Ophthalmol 1970; 84:668-671.Crossref 27. Hahnenberger R: Influence of various anesthetic drugs on the intraocular pressure of cats . Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 1976;199:179-186.Crossref 28. Lee DA, Brubaker RF: Effect of phenylephrine on aqueous humor flow . Curr Eye Res 1982;2:89-92.Crossref 29. Townsend DJ, Brubaker RF: Immediate effect of epinephrine on aqueous formation in the normal human eye as measured by fluorophotometry . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1980;19:256-266. 30. Wentworth WO, Brubaker RF: Aqueous humor dynamics in a series of patients with third neuron Horner's syndrome . Am J Ophthalmol 1981;92:407-415. 31. Brubaker RF, Nagataki S, Townsend DJ, et al: The effect of age on aqueous humor formation in man . Ophthalmology 1981;88:283-287.Crossref 32. Walker SD, Brubaker RF, Nagataki S: Hypotony and aqueous humor dynamics in myotonic dystrophy . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1982;22:744-751. 33. Lee DA, Brubaker RF, Nagataki S: Effect of thymoxamine on aqueous humor formation in the normal human eye as measured by fluorophotometry . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1981;21:805-811. 34. Nagataki S, Brubaker RF: Effect of pilocarpine on aqueous humor formation in human beings . Arch Ophthalmol 1982;100:818-821.Crossref 35. Maurice DM: A simple method of measuring aqueous flow in the rabbit . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1983;24( (ARVO suppl) ):5. 36. Johnson SB, Passmore JA, Brubaker RF: The fluorescein distribution volume of the anterior chamber . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1977;16:633-636. 37. Pederson JE, Gaasterland DE, MacLellan HM: Anterior chamber volume determination in the rhesus monkey . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1978;17:784-787. 38. Miichi H, Nagataki S: Effects of pilocarpine, salbutamol, and timolol on aqueous humor formation in cynomolgus monkeys . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1983;24:1269-1275. 39. Cevario SJ, Macri FJ: The inhibitory effect of pentobarbital Na on aqueous humor formation . Invest Ophthalmol 1974;13:384-386. 40. Sperber GO, Bill A: A method for near-continuous determination of aqueous humor flow: Effects of anesthetics, temperature and indomethacin. Exp Eye Res, in press. 41. Becker B, Krupin T, Podos SM: Phenobarbital and aqueous humor dynamics: Effect in rabbits with intact and transected optic nerves . Am J Ophthalmol 1970;70:686-690. 42. Eakins KE: A comparative study of intraocular pressure and gross outflow facility in the cat eye during anesthesia . Exp Eye Res 1969; 8:106-115.Crossref 43. deRoetth A Jr, Schwartz H: Aqueous humor dynamics in glaucoma: Effect of ganglionic blocking agents and thiopental sodium (Pentothal) anesthesia on aqueous humor dynamics . Arch Ophthalmol 1956;55:755-764.Crossref 44. Gonnering RS, Dortzbach RK, Erickson KA, et al: The cynomolgus monkey as a model for orbital research: II. Anatomic effects of lateral orbitotomy . Curr Eye Res 1984;3:541-555.Crossref 45. Kaufman PL, Bárány EH: Loss of acute pilocarpine effect on outflow facility following surgical disinsertion and retrodisplacement of the ciliary muscle from the scleral spur in the cynomolgus monkey . Invest Ophthalmol 1976; 15:793-807. 46. Kaufman PL, Bárány EH: Adrenergic drug effects on aqueous outflow facility following ciliary muscle retrodisplacement in the cynomolgus monkey . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1981;20:644-651. 47. Erickson KA, Kaufman PL: Comparative effects of three ocular perfusates on outflow facility in the cynomolgus monkey . Curr Eye Res 1981;1:211-216.Crossref 48. Bill A: Blood circulation and fluid dynamics in the eye . Physiol Rev 1975;55:383-417. 49. Bill A: The effect of changes in arterial blood pressure on the rate of aqueous humor formation in a primate (Cercopithecus ethiops) . Ophthalmic Res 1970;1:193-200.Crossref 50. Bill A: The effect of ocular hypertension caused by red cells on the rate of formation of aqueous humor . Invest Ophthalmol 1968;7:162-168. 51. Bill A: Aqueous humor dynamics in monkeys (Macaca irus and Cercopithecus ethiops) . Exp Eye Res 1971;11:195-206.Crossref 52. Bárány E: Proceedings of Glaucoma Research Conference . Am J Ophthalmol 1963; 55:821-832. 53. Stone HH, Prijot EL: The effect of a barbiturate and paraldehyde on aqueous humor dynamics in rabbit . Arch Ophthalmol 1955; 54:834-840.Crossref 54. Kornblueth W, Aladjemoff L, Magora F, et al: Influence of general anesthesia on intraocular pressure in man . Arch Ophthalmol 1959;61:84-87.Crossref 55. Volpi V, Mangiavacchi E: Ricerche sull' ipotonia oculare da anestesia generale con curaro . Ann Ottalmol Clin Ocul 1958;84:93-100. 56. Bill A: Early effects of epinephrine on aqueous humor dynamics in vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus ethiops) . Exp Eye Res 1969;8:35-43.Crossref 57. Bill A: Effects of atropine on aqueous humor dynamics in the vervet monkey . Exp Eye Res 1969;8:284-291.Crossref 58. Bill A: Effects of norepinephrine, isoproterenol and sympathetic stimulation on aqueous humor dynamics in vervet monkeys . Exp Eye Res 1970;10:31-46.Crossref 59. Brubaker RF, Kupfer C: Determination of pseudofacility in the eye of the rhesus monkey . Arch Ophthalmol 1966;75:693-697.Crossref 60. Kupfer C, Sanderson P: Determination of pseudofacility in the eye of man . Arch Ophthalmol 1968;80:194-196.Crossref 61. Gaasterland D, Kupfer C, Ross K, et al: Studies of aqueous humor dynamics in man: III. Measurements in young normal subjects using norepinephrine and isoproterenol . Invest Ophthalmol 1973;12:267-279. 62. Podos SM, Minas TF, Macri FJ: A new instrument to measure episcleral venous pressure: Comparison of normal eyes and eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma . Arch Ophthalmol 1968;80:209-213.Crossref 63. Kupfer C, Ross K: Studies of aqueous humor dynamics in man: I. Measurements in young normal subjects . Invest Ophthalmol 1971;10:518-522. 64. Kupfer C, Gaasterland D, Ross K: Studies of aqueous humor dynamics in man: II. Measurements in young normal subjects using acetazolamide and /-epinephrine . Invest Ophthalmol 1971;10:523-533. 65. Magora F, Collins VJ: The influence of general anesthetic agents on intraocular pressure in man: The effect of common nonexplosive agents . Arch Ophthalmol 1961;66:806-811.Crossref 66. Best M, Blumenthal M, Masket S, et al: Effect of sympathetic stimulation on critical closure of intraocular blood vessels . Invest Ophthalmol 1970;9:911-916. 67. Verma RS: 'Self-taming' of succinylcholine-induced fasciculations and intraocular pressure . Anesthesiology 1979;50:245-247.Crossref 68. Breinin GM: The position of rest during anesthesia and sleep: Electromyographic observations . Arch Ophthalmol 1957;57:323-326.Crossref 69. Sadove MS, Unna KR: Ophthalmic studies of curare and curare-like drugs in man . Am J Ophthalmol 1951;34:543-553. 70. Roche JR: Research in the use of curare for ocular surgery . Am J Ophthalmol 1950;33:91-97. 71. Kirby DB: Use of curare in cataract surgery . Arch Ophthalmol 1950;43:678-693.Crossref 72. Neufeld AH: Influences of cyclic nucleotides on outflow facility in the vervet monkey . Exp Eye Res 1978;27:387-397.Crossref 73. Kaufman PL, Hahnenberger R: CI-744 anesthesia for ophthalmological examination and surgery in monkeys . Invest Ophthalmol 1975;14:788-791. 74. Lowenstein O: Diencéphale et glaucome primitif . Ann Oculiste 1955;188:981-1024. 75. Von Sallmann L, Lowenstein O: Responses of intraocular pressure, blood pressure and cutaneous vessels to electrical stimulation in the diencephalon . Am J Ophthalmol 1955;39:11-29. 76. Johnson DH, Brubaker RF: Dynamics of aqueous humor in the syndrome of exfoliation with glaucoma . Am J Ophthalmol 1983;93:629-634. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Ophthalmology American Medical Association

Comparative Anesthetic Effects on Aqueous Humor Dynamics in the Cynomolgus Monkey

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American Medical Association
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Copyright © 1984 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
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0003-9950
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1538-3687
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10.1001/archopht.1984.01040031473026
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Abstract

Abstract • Cynomolgus monkeys were anesthetized with either intravenous (IV) ketamine hydrochloride, IV ketamine and intramuscular (IM) diazepam, IM methohexital sodium and IM pentobarbital sodium, or endotracheal halothane. Intraocular pressure, aqueous humor flow rate (F), anterior chamber volume, corneal endothelial transfer coefficient (Ka), and anterior chamber elimination coefficient (Ke) were determined noninvasively, using applanation tonometry, keratometry, pachymetry, and fluorophotometry. Arterial blood gases (ABG), acid-base balance, and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were monitored. The IOP was highest with ketamine and lowest with pentobarbital. The F and Ke were about 30% lower with halothane than with the other regimens, while Ka was highest with ketamine. The ABG and MAP were within normal physiologic limits with the three noninhalation regimens; pH was within normal limits with all four regimens. The MAP was lowest and Po2 highest with halothane, while pH was highest with pentobarbital. References 1. Miller RD (ed): Anesthesia . New York, Churchill Livingstone, 1981, chap 12, 13, 16, 25, 39 . 2. Goodman LS, Gilman A (eds): The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics , ed 5. New York, Macmillan Publishing Co Inc, 1975, chap 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14 . 3. Manning W, Miller D: Increasing the range of the keratometer . Surv Ophthalmol 1978;22:413-414.Crossref 4. Erickson KA, Gonnering RS, Kaufman PL, et al: The cynomolgus monkey as a model for orbital research: III. Effects on ocular physiology of lateral orbitotomy and isolation of the ciliary ganglion . Curr Eye Res 1984;3:557-564.Crossref 5. Klein R, Ernest JT, Engerman RL: Fluorophotometry: I. Technique . Arch Ophthalmol 1980; 98:2231-2232.Crossref 6. Goldmann H: Über Fluorescein in der menschlichen Vorderkammer: Das Kammerwasser-Minutenvolumen des Menschen . Ophthalmologica 1950;119:65-95.Crossref 7. Jones RF, Maurice DM: New methods of measuring the rate of aqueous flow in man with fluorescein . Exp Eye Res 1966;5:208-220.Crossref 8. Kaufman PL, Davis GE: Minified Goldmann applanating prism for tonometry in monkeys and humans . Arch Ophthalmol 1980;98:542-546.Crossref 9. Banerjee CM: Alveolar-arterial O2 tension difference in monkeys under captivity in cages . Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1969;130:95-96.Crossref 10. Banerjee CM, Alarie Y, Wollard M: Gas tension in conscious monkeys . Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1968;128:1183-1185.Crossref 11. Munson ES, Gillespie JR, Wagman IH: Respiratory blood gases and pH in two species of unanesthetized monkeys . J Appl Physiol 1970; 28:108-109. 12. Newfield P, Cottrell JE (eds): Handbook of Neuroanesthesia: Clinical and Physiologic Essentials . Boston, Little Brown & Co, 1983, chap 4, 13 . 13. Hahnenberger R: Applanation tonometry in the conscious cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) . Acta Ophthalmol 1976;54:311-319.Crossref 14. Hahnenberger RW: Influence of cataleptoid anesthetic agents on the intraocular pressure in monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) . Acta Ophthalmol 1976;54:491-499.Crossref 15. Bito LZ, Merritt SQ, DeRousseau CJ: Intraocular pressure of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta): I. An initial survey of two free-breeding colonies . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1979; 18:785-793. 16. Camras CB, Bito LZ: Reduction of intraocular pressure in normal and hypertensive primate (Aotus trivirgatus) eyes by topically applied prostaglandin F2α . Curr Eye Res 1981;1:205-209.Crossref 17. Bartels S, Delori FC, Neufeld AH: Aqueous humor formation rate determined in conscious owl monkeys using fluorophotometry . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1983;24( (ARVO suppl) ):88. 18. Bankes JLK, Perkins ES, Tsokalis S, et al: Bedford Glaucoma Survey . Br Med J 1968;1:791-796.Crossref 19. Krupin T, Feitl M, Roshe R, et al: Halothane anesthesia and aqueous humor dynamics in laboratory animals . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1980;19:518-521. 20. Yoshikawa K, Murai Y: The effect of ketamine on intraocular pressure in children . Anesth Analg 1971;50:199-202.Crossref 21. Corssen G, Hoy JE: A new parenteral anesthetic—CI-581: Its effect on intraocular pressure . J Pediatr Ophthalmol 1967;4:20-23. 22. Peuler M, Glass DD, Arens JF: Ketamine and intraocular pressure . Anesthesiology 1975; 43:575-578.Crossref 23. Duncalf FD, Foldes FF: Effect of anesthetic drugs and muscle relaxants on intraocular pressure . Int Ophthalmol Clin 1973;13:21-33. 24. Antal M, Mucsi G, Foludi A: Ketamine anesthesia and intraocular pressure . Ann Ophthalmol 1978;10:1281-1289. 25. Bárány EH: Applanation tonometry and ophthalmoscopy of the vervet monkey (Cercopithecus ethiops) in phencyclidine catalepsia . Invest Ophthalmol 1963;2:322-324. 26. Krupin T, Podos SM, Lehman RAW, et al: Effects of optic nerve transection on intraocular pressure in monkeys . Arch Ophthalmol 1970; 84:668-671.Crossref 27. Hahnenberger R: Influence of various anesthetic drugs on the intraocular pressure of cats . Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 1976;199:179-186.Crossref 28. Lee DA, Brubaker RF: Effect of phenylephrine on aqueous humor flow . Curr Eye Res 1982;2:89-92.Crossref 29. Townsend DJ, Brubaker RF: Immediate effect of epinephrine on aqueous formation in the normal human eye as measured by fluorophotometry . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1980;19:256-266. 30. Wentworth WO, Brubaker RF: Aqueous humor dynamics in a series of patients with third neuron Horner's syndrome . Am J Ophthalmol 1981;92:407-415. 31. Brubaker RF, Nagataki S, Townsend DJ, et al: The effect of age on aqueous humor formation in man . Ophthalmology 1981;88:283-287.Crossref 32. Walker SD, Brubaker RF, Nagataki S: Hypotony and aqueous humor dynamics in myotonic dystrophy . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1982;22:744-751. 33. Lee DA, Brubaker RF, Nagataki S: Effect of thymoxamine on aqueous humor formation in the normal human eye as measured by fluorophotometry . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1981;21:805-811. 34. Nagataki S, Brubaker RF: Effect of pilocarpine on aqueous humor formation in human beings . Arch Ophthalmol 1982;100:818-821.Crossref 35. Maurice DM: A simple method of measuring aqueous flow in the rabbit . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1983;24( (ARVO suppl) ):5. 36. Johnson SB, Passmore JA, Brubaker RF: The fluorescein distribution volume of the anterior chamber . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1977;16:633-636. 37. Pederson JE, Gaasterland DE, MacLellan HM: Anterior chamber volume determination in the rhesus monkey . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1978;17:784-787. 38. Miichi H, Nagataki S: Effects of pilocarpine, salbutamol, and timolol on aqueous humor formation in cynomolgus monkeys . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1983;24:1269-1275. 39. Cevario SJ, Macri FJ: The inhibitory effect of pentobarbital Na on aqueous humor formation . Invest Ophthalmol 1974;13:384-386. 40. Sperber GO, Bill A: A method for near-continuous determination of aqueous humor flow: Effects of anesthetics, temperature and indomethacin. Exp Eye Res, in press. 41. Becker B, Krupin T, Podos SM: Phenobarbital and aqueous humor dynamics: Effect in rabbits with intact and transected optic nerves . Am J Ophthalmol 1970;70:686-690. 42. Eakins KE: A comparative study of intraocular pressure and gross outflow facility in the cat eye during anesthesia . Exp Eye Res 1969; 8:106-115.Crossref 43. deRoetth A Jr, Schwartz H: Aqueous humor dynamics in glaucoma: Effect of ganglionic blocking agents and thiopental sodium (Pentothal) anesthesia on aqueous humor dynamics . Arch Ophthalmol 1956;55:755-764.Crossref 44. Gonnering RS, Dortzbach RK, Erickson KA, et al: The cynomolgus monkey as a model for orbital research: II. Anatomic effects of lateral orbitotomy . Curr Eye Res 1984;3:541-555.Crossref 45. Kaufman PL, Bárány EH: Loss of acute pilocarpine effect on outflow facility following surgical disinsertion and retrodisplacement of the ciliary muscle from the scleral spur in the cynomolgus monkey . Invest Ophthalmol 1976; 15:793-807. 46. Kaufman PL, Bárány EH: Adrenergic drug effects on aqueous outflow facility following ciliary muscle retrodisplacement in the cynomolgus monkey . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1981;20:644-651. 47. Erickson KA, Kaufman PL: Comparative effects of three ocular perfusates on outflow facility in the cynomolgus monkey . Curr Eye Res 1981;1:211-216.Crossref 48. Bill A: Blood circulation and fluid dynamics in the eye . Physiol Rev 1975;55:383-417. 49. Bill A: The effect of changes in arterial blood pressure on the rate of aqueous humor formation in a primate (Cercopithecus ethiops) . Ophthalmic Res 1970;1:193-200.Crossref 50. Bill A: The effect of ocular hypertension caused by red cells on the rate of formation of aqueous humor . Invest Ophthalmol 1968;7:162-168. 51. Bill A: Aqueous humor dynamics in monkeys (Macaca irus and Cercopithecus ethiops) . Exp Eye Res 1971;11:195-206.Crossref 52. Bárány E: Proceedings of Glaucoma Research Conference . Am J Ophthalmol 1963; 55:821-832. 53. Stone HH, Prijot EL: The effect of a barbiturate and paraldehyde on aqueous humor dynamics in rabbit . Arch Ophthalmol 1955; 54:834-840.Crossref 54. Kornblueth W, Aladjemoff L, Magora F, et al: Influence of general anesthesia on intraocular pressure in man . Arch Ophthalmol 1959;61:84-87.Crossref 55. Volpi V, Mangiavacchi E: Ricerche sull' ipotonia oculare da anestesia generale con curaro . Ann Ottalmol Clin Ocul 1958;84:93-100. 56. Bill A: Early effects of epinephrine on aqueous humor dynamics in vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus ethiops) . Exp Eye Res 1969;8:35-43.Crossref 57. Bill A: Effects of atropine on aqueous humor dynamics in the vervet monkey . Exp Eye Res 1969;8:284-291.Crossref 58. Bill A: Effects of norepinephrine, isoproterenol and sympathetic stimulation on aqueous humor dynamics in vervet monkeys . Exp Eye Res 1970;10:31-46.Crossref 59. Brubaker RF, Kupfer C: Determination of pseudofacility in the eye of the rhesus monkey . Arch Ophthalmol 1966;75:693-697.Crossref 60. Kupfer C, Sanderson P: Determination of pseudofacility in the eye of man . Arch Ophthalmol 1968;80:194-196.Crossref 61. Gaasterland D, Kupfer C, Ross K, et al: Studies of aqueous humor dynamics in man: III. Measurements in young normal subjects using norepinephrine and isoproterenol . Invest Ophthalmol 1973;12:267-279. 62. Podos SM, Minas TF, Macri FJ: A new instrument to measure episcleral venous pressure: Comparison of normal eyes and eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma . Arch Ophthalmol 1968;80:209-213.Crossref 63. Kupfer C, Ross K: Studies of aqueous humor dynamics in man: I. Measurements in young normal subjects . Invest Ophthalmol 1971;10:518-522. 64. Kupfer C, Gaasterland D, Ross K: Studies of aqueous humor dynamics in man: II. Measurements in young normal subjects using acetazolamide and /-epinephrine . Invest Ophthalmol 1971;10:523-533. 65. Magora F, Collins VJ: The influence of general anesthetic agents on intraocular pressure in man: The effect of common nonexplosive agents . Arch Ophthalmol 1961;66:806-811.Crossref 66. Best M, Blumenthal M, Masket S, et al: Effect of sympathetic stimulation on critical closure of intraocular blood vessels . Invest Ophthalmol 1970;9:911-916. 67. Verma RS: 'Self-taming' of succinylcholine-induced fasciculations and intraocular pressure . Anesthesiology 1979;50:245-247.Crossref 68. Breinin GM: The position of rest during anesthesia and sleep: Electromyographic observations . Arch Ophthalmol 1957;57:323-326.Crossref 69. Sadove MS, Unna KR: Ophthalmic studies of curare and curare-like drugs in man . Am J Ophthalmol 1951;34:543-553. 70. Roche JR: Research in the use of curare for ocular surgery . Am J Ophthalmol 1950;33:91-97. 71. Kirby DB: Use of curare in cataract surgery . Arch Ophthalmol 1950;43:678-693.Crossref 72. Neufeld AH: Influences of cyclic nucleotides on outflow facility in the vervet monkey . Exp Eye Res 1978;27:387-397.Crossref 73. Kaufman PL, Hahnenberger R: CI-744 anesthesia for ophthalmological examination and surgery in monkeys . Invest Ophthalmol 1975;14:788-791. 74. Lowenstein O: Diencéphale et glaucome primitif . Ann Oculiste 1955;188:981-1024. 75. Von Sallmann L, Lowenstein O: Responses of intraocular pressure, blood pressure and cutaneous vessels to electrical stimulation in the diencephalon . Am J Ophthalmol 1955;39:11-29. 76. Johnson DH, Brubaker RF: Dynamics of aqueous humor in the syndrome of exfoliation with glaucoma . Am J Ophthalmol 1983;93:629-634.

Journal

Archives of OphthalmologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Dec 1, 1984

References