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Clonidine in Parkinson Disease

Clonidine in Parkinson Disease Abstract Several theoretical considerations suggest that potentiation of central norepinephrine mechanisms may improve motor performance in patients with Parkinson disease receiving concurrent treatment with levodopa. Clonidine hydrochloride, an antihypertensive drug believed to directly stimulate brain norepinephrine receptors, was administered to a group of patients with relatively mild Parkinson disease and coexisting essential hypertension and to three patients with Parkinson disease manifesting the "on-off" response to levodopa. Although a significant antihypertensive effect was achieved, a change in parkinsonian disability could not be demonstrated. References 1. Greenfield JG, Bosanquet FD: The brainstem lesions in parkinsonism . J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 16:213-226, 1953.Crossref 2. Ungerstedt U: Stereotaxic mapping of the monoamine pathways in the rat brain . Acta Physiol Scand 367( (suppl) ):1-48, 1971. 3. Nobin A, Björklund A: Topography of the monoamine neuron systems in the human brain as revealed in fetuses . Acta Physiol Scand 388( (suppl) ):1-40, 1973. 4. Anlezark GM, Crow TJ, Greenway AP: Impaired learning and decreased cortical norepi-$ nephrine after bilateral locus coeruleus lesions: : Science 181:682-684, 1973.Crossref 5. Rinne UK, Sonninen V: Brain cate-cholamines and their metabolites in parkinsonian patients . Arch Neurol 28:107-110, 1973.Crossref 6. Fahn S, Libsch LR, Cutler RW: Monoamines in the human neostriatum: Topographic distribution in normals and in Parkinson's disease and their role in akinesia, rigidity, chorea, and tremor . J Neurol Sci 14:427-455, 1971.Crossref 7. Calne DB: Parkinsonism: Physiology, Pharmacology, and Treatment . London, Edward Arnold Ltd, 1970, p 60. 8. Chase TN, Gordon EK, Ng LKY: Norepi-nephrine metabolism in the central nervous system of man: Studies using 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-$ phenylethylene glycol levels in cerebrospinal fluid . J Neurochem 21:581-587, 1973.Crossref 9. Hornykiewicz O: Dopamine in the basal ganglia . Br Med Bull 29:172-178, 1973. Å 10. Corrodi H, Fuxe K, Ljungdahl A, et al: Studies on the action of some psychoactive drugs on central noradrenaline neurones after inhibition of dopamine-B-hydroxylase . Brain Res 24:451-470, 1970.Crossref 11. Maj J, Sowinska H, Kapturkiewicz Z, et al: The effect of L-DOPA and (+)-amphetamine on the locomotor activity after pimozide and phenoxybenzamine . J Pharm Pharmacol 24:412-413, 1972.Crossref 12. Marsden CD, Dolphin A, Duovisin RC, et al: Role of noradrenaline in levodopa reversal of reserpine akinesia . Brain Res 77:521-525, 1974.Crossref 13. Barbeau A: Role of dopamine in the nervous system . Monogr Hum Genet 6:114-136, 1972. 14. Schmitt H, Schmitt H: Localization of the hypotensive effect of 2-(2-6-dichlorphenylamino)-2-imidazoline hydrochloride (St 155 , Catapresan) Eur J Pharmacol 6:8-12, 1969.Crossref 15. Maj J, Sowińska H, Baran L, et al: The effect of clonidine on locomotor activity in mice . Life Sci 11:483-491, 1972.Crossref 16. Andén NE, Corrodi H, Fuxe K, et al: Evidence for a central noradrenaline receptor stimulation by clonidine . Life Sci 9:513-523, 1970.Crossref 17. Creveling CR, Daly J, Takuyama T, et al: The combined use of a-methyltyrosine and threo-dihydroxyphenylserine-selective reduction of dopamine levels in the central nervous system . Biochem Pharmacol 17:65-70, 1968.Crossref 18. Birkmayer W, Hornykeiwicz O: Der L-dioxyphenylalanin (=DOPA)-Effekt beim Parkinson-syndrom des menschen: Zur pathogenese und behandlung der Parkinson-akinese . Arch Psychiat Nervenk 203:560-574, 1962.Crossref 19. Struyker Boudier HAJ, van Rossum JM: Clonidine-induced cardiovascular effects after stereotaxic application in the hypothalamus of rats . J Pharm Pharmacol 24:410-411, 1972.Crossref 20. Marsden CD, Parkes JD, Rees JE: A year's comparison of treatment of patients with Parkinson's disease with levodopa combined with carbidopa versus treatment with levodopa alone . Lancet 2:1459-1462, 1973.Crossref 21. Elkeles RS, Goldby FS, Oliver DO: A double-blind study of Catapres, a new hypotensive agent , in Conolly ME (ed): Catapres in Hypertension London, Butterworth & Co Ltd, 1970, pp 139-144. 22. Everett GM, Borcherding JW: L-Dopa: Effect on concentrations of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin in brains of mice . Science 168:849-850, 1970.Crossref 23. Reid JL, Calne DB: Cardiovascular effects of levodopa in parkinsonism , in Calne D (ed): Progress in the Treatment of Parkinsonism. Advances in Neurology . New York, Raven Press, 1973, vol 3, pp 223-232. 24. Henning M, Rubenson A: Evidence for a centrally mediated hypotensive effect of L-Dopa in the rat . J Pharm Pharmacol 22:241-243, 1970.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Neurology American Medical Association

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1975 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-9942
eISSN
1538-3687
DOI
10.1001/archneur.1975.00490440084016
Publisher site
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Abstract

Abstract Several theoretical considerations suggest that potentiation of central norepinephrine mechanisms may improve motor performance in patients with Parkinson disease receiving concurrent treatment with levodopa. Clonidine hydrochloride, an antihypertensive drug believed to directly stimulate brain norepinephrine receptors, was administered to a group of patients with relatively mild Parkinson disease and coexisting essential hypertension and to three patients with Parkinson disease manifesting the "on-off" response to levodopa. Although a significant antihypertensive effect was achieved, a change in parkinsonian disability could not be demonstrated. References 1. Greenfield JG, Bosanquet FD: The brainstem lesions in parkinsonism . J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 16:213-226, 1953.Crossref 2. Ungerstedt U: Stereotaxic mapping of the monoamine pathways in the rat brain . Acta Physiol Scand 367( (suppl) ):1-48, 1971. 3. Nobin A, Björklund A: Topography of the monoamine neuron systems in the human brain as revealed in fetuses . Acta Physiol Scand 388( (suppl) ):1-40, 1973. 4. Anlezark GM, Crow TJ, Greenway AP: Impaired learning and decreased cortical norepi-$ nephrine after bilateral locus coeruleus lesions: : Science 181:682-684, 1973.Crossref 5. Rinne UK, Sonninen V: Brain cate-cholamines and their metabolites in parkinsonian patients . Arch Neurol 28:107-110, 1973.Crossref 6. Fahn S, Libsch LR, Cutler RW: Monoamines in the human neostriatum: Topographic distribution in normals and in Parkinson's disease and their role in akinesia, rigidity, chorea, and tremor . J Neurol Sci 14:427-455, 1971.Crossref 7. Calne DB: Parkinsonism: Physiology, Pharmacology, and Treatment . London, Edward Arnold Ltd, 1970, p 60. 8. Chase TN, Gordon EK, Ng LKY: Norepi-nephrine metabolism in the central nervous system of man: Studies using 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-$ phenylethylene glycol levels in cerebrospinal fluid . J Neurochem 21:581-587, 1973.Crossref 9. Hornykiewicz O: Dopamine in the basal ganglia . Br Med Bull 29:172-178, 1973. Å 10. Corrodi H, Fuxe K, Ljungdahl A, et al: Studies on the action of some psychoactive drugs on central noradrenaline neurones after inhibition of dopamine-B-hydroxylase . Brain Res 24:451-470, 1970.Crossref 11. Maj J, Sowinska H, Kapturkiewicz Z, et al: The effect of L-DOPA and (+)-amphetamine on the locomotor activity after pimozide and phenoxybenzamine . J Pharm Pharmacol 24:412-413, 1972.Crossref 12. Marsden CD, Dolphin A, Duovisin RC, et al: Role of noradrenaline in levodopa reversal of reserpine akinesia . Brain Res 77:521-525, 1974.Crossref 13. Barbeau A: Role of dopamine in the nervous system . Monogr Hum Genet 6:114-136, 1972. 14. Schmitt H, Schmitt H: Localization of the hypotensive effect of 2-(2-6-dichlorphenylamino)-2-imidazoline hydrochloride (St 155 , Catapresan) Eur J Pharmacol 6:8-12, 1969.Crossref 15. Maj J, Sowińska H, Baran L, et al: The effect of clonidine on locomotor activity in mice . Life Sci 11:483-491, 1972.Crossref 16. Andén NE, Corrodi H, Fuxe K, et al: Evidence for a central noradrenaline receptor stimulation by clonidine . Life Sci 9:513-523, 1970.Crossref 17. Creveling CR, Daly J, Takuyama T, et al: The combined use of a-methyltyrosine and threo-dihydroxyphenylserine-selective reduction of dopamine levels in the central nervous system . Biochem Pharmacol 17:65-70, 1968.Crossref 18. Birkmayer W, Hornykeiwicz O: Der L-dioxyphenylalanin (=DOPA)-Effekt beim Parkinson-syndrom des menschen: Zur pathogenese und behandlung der Parkinson-akinese . Arch Psychiat Nervenk 203:560-574, 1962.Crossref 19. Struyker Boudier HAJ, van Rossum JM: Clonidine-induced cardiovascular effects after stereotaxic application in the hypothalamus of rats . J Pharm Pharmacol 24:410-411, 1972.Crossref 20. Marsden CD, Parkes JD, Rees JE: A year's comparison of treatment of patients with Parkinson's disease with levodopa combined with carbidopa versus treatment with levodopa alone . Lancet 2:1459-1462, 1973.Crossref 21. Elkeles RS, Goldby FS, Oliver DO: A double-blind study of Catapres, a new hypotensive agent , in Conolly ME (ed): Catapres in Hypertension London, Butterworth & Co Ltd, 1970, pp 139-144. 22. Everett GM, Borcherding JW: L-Dopa: Effect on concentrations of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin in brains of mice . Science 168:849-850, 1970.Crossref 23. Reid JL, Calne DB: Cardiovascular effects of levodopa in parkinsonism , in Calne D (ed): Progress in the Treatment of Parkinsonism. Advances in Neurology . New York, Raven Press, 1973, vol 3, pp 223-232. 24. Henning M, Rubenson A: Evidence for a centrally mediated hypotensive effect of L-Dopa in the rat . J Pharm Pharmacol 22:241-243, 1970.Crossref

Journal

Archives of NeurologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Feb 1, 1975

References