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CHRONIC PSYCHOSES AND ADDICTION TO MORPHINE

CHRONIC PSYCHOSES AND ADDICTION TO MORPHINE Abstract THE PSYCHOSES attributed to the use of morphine may be classified as follows: (1) chronic psychoses due to habitual use; (2) psychoses due to withdrawal, and (3) psychoses due to idiosyncrasy. At the United States Public Health Service Hospital, Lexington, Ky., which is devoted primarily to the treatment of drug addiction and at which this study was made, there has been little experience with the last type (psychoses due to idiosyncrasy), since the patients are addicts and therefore habitually use large doses of morphine. However, it has been stated that this type of psychosis does occur1 but is rare and occurs more frequently in women. It is characterized by excitement or delirium. Psychoses due to withdrawal constitute a separate problem. This study is concerned with an evaluation of the first type, chronic psychoses due to habitual use of morphine. "Psychoses due to opium or its derivatives" is listed in References 1. Goodman, L., and Gilman, A.: Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics , New York, The Macmillan Company, 1941. 2. Bastedo, W. A.: Materia Medica, Pharmacology and Therapeutics , Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders Company, 1934. 3. Standard Nomenclature of Disease , edited by E. P. Jordan, Chicago, American Medical Association, 1942, p. 100. 4. Statistical Manual for Use of Hospitals for Mental Diseases , ed. 7, New York, The National Committee for Mental Hygiene, 1936. 5. von Krafft-Ebing, R.: Textbook of Insanity , Philadelphia, F. A. Davis Co., 1905. 6. Edmunds, C. W., and Gunn, J. A., in Cushny, A. R.: A Textbook of Pharmacology and Therapeutics , Philadelphia, Lea & Febiger, 1936. 7. Lambert, A.: Intoxicants and Narcotics , in Nelson's New Loose-Leaf Medicine , New York, Thos. Nelson & Sons, 1920, vol. 2, p. 555. 8. Bell, M.: Morphinism and Morphinomania , New York M. J. 93:680, 1911. 9. Sandoz, C. E.: Report on Morphinism to the Municipal Court of Boston , J. Am. Inst. Criminol. 13:10, 1922.Crossref 10. Dana, C. L.: Problems of Drug Addiction , M. Rec. 93:177, 1918. 11. Chotzen, F.: Zur Kenntnis der Psychosen der Morphiumabstinenz , Allg. Ztschr. f. Psychiat. 63:786, 1906. 12. Schneider, K.: Zur Frage der chronischen Morphinpsychose und des Zusammenhangs von Sinnestäuschungen und Wahnideen , Ztschr. f. d. ges. Neurol. u. Psychiat. 19:25, 1913.Crossref 13. Kolb, L.: Pleasure and Deterioration from Narcotic Addiction , Ment. Hyg. 9:699, 1925. 14. Hobhouse, S., and Brockway, A. F.: English Prisons Today , London, Longmans, Green & Co., 1922, pp. 520-529. 15. Hobhouse and Brockway found that the ratio of psychoses to the number of sentences increases with the length of the sentence imposed. In sentences under one month the incidence is less than 0.01 per cent. This rate rises to 0.07 per cent for sentences of three months and continues to increase much more rapidly than the length of the sentence. Prisoners sentenced for one year have a rate of 0.4 per cent; those sentenced for five years, a rate of 3.8 per cent and those sentenced to twenty years, a rate of 24 per cent. With these data, it was determined by interpolation that the incidence of psychoses corresponding to a sentence of 2.5 years would be approximately 2 per cent. 16. Klopfer, B., and Kelley, D.: The Rorschach Technique, Yonkers-on-Hudson , N. Y., World Book Company, 1942, p. 354. 17. Shipley, W., and Burlingame, C.: A Convenient Self-Administering Scale for Measuring Intellectual Impairment in Psychotics , Am. J. Psychiat. 97:1313, 1941. 18. Babcock, H.: An Experiment in the Measurement of Mental Deterioration , Arch. Psychol. 18:105, 1930. 19. Gelb, A., and Goldstein, K.: Psychologische Analysen hirnpathologischer Fälle: Ueber Farbenamnesia nebst Bemerkungen über das Wesen der amnestischen Aphasie , Psychol. Forsch. 6:127, 1924.Crossref 20. This measure provides a way of telling whether one group is significantly superior to another group. 21. Brown, R., and Partington, J.: The Intelligence of the Narcotic Drug Addict , J. Gen. Psychol. 26:175, 1942.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry American Medical Association

CHRONIC PSYCHOSES AND ADDICTION TO MORPHINE

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1946 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0096-6754
DOI
10.1001/archneurpsyc.1946.02300230059006
Publisher site
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Abstract

Abstract THE PSYCHOSES attributed to the use of morphine may be classified as follows: (1) chronic psychoses due to habitual use; (2) psychoses due to withdrawal, and (3) psychoses due to idiosyncrasy. At the United States Public Health Service Hospital, Lexington, Ky., which is devoted primarily to the treatment of drug addiction and at which this study was made, there has been little experience with the last type (psychoses due to idiosyncrasy), since the patients are addicts and therefore habitually use large doses of morphine. However, it has been stated that this type of psychosis does occur1 but is rare and occurs more frequently in women. It is characterized by excitement or delirium. Psychoses due to withdrawal constitute a separate problem. This study is concerned with an evaluation of the first type, chronic psychoses due to habitual use of morphine. "Psychoses due to opium or its derivatives" is listed in References 1. Goodman, L., and Gilman, A.: Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics , New York, The Macmillan Company, 1941. 2. Bastedo, W. A.: Materia Medica, Pharmacology and Therapeutics , Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders Company, 1934. 3. Standard Nomenclature of Disease , edited by E. P. Jordan, Chicago, American Medical Association, 1942, p. 100. 4. Statistical Manual for Use of Hospitals for Mental Diseases , ed. 7, New York, The National Committee for Mental Hygiene, 1936. 5. von Krafft-Ebing, R.: Textbook of Insanity , Philadelphia, F. A. Davis Co., 1905. 6. Edmunds, C. W., and Gunn, J. A., in Cushny, A. R.: A Textbook of Pharmacology and Therapeutics , Philadelphia, Lea & Febiger, 1936. 7. Lambert, A.: Intoxicants and Narcotics , in Nelson's New Loose-Leaf Medicine , New York, Thos. Nelson & Sons, 1920, vol. 2, p. 555. 8. Bell, M.: Morphinism and Morphinomania , New York M. J. 93:680, 1911. 9. Sandoz, C. E.: Report on Morphinism to the Municipal Court of Boston , J. Am. Inst. Criminol. 13:10, 1922.Crossref 10. Dana, C. L.: Problems of Drug Addiction , M. Rec. 93:177, 1918. 11. Chotzen, F.: Zur Kenntnis der Psychosen der Morphiumabstinenz , Allg. Ztschr. f. Psychiat. 63:786, 1906. 12. Schneider, K.: Zur Frage der chronischen Morphinpsychose und des Zusammenhangs von Sinnestäuschungen und Wahnideen , Ztschr. f. d. ges. Neurol. u. Psychiat. 19:25, 1913.Crossref 13. Kolb, L.: Pleasure and Deterioration from Narcotic Addiction , Ment. Hyg. 9:699, 1925. 14. Hobhouse, S., and Brockway, A. F.: English Prisons Today , London, Longmans, Green & Co., 1922, pp. 520-529. 15. Hobhouse and Brockway found that the ratio of psychoses to the number of sentences increases with the length of the sentence imposed. In sentences under one month the incidence is less than 0.01 per cent. This rate rises to 0.07 per cent for sentences of three months and continues to increase much more rapidly than the length of the sentence. Prisoners sentenced for one year have a rate of 0.4 per cent; those sentenced for five years, a rate of 3.8 per cent and those sentenced to twenty years, a rate of 24 per cent. With these data, it was determined by interpolation that the incidence of psychoses corresponding to a sentence of 2.5 years would be approximately 2 per cent. 16. Klopfer, B., and Kelley, D.: The Rorschach Technique, Yonkers-on-Hudson , N. Y., World Book Company, 1942, p. 354. 17. Shipley, W., and Burlingame, C.: A Convenient Self-Administering Scale for Measuring Intellectual Impairment in Psychotics , Am. J. Psychiat. 97:1313, 1941. 18. Babcock, H.: An Experiment in the Measurement of Mental Deterioration , Arch. Psychol. 18:105, 1930. 19. Gelb, A., and Goldstein, K.: Psychologische Analysen hirnpathologischer Fälle: Ueber Farbenamnesia nebst Bemerkungen über das Wesen der amnestischen Aphasie , Psychol. Forsch. 6:127, 1924.Crossref 20. This measure provides a way of telling whether one group is significantly superior to another group. 21. Brown, R., and Partington, J.: The Intelligence of the Narcotic Drug Addict , J. Gen. Psychol. 26:175, 1942.Crossref

Journal

Archives of Neurology & PsychiatryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Dec 1, 1946

References