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Chronic Esophagitis: A Possible Factor in the Production of Carcinoma of the Esophagus

Chronic Esophagitis: A Possible Factor in the Production of Carcinoma of the Esophagus Abstract The etiology of cancer is yet unsolved. Similarly, the relative importance of hereditary and environmental factors remains to be proved. There are variations in the incidence of cancer dependent upon racial, sex, hereditary, geographic, environmental, economic, social, and occupational factors. Chronic irritation to the skin and mucous membranes has long been thought to be a possible carcinogenic agent, whether this be traumatic, chemical, thermal, or bacterial. The relationship of chronic esophagitis to the subsequent development of malignancy has never been too well emphasized. Reports1 have shown that patients afflicted with carcinoma of the esophagus come generally from a lower economic strata. This is probably a reflection of dietary habits. There seems to be a sex variation in that males for the most part have a higher incidence than females. However, in certain geographic locations, such as Mexico and certain parts of Scotland, females are equally affected. As Steiner2 References 1. References 3 and 4. 2. References 5-7. 3. References 33-35. 4. References 40-42. 5. Parker, E. F.; Hanna, C. B., and Postlethwait, R. W.: Carcinoma of the Esophagus , Ann. Surg. 135:697, 1952.Crossref 6. Steiner, P. E. Cancer: Race and Geography , Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Company, 1954. 7. Turner, A. L.: Carcinoma of Post-Cricoid Region (Pars Larynea Pharyngis) and Upper End of Esophagus , J. Laryng. Rhin. & Otol. 35:34, 1920. 8. Bockus, H. L.: Gastro-Enterology , Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders Company, 1943, Vol. 1, p. 109. 9. Wu, Y. K., and Loucks, H. H.: Carcinoma of the Esophagus or Cardia of the Stomach: Analysis of 172 Cases with 81 Resections , Ann. Surg. 134:946, 1951. 10. Morice, A.: Cancer of the Esophagus , Les Echos de la medicine , (June 15) , 1954. 11. Mosbech, J., and Videbæk, A.: On the Etiology of Esophageal Carcinoma , J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 15:1665, 1955. 12. Clemmesen, J.: Cancer and Occupation in Denmark 1935-1939 , Copenhagen, Arnold Busck, 1941, p. 38. 13. Versluys, J. J.: Cancer and Occupation in the Netherlands , Brit. J. Cancer 3:161, 1949. 14. Tomlinson, W. J., and Wilson, L. A., Jr.: Esophageal Carcinoma in British West Indian and Panamanian Negroes: A Study of the Incidence, Etiologic Factors and Pathologic Anatomy in 50 Cases , Arch. Path. 39:79, 1945. 15. Vinson, P. P.: The Diagnosis and Treatment of Diseases of the Esophagus , Springfield, Ill., Charles C Thomas, Publisher, 1940, p. 31. 16. Benedict, E. B.: Benign Stricture of Esophagus , Gastroenterology 6:328, 1946. 17. Kiviranta, U. K.: Corrosion Carcinoma of the Esophagus: Three Hundred Eighty-One Cases of Corrosion and Nine Cases of Corrosion Carcinoma , Acta oto-laryng. 42:89, 1952. 18. U. S. Vital Statistics: Deaths and Crude Death Rates for Each Cause, United States 1946-1948 , Nat. Summaries 35:147, 1950. 19. Pack, G. T.; Butler, F. S., and Katz, E.: The Development of Cancer in Dystopic and Ec- topic Thoracic Stomachs: Report of 2 Cases , J. Thoracic Surg. 23:593, 1952. 20. Brick, I. B.: Hiatus Hernia and Carcinoma of the Stomach and Esophagus , Gastroenterology 13:47, 1949. 21. Holland, A. L., and Logan, V. W.: Cancer Developing in the Herniated Portion of the Stomach , New York J. Med. 40:216, 1940. 22. Harrington, S. W.: Roentgenologic Considerations in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Diaphragmatic Hernia , Am. J. Roentgenol. 49:185, 1943. 23. Robb, D.: Malignant Disease in Association with Hiatus Hernia and Thoracic Stomach , J. Thoracic Surg. 25:493, 1953. 24. Smith, R. A.: Cancer in Thoracic Stomach , J. Thoracic Surg. 29:568, 1955. 25. Olsen, A. M., and Harrington, S. W.: Esophageal Hiatal Hernias of the Short Esophagus Type: Etiologic and Therapeutic Considerations , J. Thoracic Surg. 17:189, 1948. 26. Dawson, J., and Richards, H. G. H.: Carcinoma in Herniated Gastric Cardia Associated with Shortœsophagus , Brit. J. Radiol. 23:270, 1950. 27. Moller, F.: Diaphragmatic Hernia and Carcinoma of the Stomach , Acta med. scandinav. 74: 421, 1931. 28. Magnes, W. F., and Clerf, L. W.: Congenital Anomalies of the Alimentary Tract , Am. J. Roentgenol. 33:657, 1935. 29. Wolf, G.: Hernia Through Esophageal Opening of Diaphragm Complicated by Esophageal Carcinoma , Klin. Wchnschr. 7:2007, 1928. 30. Raven, R. W.: Thoraco-Abdominal Gastrectomy for Carcinoma of Thoracic Stomach , Brit. J. Surg. 29:39, 1941.Crossref 31. Smithers, D. W.: Association of Cancer of the Gastric Cardia with Partial Thoracic Stomach, Short Œsophagus and Peptic Ulceration , Brit. J. Radiol. 23:261, 1950.Crossref 32. Cross, F. S., and Kay, E. B.: The Etiology and Treatment of Peptic Esophagitis , Ann. Surg. 143:360, 1956.Crossref 33. Kay, E. B.: Inferior Esophageal Constrictor in Relation to Lower Esophageal Disease , J. Thoracic Surg. 25:1, 1953. 34. Crile, G. W., and Dinsmore, R.: Diverticula of Esophagus , S. Clin. North America 4:863, 1924. 35. Mathews, E. C., and Vinson, P. P.: Carcinoma of Esophagus Complicating Cardiospasm: Report of Case , Gastroenterology 15:747, 1950. 36. Riberi, A.; Battersby, J. S., and Vellios, F.: Epidermoid Carcinoma Occurring in a Pharyngoesophageal Diverticulum , Cancer 8:727, 1955.Crossref 37. Klayman, M. I.: The Diagnosis of Esophageal Carcinoma by Exfoliative Cytology, Including 2 Cases of Cardiospasm Associated with Carcinoma of the Esophagus , Ann. Int. Med. 43:33, 1955.Crossref 38. Bersack, S. R.: Carcinoma of the Esophagus in Association with Achalasia of Cardia , Radiology 42:220, 1944.Crossref 39. Kornblum, K., and Fisher, L. C.: Carcinoma as a Complication of Achalasia of the Cardia , Am. J. Roentgenol. 43:364, 1940. 40. Gottstein, L. G.: Pathology and Therapy of Chronic Cardiospasm , Allg. med. Centr. Ztg. 77: 563, 1908. 41. Rake, G.: Epithelioma of the Esophagus in Association with Achalasia of Cardia , Lancet 2: 682, 1931.Crossref 42. Olsen, A. M.; Harrington, S. W.; Moersch, H. J., and Anderson, H. A.: The Treatment of Cardiospasm: Analysis of a 12-Year Experience , J. Thoracic Surg. 22:164, 1951. 43. Baer, P., and Sicher, K.: The Association of Achalasia of the Cardia with Œsophageal Carcinoma , Brit. J. Radiol. 20:528, 1947.Crossref 44. Gore, I., and Lam, C. R.: Carcinoma of the Esophagus Complicating Cardiospasm: Report of Case , J. Thoracic Surg. 24:43, 1952. 45. Crenshaw, J. F., and Booher, R. J.: Achalasia of the Cardia with Esophageal Carcinoma , Gastroenterology 25:385, 1953. 46. Vinson, P. P.: Simultaneous Occurrence of Multiple Lesions in the Esophagus: Report of 3 Cases , Arch. Otolaryng 5:502, 1927.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png A.M.A. Archives of Internal Medicine American Medical Association

Chronic Esophagitis: A Possible Factor in the Production of Carcinoma of the Esophagus

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American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1956 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0888-2479
DOI
10.1001/archinte.1956.00250280077010
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Abstract

Abstract The etiology of cancer is yet unsolved. Similarly, the relative importance of hereditary and environmental factors remains to be proved. There are variations in the incidence of cancer dependent upon racial, sex, hereditary, geographic, environmental, economic, social, and occupational factors. Chronic irritation to the skin and mucous membranes has long been thought to be a possible carcinogenic agent, whether this be traumatic, chemical, thermal, or bacterial. The relationship of chronic esophagitis to the subsequent development of malignancy has never been too well emphasized. Reports1 have shown that patients afflicted with carcinoma of the esophagus come generally from a lower economic strata. This is probably a reflection of dietary habits. There seems to be a sex variation in that males for the most part have a higher incidence than females. However, in certain geographic locations, such as Mexico and certain parts of Scotland, females are equally affected. As Steiner2 References 1. References 3 and 4. 2. References 5-7. 3. References 33-35. 4. References 40-42. 5. Parker, E. F.; Hanna, C. B., and Postlethwait, R. W.: Carcinoma of the Esophagus , Ann. Surg. 135:697, 1952.Crossref 6. Steiner, P. E. Cancer: Race and Geography , Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Company, 1954. 7. Turner, A. L.: Carcinoma of Post-Cricoid Region (Pars Larynea Pharyngis) and Upper End of Esophagus , J. Laryng. Rhin. & Otol. 35:34, 1920. 8. Bockus, H. L.: Gastro-Enterology , Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders Company, 1943, Vol. 1, p. 109. 9. Wu, Y. K., and Loucks, H. H.: Carcinoma of the Esophagus or Cardia of the Stomach: Analysis of 172 Cases with 81 Resections , Ann. Surg. 134:946, 1951. 10. Morice, A.: Cancer of the Esophagus , Les Echos de la medicine , (June 15) , 1954. 11. Mosbech, J., and Videbæk, A.: On the Etiology of Esophageal Carcinoma , J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 15:1665, 1955. 12. Clemmesen, J.: Cancer and Occupation in Denmark 1935-1939 , Copenhagen, Arnold Busck, 1941, p. 38. 13. Versluys, J. J.: Cancer and Occupation in the Netherlands , Brit. J. Cancer 3:161, 1949. 14. Tomlinson, W. J., and Wilson, L. A., Jr.: Esophageal Carcinoma in British West Indian and Panamanian Negroes: A Study of the Incidence, Etiologic Factors and Pathologic Anatomy in 50 Cases , Arch. Path. 39:79, 1945. 15. Vinson, P. P.: The Diagnosis and Treatment of Diseases of the Esophagus , Springfield, Ill., Charles C Thomas, Publisher, 1940, p. 31. 16. Benedict, E. B.: Benign Stricture of Esophagus , Gastroenterology 6:328, 1946. 17. Kiviranta, U. K.: Corrosion Carcinoma of the Esophagus: Three Hundred Eighty-One Cases of Corrosion and Nine Cases of Corrosion Carcinoma , Acta oto-laryng. 42:89, 1952. 18. U. S. Vital Statistics: Deaths and Crude Death Rates for Each Cause, United States 1946-1948 , Nat. Summaries 35:147, 1950. 19. Pack, G. T.; Butler, F. S., and Katz, E.: The Development of Cancer in Dystopic and Ec- topic Thoracic Stomachs: Report of 2 Cases , J. Thoracic Surg. 23:593, 1952. 20. Brick, I. B.: Hiatus Hernia and Carcinoma of the Stomach and Esophagus , Gastroenterology 13:47, 1949. 21. Holland, A. L., and Logan, V. W.: Cancer Developing in the Herniated Portion of the Stomach , New York J. Med. 40:216, 1940. 22. Harrington, S. W.: Roentgenologic Considerations in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Diaphragmatic Hernia , Am. J. Roentgenol. 49:185, 1943. 23. Robb, D.: Malignant Disease in Association with Hiatus Hernia and Thoracic Stomach , J. Thoracic Surg. 25:493, 1953. 24. Smith, R. A.: Cancer in Thoracic Stomach , J. Thoracic Surg. 29:568, 1955. 25. Olsen, A. M., and Harrington, S. W.: Esophageal Hiatal Hernias of the Short Esophagus Type: Etiologic and Therapeutic Considerations , J. Thoracic Surg. 17:189, 1948. 26. Dawson, J., and Richards, H. G. H.: Carcinoma in Herniated Gastric Cardia Associated with Shortœsophagus , Brit. J. Radiol. 23:270, 1950. 27. Moller, F.: Diaphragmatic Hernia and Carcinoma of the Stomach , Acta med. scandinav. 74: 421, 1931. 28. Magnes, W. F., and Clerf, L. W.: Congenital Anomalies of the Alimentary Tract , Am. J. Roentgenol. 33:657, 1935. 29. Wolf, G.: Hernia Through Esophageal Opening of Diaphragm Complicated by Esophageal Carcinoma , Klin. Wchnschr. 7:2007, 1928. 30. Raven, R. W.: Thoraco-Abdominal Gastrectomy for Carcinoma of Thoracic Stomach , Brit. J. Surg. 29:39, 1941.Crossref 31. Smithers, D. W.: Association of Cancer of the Gastric Cardia with Partial Thoracic Stomach, Short Œsophagus and Peptic Ulceration , Brit. J. Radiol. 23:261, 1950.Crossref 32. Cross, F. S., and Kay, E. B.: The Etiology and Treatment of Peptic Esophagitis , Ann. Surg. 143:360, 1956.Crossref 33. Kay, E. B.: Inferior Esophageal Constrictor in Relation to Lower Esophageal Disease , J. Thoracic Surg. 25:1, 1953. 34. Crile, G. W., and Dinsmore, R.: Diverticula of Esophagus , S. Clin. North America 4:863, 1924. 35. Mathews, E. C., and Vinson, P. P.: Carcinoma of Esophagus Complicating Cardiospasm: Report of Case , Gastroenterology 15:747, 1950. 36. Riberi, A.; Battersby, J. S., and Vellios, F.: Epidermoid Carcinoma Occurring in a Pharyngoesophageal Diverticulum , Cancer 8:727, 1955.Crossref 37. Klayman, M. I.: The Diagnosis of Esophageal Carcinoma by Exfoliative Cytology, Including 2 Cases of Cardiospasm Associated with Carcinoma of the Esophagus , Ann. Int. Med. 43:33, 1955.Crossref 38. Bersack, S. R.: Carcinoma of the Esophagus in Association with Achalasia of Cardia , Radiology 42:220, 1944.Crossref 39. Kornblum, K., and Fisher, L. C.: Carcinoma as a Complication of Achalasia of the Cardia , Am. J. Roentgenol. 43:364, 1940. 40. Gottstein, L. G.: Pathology and Therapy of Chronic Cardiospasm , Allg. med. Centr. Ztg. 77: 563, 1908. 41. Rake, G.: Epithelioma of the Esophagus in Association with Achalasia of Cardia , Lancet 2: 682, 1931.Crossref 42. Olsen, A. M.; Harrington, S. W.; Moersch, H. J., and Anderson, H. A.: The Treatment of Cardiospasm: Analysis of a 12-Year Experience , J. Thoracic Surg. 22:164, 1951. 43. Baer, P., and Sicher, K.: The Association of Achalasia of the Cardia with Œsophageal Carcinoma , Brit. J. Radiol. 20:528, 1947.Crossref 44. Gore, I., and Lam, C. R.: Carcinoma of the Esophagus Complicating Cardiospasm: Report of Case , J. Thoracic Surg. 24:43, 1952. 45. Crenshaw, J. F., and Booher, R. J.: Achalasia of the Cardia with Esophageal Carcinoma , Gastroenterology 25:385, 1953. 46. Vinson, P. P.: Simultaneous Occurrence of Multiple Lesions in the Esophagus: Report of 3 Cases , Arch. Otolaryng 5:502, 1927.Crossref

Journal

A.M.A. Archives of Internal MedicineAmerican Medical Association

Published: Oct 1, 1956

References