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Christian Schad and Dr Haustein: An Example of Art and Dermatology Under the Nazi Regime

Christian Schad and Dr Haustein: An Example of Art and Dermatology Under the Nazi Regime Christian Schad, who was born in 1894 in Miesbach, Germany, played an important role in the Dadaist movement in Zurich, Switzerland. Between 1915 and 1920, he developed “schadographics.” Although he was not included in the 1925 Mannheim exhibition of New Objectivity, German artists' farewell to expressionism, he is strongly associated with this movement.1 Due to the cold precision of Schad's portraits, they seem to have been made with a scalpel rather than painted with a brush. Medicine played a vital role in the “schadiane” conception of art. The entomologist Felix Bryk introduced Schad to Hans Haustein, MD, in Berlin-Charlottenburg, Germany, perhaps at the well-known literary and political salon hosted by Haustein's wife on Bregenzer Street. Haustein, a Jewish dermatologist, was a leading expert on the epidemiology of venereal diseases and had a private practice in the Kurfürstendamm. Some 40% of dermatologists in Germany and 70% to 80% in Austria were Jews, which subjected them to scrutiny by the Nazis.2 In the portrait painted by Schad in 1928 in Berlin (Figure), Haustein is sitting with his hands entwined, and the only distinctive sign of his profession, a urethral probe, is in his pocket. His eyes seem to be far away, as if pondering his tragic ending only 5 years later. Behind him looms the menacing shadow of his mistress, Sonja, smoking a cigarette. In 1931, his wife committed suicide. In 1933, Jewish physicians were practically forbidden to treat public insurance patients.3 Schad reported that after being arrested and ill treated by the Gestapo in 1933, Haustein committed suicide by taking potassium cyanide.4 However, the German dermatologist Alfred Hollander reported that after being released, Haustein fled to the Soviet Union where he died as a result of Stalin's persecution against Jews. About 3% of Jewish dermatologists, including Ernst Kromayer (1862-1933) and Carl Bruck (1879-1944), killed themselves as a consequence of Nazi persecution. About 60% of Jewish dermatologists fled, and 13% were murdered in concentration camps.5 When the Nazis came to power in 1933, those participating in artistic movements were persecuted; thus, in 1937, the “Degenerate Art” exhibition was itinerant. In 1939, The People's Observer published an anonymous article titled “The Jewish to Whom We Do Not Forget.” Egon Erwin Kisch, “the vertiginous reporter,” was criticized for being a Jew, and a portrait of him signed by Schad was mentioned. Schad realized that he was in danger, and he began a new life as a middle-class trader. Although his Berlin studio was destroyed in 1942, Shad never gave up painting. He died in Stuttgart in 1982. Figure. View LargeDownload Christian Schad (1894-1982). Portrait of Dr Haustein, 1928. Oil on canvas, 80.5 × 55 cm. Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza, Madrid, Spain. References 1. Barilan YM Medicine through the artist's eyes: before, during, and after the holocaust. Perspect Biol Med 2004;47 (1) 110- 134PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref 2. Elias PM Death of medicine in Nazi Germany: dermatology and dermapathology under the swastika [book review]. Arch Dermatol 1999;135 (9) 1132- 1135Google ScholarCrossref 3. Eppinger SMeurer MScholtz A The emigration of the Germany's Jewish dermatologists in the period of National Socialism. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2003;17 (5) 525- 530PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref 4. Scholz A Der Suizid von Dermatologen in Abhängigkeit von politischen Veränderungen. Hautarzt 1997;48 (12) 929- 935PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref 5. Scholz AEppinger S The fate of the Germany's Jewish dermatologists in the period of National Socialism. Int J Dermatol 1999;38 (9) 716- 719PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Dermatology American Medical Association

Christian Schad and Dr Haustein: An Example of Art and Dermatology Under the Nazi Regime

Christian Schad and Dr Haustein: An Example of Art and Dermatology Under the Nazi Regime

Abstract

Christian Schad, who was born in 1894 in Miesbach, Germany, played an important role in the Dadaist movement in Zurich, Switzerland. Between 1915 and 1920, he developed “schadographics.” Although he was not included in the 1925 Mannheim exhibition of New Objectivity, German artists' farewell to expressionism, he is strongly associated with this movement.1 Due to the cold precision of Schad's portraits, they seem to have been made with a scalpel rather than painted with a...
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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 2008 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-987X
eISSN
1538-3652
DOI
10.1001/archdermatol.2007.51
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Christian Schad, who was born in 1894 in Miesbach, Germany, played an important role in the Dadaist movement in Zurich, Switzerland. Between 1915 and 1920, he developed “schadographics.” Although he was not included in the 1925 Mannheim exhibition of New Objectivity, German artists' farewell to expressionism, he is strongly associated with this movement.1 Due to the cold precision of Schad's portraits, they seem to have been made with a scalpel rather than painted with a brush. Medicine played a vital role in the “schadiane” conception of art. The entomologist Felix Bryk introduced Schad to Hans Haustein, MD, in Berlin-Charlottenburg, Germany, perhaps at the well-known literary and political salon hosted by Haustein's wife on Bregenzer Street. Haustein, a Jewish dermatologist, was a leading expert on the epidemiology of venereal diseases and had a private practice in the Kurfürstendamm. Some 40% of dermatologists in Germany and 70% to 80% in Austria were Jews, which subjected them to scrutiny by the Nazis.2 In the portrait painted by Schad in 1928 in Berlin (Figure), Haustein is sitting with his hands entwined, and the only distinctive sign of his profession, a urethral probe, is in his pocket. His eyes seem to be far away, as if pondering his tragic ending only 5 years later. Behind him looms the menacing shadow of his mistress, Sonja, smoking a cigarette. In 1931, his wife committed suicide. In 1933, Jewish physicians were practically forbidden to treat public insurance patients.3 Schad reported that after being arrested and ill treated by the Gestapo in 1933, Haustein committed suicide by taking potassium cyanide.4 However, the German dermatologist Alfred Hollander reported that after being released, Haustein fled to the Soviet Union where he died as a result of Stalin's persecution against Jews. About 3% of Jewish dermatologists, including Ernst Kromayer (1862-1933) and Carl Bruck (1879-1944), killed themselves as a consequence of Nazi persecution. About 60% of Jewish dermatologists fled, and 13% were murdered in concentration camps.5 When the Nazis came to power in 1933, those participating in artistic movements were persecuted; thus, in 1937, the “Degenerate Art” exhibition was itinerant. In 1939, The People's Observer published an anonymous article titled “The Jewish to Whom We Do Not Forget.” Egon Erwin Kisch, “the vertiginous reporter,” was criticized for being a Jew, and a portrait of him signed by Schad was mentioned. Schad realized that he was in danger, and he began a new life as a middle-class trader. Although his Berlin studio was destroyed in 1942, Shad never gave up painting. He died in Stuttgart in 1982. Figure. View LargeDownload Christian Schad (1894-1982). Portrait of Dr Haustein, 1928. Oil on canvas, 80.5 × 55 cm. Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza, Madrid, Spain. References 1. Barilan YM Medicine through the artist's eyes: before, during, and after the holocaust. Perspect Biol Med 2004;47 (1) 110- 134PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref 2. Elias PM Death of medicine in Nazi Germany: dermatology and dermapathology under the swastika [book review]. Arch Dermatol 1999;135 (9) 1132- 1135Google ScholarCrossref 3. Eppinger SMeurer MScholtz A The emigration of the Germany's Jewish dermatologists in the period of National Socialism. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2003;17 (5) 525- 530PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref 4. Scholz A Der Suizid von Dermatologen in Abhängigkeit von politischen Veränderungen. Hautarzt 1997;48 (12) 929- 935PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref 5. Scholz AEppinger S The fate of the Germany's Jewish dermatologists in the period of National Socialism. Int J Dermatol 1999;38 (9) 716- 719PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref

Journal

Archives of DermatologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Feb 1, 2008

Keywords: dermatology,christianity

References