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Chorioretinopathy and Toxoplasmosis: An Epidemiologic Study on a South Pacific Island

Chorioretinopathy and Toxoplasmosis: An Epidemiologic Study on a South Pacific Island Abstract An ophthalmological survey in the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands in 1953 disclosed that on the atoll of Truk nearly one quarter of 287 natives examined had evidence of nonspecific chorioretinal degeneration.1,2 On the basis of the ophthalmoscopic appearance alone an etiological diagnosis was impossible and no eyes could be enucleated for pathologic examination. However, the similarity of the geographic distribution of chorioretinal disease on Truk and of filariasis as noted in a survey of Micronesia3 was proposed as evidence of a relationship between the two diseases.1,2 Although chorioretinal lesions have been described in infections with Onchocerca, the filarial organism endemic in tropical America and Africa,4-7 little is known about eye lesions caused by Wuchereria, the only type of filaria common in the South Pacific.8,9 Because chorioretinitis has been repeatedly associated with infection by Toxoplasma,10-14 a survey of 192 natives on Truk was References 1. Glenn E. Roark, MD. 2. Examinations done by Peter Giotta, who was Chief of Ophthalmology at the US Naval Hospital, Guam, at the time of the survey. 3. Hilo Hospital No. OS 457-57; Armed Forces Institute of Pathology Acces. No. 797992. 4. Crawford, H. E.; Hamman, G. C.; and Lanwi, I.: Ophthalmological Survey of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands , South Pacific Commission Technical Paper No. 67, Noumea, New Caledonia, September, 1954. 5. Crawford, H. E.: Filarial Degenerative Choroiditis, unpublished paper, personal communication to the author. 6. Pipkin, A. C.: Wuchereria Bancrofti in Micronesia, paper presented at the Filariasis Symposium, 8th Pacific Science Congress, Manila, Nov 25, 1953. 7. Rodger, F. C.: The Pathogenesis and Pathology of Ocular Onchocerciasis , Amer J Ophthal 49:104, 1960. 8. Budden, F. H.: The Aetiology of the Ocular Lesions Associated With Onchocerciasis , Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg 52:500, 1958.Crossref 9. Ridley, H.: Ocular Onchocerciasis, Brit J Ophthal, Monograph Supplement 10, 1945. 10. Strong, R. P.; Sandground, J. H.; Bequaert, J. C.; and Ochoa, M. M.: Onchocerciasis , Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1934. 11. Manson-Bahr, P. E. C.: Clinic and Pathology , chap 4, Proceedings of a Conference on Filariasis in the South Pacific, Tahiti, August-September, 1951 ; Noumea, South Pacific Commission, 1953. 12. Brygoo, E. R.: Epidemiology , chap 3, Proceedings of a Conference on Filariasis in the South Pacific, Tahiti, August-September, 1951 ; Noumea, South Pacific Commission, 1953. 13. Wilder, H. C.: Toxoplasma Chorioretinitis in Adults , AMA Arch Ophthal 48:127, 1952.Crossref 14. Hogan, M. J.; Thygeson, P.; and Kimura, S.: Ocular Toxoplasmosis , Trans Amer Acad Ophthal 56:863, 1952. 15. Woods, A. C.; Jacobs, L.; Wood, R. M.; and Cook, M. K.: A Study of the Role of Toxoplasmosis in Adult Chorioretinitis , Amer J Ophthal 37:163, 1954. 16. Jacobs, L.; Fair, J. R.; and Bickerton, J. H.: Adult Ocular Toxoplasmosis , AMA Arch Ophthal 52:63, 1954.Crossref 17. Jacobs, L.: " Ocular Toxoplasmosis ," in Siim, J.: Human Toxoplasmosis, Proceedings of the Conference on Clinical Aspects and Diagnostic Problems of Toxoplasmosis in Pediatrics, 8th International Congress of Pediatrics, Copenhagen, 1956 , Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins Company, 1960. 18. Gladwin, T., and Sarason, S. B.: Truk: Man in Paradise , New York: Wenner-Gren Foundation, 1953, pp 26-34. 19. Jacobs, L.; Naquin, H.; Hoover, R.; and Woods, A. C.: A Comparison of the Toxoplasmin Skin Tests, the Sabin-Feldman Dye Tests, and the Complement Fixation Tests for Toxoplasmosis in Various Forms of Uveitis , Bull Hopkins Hosp 99:1, 1956. 20. Kaufman, H. E.: Uveitis Accompanied by a Positive Toxoplasma Dye Test , Arch Ophthal 63:767, 1960.Crossref 21. Jacobs, L., and Lunde, M. N.: A Hemagglutination Test for Toxoplasmosis , J Parasit 43:308, 1957.Crossref 22. Lunde, M. N., and Jacobs, L.: A Comparison of Results of Hemagglutination and Dye Tests for Toxoplasmosis in a Survey of Trinidad Natives , Amer J Trop Med Hyg 7:523, 1958. 23. Abstracted from outpatient records at the Eye Clinic on Moen. 24. Clark, W. B.; Bancroft, H.; Allen, J. H.; and Wang, Y. L.: Incidence of Clinical Defects in Two Rural Counties of Mississippi and a Rural Parish in Louisiana, paper written at the Department of Ophthalmology, Tulane University. 25. Crawford, H. E.: Personal communication to the author, Dec 16, 1961. 26. Zimmerman, L. E.: Personal communication to the author, May 18, 1962. 27. Leber, A.: Filariotische Augenerkrankungen der Südsee , Graefe Arch Ophthal 87:541, 1914.Crossref 28. Feldman, H. A., and Miller, L. T.: Serological Study of Toxoplasmosis Prevalence , Amer J Hyg 64:320, 1956. 29. Jacobs, L.; Melton, M. L.; and Cook, K.: Observations on Toxoplasmosis in Dogs , J Parasit 41:353, 1955.Crossref 30. Jacobs, L.: The Interrelation of Toxoplasmosis in Swine, Cattle, Dogs and Man , Public Health Rep 72:872, 1957.Crossref 31. Weinman, D., and Chandler, A. H.: `` Summary of Studies on the Epidemiology of Toxoplasmosis With Particular Reference to the Role of Swine ," in Siim, J.: Human Toxoplasmosis, Proceedings of the Conference on Clinical Aspects and Diagnostic Problems of Toxoplasmosis in Pediatrics, 8th International Congress of Pediatrics, Copenhagen, 1956 , Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins Company, 1960. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Ophthalmology American Medical Association

Chorioretinopathy and Toxoplasmosis: An Epidemiologic Study on a South Pacific Island

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1964 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-9950
eISSN
1538-3687
DOI
10.1001/archopht.1964.00970010079011
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract An ophthalmological survey in the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands in 1953 disclosed that on the atoll of Truk nearly one quarter of 287 natives examined had evidence of nonspecific chorioretinal degeneration.1,2 On the basis of the ophthalmoscopic appearance alone an etiological diagnosis was impossible and no eyes could be enucleated for pathologic examination. However, the similarity of the geographic distribution of chorioretinal disease on Truk and of filariasis as noted in a survey of Micronesia3 was proposed as evidence of a relationship between the two diseases.1,2 Although chorioretinal lesions have been described in infections with Onchocerca, the filarial organism endemic in tropical America and Africa,4-7 little is known about eye lesions caused by Wuchereria, the only type of filaria common in the South Pacific.8,9 Because chorioretinitis has been repeatedly associated with infection by Toxoplasma,10-14 a survey of 192 natives on Truk was References 1. Glenn E. Roark, MD. 2. Examinations done by Peter Giotta, who was Chief of Ophthalmology at the US Naval Hospital, Guam, at the time of the survey. 3. Hilo Hospital No. OS 457-57; Armed Forces Institute of Pathology Acces. No. 797992. 4. Crawford, H. E.; Hamman, G. C.; and Lanwi, I.: Ophthalmological Survey of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands , South Pacific Commission Technical Paper No. 67, Noumea, New Caledonia, September, 1954. 5. Crawford, H. E.: Filarial Degenerative Choroiditis, unpublished paper, personal communication to the author. 6. Pipkin, A. C.: Wuchereria Bancrofti in Micronesia, paper presented at the Filariasis Symposium, 8th Pacific Science Congress, Manila, Nov 25, 1953. 7. Rodger, F. C.: The Pathogenesis and Pathology of Ocular Onchocerciasis , Amer J Ophthal 49:104, 1960. 8. Budden, F. H.: The Aetiology of the Ocular Lesions Associated With Onchocerciasis , Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg 52:500, 1958.Crossref 9. Ridley, H.: Ocular Onchocerciasis, Brit J Ophthal, Monograph Supplement 10, 1945. 10. Strong, R. P.; Sandground, J. H.; Bequaert, J. C.; and Ochoa, M. M.: Onchocerciasis , Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1934. 11. Manson-Bahr, P. E. C.: Clinic and Pathology , chap 4, Proceedings of a Conference on Filariasis in the South Pacific, Tahiti, August-September, 1951 ; Noumea, South Pacific Commission, 1953. 12. Brygoo, E. R.: Epidemiology , chap 3, Proceedings of a Conference on Filariasis in the South Pacific, Tahiti, August-September, 1951 ; Noumea, South Pacific Commission, 1953. 13. Wilder, H. C.: Toxoplasma Chorioretinitis in Adults , AMA Arch Ophthal 48:127, 1952.Crossref 14. Hogan, M. J.; Thygeson, P.; and Kimura, S.: Ocular Toxoplasmosis , Trans Amer Acad Ophthal 56:863, 1952. 15. Woods, A. C.; Jacobs, L.; Wood, R. M.; and Cook, M. K.: A Study of the Role of Toxoplasmosis in Adult Chorioretinitis , Amer J Ophthal 37:163, 1954. 16. Jacobs, L.; Fair, J. R.; and Bickerton, J. H.: Adult Ocular Toxoplasmosis , AMA Arch Ophthal 52:63, 1954.Crossref 17. Jacobs, L.: " Ocular Toxoplasmosis ," in Siim, J.: Human Toxoplasmosis, Proceedings of the Conference on Clinical Aspects and Diagnostic Problems of Toxoplasmosis in Pediatrics, 8th International Congress of Pediatrics, Copenhagen, 1956 , Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins Company, 1960. 18. Gladwin, T., and Sarason, S. B.: Truk: Man in Paradise , New York: Wenner-Gren Foundation, 1953, pp 26-34. 19. Jacobs, L.; Naquin, H.; Hoover, R.; and Woods, A. C.: A Comparison of the Toxoplasmin Skin Tests, the Sabin-Feldman Dye Tests, and the Complement Fixation Tests for Toxoplasmosis in Various Forms of Uveitis , Bull Hopkins Hosp 99:1, 1956. 20. Kaufman, H. E.: Uveitis Accompanied by a Positive Toxoplasma Dye Test , Arch Ophthal 63:767, 1960.Crossref 21. Jacobs, L., and Lunde, M. N.: A Hemagglutination Test for Toxoplasmosis , J Parasit 43:308, 1957.Crossref 22. Lunde, M. N., and Jacobs, L.: A Comparison of Results of Hemagglutination and Dye Tests for Toxoplasmosis in a Survey of Trinidad Natives , Amer J Trop Med Hyg 7:523, 1958. 23. Abstracted from outpatient records at the Eye Clinic on Moen. 24. Clark, W. B.; Bancroft, H.; Allen, J. H.; and Wang, Y. L.: Incidence of Clinical Defects in Two Rural Counties of Mississippi and a Rural Parish in Louisiana, paper written at the Department of Ophthalmology, Tulane University. 25. Crawford, H. E.: Personal communication to the author, Dec 16, 1961. 26. Zimmerman, L. E.: Personal communication to the author, May 18, 1962. 27. Leber, A.: Filariotische Augenerkrankungen der Südsee , Graefe Arch Ophthal 87:541, 1914.Crossref 28. Feldman, H. A., and Miller, L. T.: Serological Study of Toxoplasmosis Prevalence , Amer J Hyg 64:320, 1956. 29. Jacobs, L.; Melton, M. L.; and Cook, K.: Observations on Toxoplasmosis in Dogs , J Parasit 41:353, 1955.Crossref 30. Jacobs, L.: The Interrelation of Toxoplasmosis in Swine, Cattle, Dogs and Man , Public Health Rep 72:872, 1957.Crossref 31. Weinman, D., and Chandler, A. H.: `` Summary of Studies on the Epidemiology of Toxoplasmosis With Particular Reference to the Role of Swine ," in Siim, J.: Human Toxoplasmosis, Proceedings of the Conference on Clinical Aspects and Diagnostic Problems of Toxoplasmosis in Pediatrics, 8th International Congress of Pediatrics, Copenhagen, 1956 , Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins Company, 1960.

Journal

Archives of OphthalmologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Jan 1, 1964

References

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