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Cholinergic Innervation of the Guinea Pig Tympanic Membrane

Cholinergic Innervation of the Guinea Pig Tympanic Membrane Abstract • While cholinergic nerve fibers of the parasympathetic system have been demonstrated in the middle ear mucosa, such innervation of the tympanic membrane has never been shown. Such fibers may prove important since the tympanic membrane may be one of the initial sites of effusion production, and since parasympathetic innervation is thought to be involved with middle ear effusion. To demonstrate cholinergic innervation, we have used modified direct thiocholine histochemical staining. Anesthetized Hartley guinea pigs were killed, and the tympanic bullae were removed intact, fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde, and then stained whole. Following staining, the tympanic membrane was dissected from each bulla and whole-mounted for light microscopy. Numerous acetylcholinesterase-positive fibers were observed on the tympanic membrane. Some fibers appeared to be vessel associated, although the majority did not. This suggests that these fibers may act on the mucosa or vasculature of the tympanic membrane and contribute to the pathogenesis of middle ear effusion. (Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1992;118:265-268) References 1. Alm PE, Bloom GD, Hellstrom S, Stenfors L-E, Widemar L. Middle ear effusion caused by mechanical stimulation of the external auditory canal . Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) . 1983;96:91-98.Crossref 2. Hellstrom S, Salen B, Stenfors L-E. The site of initial production and transport of effusion materials in otitis media serosa . Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) . 1982;93:435-440.Crossref 3. Hellstrom S, Albin N, Goldie P, Salen B, Stenfors L-E. Pharmacological characterization of receptors on blood vessels in the tympanic membrane involved in otitis media . Auris Nasus Larynx . 1985;12( (suppl 1) ):S135-137.Crossref 4. Ishii T, Kaga K. Autonomic nervous system of the cat middle ear . Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol . 1976;85( (suppl 25) ):51-57. 5. Oyagi S, Ito J, Honjo I. The origin of autonomic nerves of the middle ear as studied by the horseradish peroxidase tracer method . Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) . 1987;104:463-467.Crossref 6. Goldie P, Hellstrom S. Autonomic nerves and middle ear fluid production: an experimental study in the rat . Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) . 1988;106:10-18.Crossref 7. Xie DH, Henson MM, Henson OW. Medial efferent terminals in the cochlea of the mustached bat: quantitative data. In: Abstracts of the Fourteenth Midwinter Meeting of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology, February 3-7, 1991, St Petersburg, Fla; 1991:17. 8. Karnovsky MJ, Roots L. A 'direct-coloring' thiocholine method for cholinesterases . J Histochem Cytochem . 1964;12:219-221.Crossref 9. Uddman R, Kitajiri M, Sundler F. Autonomic innervation of the middle ear . Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol . 1983;92:151-154. 10. Widemar L, Hellstrom S, Schultzberg M, Stenfors L-E. Autonomic innervation of the tympanic membrane: an immunocytochemical and histofluorescence study . Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) . 1985;100:58-65.Crossref 11. Tago H, Kimura H, Maeda T. Visualization of detailed acetylcholinesterase fiber and neuron staining by a sensitive histochemical procedure . J Histochem Cytochem . 1986;34:1431-1438.Crossref 12. Levey Al, Wainer BH, Mufson EJ, Mesulam M-M. Co-localization of acetylcholinesterase and choline acetyltransferase in the rat cerebrum . Neuroscience . 1983;9:9-22.Crossref 13. Satoh K, Armstrong DM, Fibiger C. A comparison of the distribution of central cholinergic neurons as demonstrated by acetylcholinesterase pharmacohistochemistry and choline acetyltransferase immunohistochemistry . Brain Res Bull . 1983;11:693-720.Crossref 14. Mesulam M-M, Guela C. Nucleus basalis (Ch4) and cortical cholinergic innervation in the human brain: observations based on the distribution of acetylcholinesterase and choline acetyltransferase . J Comp Neurol . 1988;275:216-240.Crossref 15. Albin N, Hellstrom S, Salen B, Stenfors L-E, Wirell S. The vascular supply of the rat tympanic membrane . Anat Rec . 1985;212:17-22.Crossref 16. Saini VK. Vascular pattern of the human tympanic membrane . Arch Otolaryngol . 1964;79:193-196.Crossref 17. Bell C, Burnstock G. Cholinergic vasomotor neuroeffector junctions . In: Bevan JA, Furchgott RF, Maxwell RA, Somlyo AP, eds. Physiology and Pharmacology of Vascular Neuroeffector Systems . Basel, Switzerland: Karger; 1971:37-46. 18. Lundberg JM, Hokfelt T, Schultzberg M, Unvas-Wallenstein K, Kohler C, Said SI. Occurrence of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)-like immunoreactivity in certain cholinergic neurons of the cat: evidence from combined immunohistochemistry and acetylcholinesterase staining . Neuroscience . 1979;4:1539-1559.Crossref 19. Lundberg JM, Anggard A, Fahrenkurg J, Hokfelt T, Mutt V. Vasoactive intestinal peptide in cholinergic neurons of exocrine glands: functional significance of coexisting transmitters for vasodilation and secretion . Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A . 1980;77:1651-1655.Crossref 20. Said SI, Mutt V. Polypeptide with broad biological activity: isolation from small intestine . Science (NY) . 1970;169:1217-1218.Crossref 21. Alm PE, Bloom GD, Hellstrom S, Stenfors L-E, Widemar L. Mast cells in the pars flaccida of the tympanic membrane: a quantitative morphological and biochemical study in the rat . Experientia . 1983;39:287-289.Crossref 22. Fantozzi R, Masini E, Blandina P, Mannaioni PF, Bani-Sacchi T. Release of histamine from rat mast cells by acetylcholine . Nature (Lond) . 1978;273:473-474.Crossref 23. Heymanns J, Behrendt H, Schmutzler W. Comparative studies of mast cells from normal (non-immunized) and actively sensitized dogs . Agents Actions . 1982;12:192-198.Crossref 24. Weisner-Menzel L, Schultz B, Vakilzadeh F, Czarnetzki BM. Electron microscopical evidence for a direct contact between nerve fibers and mast cells . Acta Dermatovener (Stockh) . 1981;61:465-469. 25. Newson B, Dahlstrom A, Enerback L, Ahlman H. Suggestive evidence for a direct innervation of mucosal mast cells . Neuroscience . 1983;10:565-570.Crossref 26. Boucher RC, Gatzy JT. Regional effects of autonomic agents on ion transport across excised canine airways . J Appl Physiol: Respirat Environ Exercise Physiol . 1982;52:893-900. 27. de Serres L, Van Scott MR, Prazma J, Pillsbury HC. Bioelectric properties of gerbil middle ear epithelia. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. In press. 28. Hamilton BH, Van Scott MR, Prazma J, Pillsbury HC. Ion transport in the tympanic membrane. In:. Abstracts of the Fourteenth Midwinter Meeting of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology, February 3-7, 1991, St Petersburg, Fla; 1991:119. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery American Medical Association

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1992 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0886-4470
eISSN
1538-361X
DOI
10.1001/archotol.1992.01880030047011
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract • While cholinergic nerve fibers of the parasympathetic system have been demonstrated in the middle ear mucosa, such innervation of the tympanic membrane has never been shown. Such fibers may prove important since the tympanic membrane may be one of the initial sites of effusion production, and since parasympathetic innervation is thought to be involved with middle ear effusion. To demonstrate cholinergic innervation, we have used modified direct thiocholine histochemical staining. Anesthetized Hartley guinea pigs were killed, and the tympanic bullae were removed intact, fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde, and then stained whole. Following staining, the tympanic membrane was dissected from each bulla and whole-mounted for light microscopy. Numerous acetylcholinesterase-positive fibers were observed on the tympanic membrane. Some fibers appeared to be vessel associated, although the majority did not. This suggests that these fibers may act on the mucosa or vasculature of the tympanic membrane and contribute to the pathogenesis of middle ear effusion. (Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1992;118:265-268) References 1. Alm PE, Bloom GD, Hellstrom S, Stenfors L-E, Widemar L. Middle ear effusion caused by mechanical stimulation of the external auditory canal . Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) . 1983;96:91-98.Crossref 2. Hellstrom S, Salen B, Stenfors L-E. The site of initial production and transport of effusion materials in otitis media serosa . Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) . 1982;93:435-440.Crossref 3. Hellstrom S, Albin N, Goldie P, Salen B, Stenfors L-E. Pharmacological characterization of receptors on blood vessels in the tympanic membrane involved in otitis media . Auris Nasus Larynx . 1985;12( (suppl 1) ):S135-137.Crossref 4. Ishii T, Kaga K. Autonomic nervous system of the cat middle ear . Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol . 1976;85( (suppl 25) ):51-57. 5. Oyagi S, Ito J, Honjo I. The origin of autonomic nerves of the middle ear as studied by the horseradish peroxidase tracer method . Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) . 1987;104:463-467.Crossref 6. Goldie P, Hellstrom S. Autonomic nerves and middle ear fluid production: an experimental study in the rat . Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) . 1988;106:10-18.Crossref 7. Xie DH, Henson MM, Henson OW. Medial efferent terminals in the cochlea of the mustached bat: quantitative data. In: Abstracts of the Fourteenth Midwinter Meeting of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology, February 3-7, 1991, St Petersburg, Fla; 1991:17. 8. Karnovsky MJ, Roots L. A 'direct-coloring' thiocholine method for cholinesterases . J Histochem Cytochem . 1964;12:219-221.Crossref 9. Uddman R, Kitajiri M, Sundler F. Autonomic innervation of the middle ear . Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol . 1983;92:151-154. 10. Widemar L, Hellstrom S, Schultzberg M, Stenfors L-E. Autonomic innervation of the tympanic membrane: an immunocytochemical and histofluorescence study . Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) . 1985;100:58-65.Crossref 11. Tago H, Kimura H, Maeda T. Visualization of detailed acetylcholinesterase fiber and neuron staining by a sensitive histochemical procedure . J Histochem Cytochem . 1986;34:1431-1438.Crossref 12. Levey Al, Wainer BH, Mufson EJ, Mesulam M-M. Co-localization of acetylcholinesterase and choline acetyltransferase in the rat cerebrum . Neuroscience . 1983;9:9-22.Crossref 13. Satoh K, Armstrong DM, Fibiger C. A comparison of the distribution of central cholinergic neurons as demonstrated by acetylcholinesterase pharmacohistochemistry and choline acetyltransferase immunohistochemistry . Brain Res Bull . 1983;11:693-720.Crossref 14. Mesulam M-M, Guela C. Nucleus basalis (Ch4) and cortical cholinergic innervation in the human brain: observations based on the distribution of acetylcholinesterase and choline acetyltransferase . J Comp Neurol . 1988;275:216-240.Crossref 15. Albin N, Hellstrom S, Salen B, Stenfors L-E, Wirell S. The vascular supply of the rat tympanic membrane . Anat Rec . 1985;212:17-22.Crossref 16. Saini VK. Vascular pattern of the human tympanic membrane . Arch Otolaryngol . 1964;79:193-196.Crossref 17. Bell C, Burnstock G. Cholinergic vasomotor neuroeffector junctions . In: Bevan JA, Furchgott RF, Maxwell RA, Somlyo AP, eds. Physiology and Pharmacology of Vascular Neuroeffector Systems . Basel, Switzerland: Karger; 1971:37-46. 18. Lundberg JM, Hokfelt T, Schultzberg M, Unvas-Wallenstein K, Kohler C, Said SI. Occurrence of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)-like immunoreactivity in certain cholinergic neurons of the cat: evidence from combined immunohistochemistry and acetylcholinesterase staining . Neuroscience . 1979;4:1539-1559.Crossref 19. Lundberg JM, Anggard A, Fahrenkurg J, Hokfelt T, Mutt V. Vasoactive intestinal peptide in cholinergic neurons of exocrine glands: functional significance of coexisting transmitters for vasodilation and secretion . Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A . 1980;77:1651-1655.Crossref 20. Said SI, Mutt V. Polypeptide with broad biological activity: isolation from small intestine . Science (NY) . 1970;169:1217-1218.Crossref 21. Alm PE, Bloom GD, Hellstrom S, Stenfors L-E, Widemar L. Mast cells in the pars flaccida of the tympanic membrane: a quantitative morphological and biochemical study in the rat . Experientia . 1983;39:287-289.Crossref 22. Fantozzi R, Masini E, Blandina P, Mannaioni PF, Bani-Sacchi T. Release of histamine from rat mast cells by acetylcholine . Nature (Lond) . 1978;273:473-474.Crossref 23. Heymanns J, Behrendt H, Schmutzler W. Comparative studies of mast cells from normal (non-immunized) and actively sensitized dogs . Agents Actions . 1982;12:192-198.Crossref 24. Weisner-Menzel L, Schultz B, Vakilzadeh F, Czarnetzki BM. Electron microscopical evidence for a direct contact between nerve fibers and mast cells . Acta Dermatovener (Stockh) . 1981;61:465-469. 25. Newson B, Dahlstrom A, Enerback L, Ahlman H. Suggestive evidence for a direct innervation of mucosal mast cells . Neuroscience . 1983;10:565-570.Crossref 26. Boucher RC, Gatzy JT. Regional effects of autonomic agents on ion transport across excised canine airways . J Appl Physiol: Respirat Environ Exercise Physiol . 1982;52:893-900. 27. de Serres L, Van Scott MR, Prazma J, Pillsbury HC. Bioelectric properties of gerbil middle ear epithelia. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. In press. 28. Hamilton BH, Van Scott MR, Prazma J, Pillsbury HC. Ion transport in the tympanic membrane. In:. Abstracts of the Fourteenth Midwinter Meeting of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology, February 3-7, 1991, St Petersburg, Fla; 1991:119.

Journal

Archives of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck SurgeryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Mar 1, 1992

References

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