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Chemical and Electrical Stimulation of Hippocampus in Unrestrained Animals: I. Methods and Electroencephalographic Findings

Chemical and Electrical Stimulation of Hippocampus in Unrestrained Animals: I. Methods and... Abstract In recent years there has been increasing interest in the role of the phylogenetically old cortex in viscerosomatic and emotional functions and in psychomotor epilepsy. The phylogenetically old cortex comprises the so-called archicortex and mesocortex. The archicortex and the greater part of the mesocortex are contained in the limbic lobe, which is found as a common denominator in the brains of all mammals. The "old" cortex and its associated nuclei constitute a functionally integrated system, which may be appropriately referred to as the limbic system.36 Most of the archicortex is folded into the large cerebral convolution known as the hippocampus, or cornu ammonis. In addition to its cytoarchitecture, the hippocampus is distinguished from the rest of the brain by its peculiar, primitive end-arterial type of blood supply. It also possesses quite distinctive bioelectrical and biochemical properties (see MacLean38,39 for review and references). Clinical, anatomical, and physiological observations have References 1. The use of local chemical stimulation of the brain to induce behavioral changes has an extensive history. As long ago as 1887, Landois demonstrated that the application of creatine and other substances to the frontal cortex of one side evoked convulsive movements of the opposite side of the body.28 Since then, a wide variety of chemicals, including calcium-precipitating salts, convulsants, and choline derivatives, have been used for the purpose of stimulation. Masserman employed a method that allowed the comparison of the effects of electrical and chemical stimulation of the same locus in the brain.43 2. In the strict sense, the terms cholinergic and adrenergic apply only to classes of nerves. As Goodman and Gilman point out, however, it has become common practice to use them for other adjectival purposes.18 3. E. I. du Pont deNemours & Co., Inc., supplied this paint, which has the code number 828-014. 4. This question bears on a number of fundamental neurological problems, such as the variation in the excitability and seizure threshold of various cortical areas, the failure to elicit responses from so-called silent areas, etc. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png A.M.A. Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry American Medical Association

Chemical and Electrical Stimulation of Hippocampus in Unrestrained Animals: I. Methods and Electroencephalographic Findings

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1957 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0096-6886
DOI
10.1001/archneurpsyc.1957.02330380003001
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract In recent years there has been increasing interest in the role of the phylogenetically old cortex in viscerosomatic and emotional functions and in psychomotor epilepsy. The phylogenetically old cortex comprises the so-called archicortex and mesocortex. The archicortex and the greater part of the mesocortex are contained in the limbic lobe, which is found as a common denominator in the brains of all mammals. The "old" cortex and its associated nuclei constitute a functionally integrated system, which may be appropriately referred to as the limbic system.36 Most of the archicortex is folded into the large cerebral convolution known as the hippocampus, or cornu ammonis. In addition to its cytoarchitecture, the hippocampus is distinguished from the rest of the brain by its peculiar, primitive end-arterial type of blood supply. It also possesses quite distinctive bioelectrical and biochemical properties (see MacLean38,39 for review and references). Clinical, anatomical, and physiological observations have References 1. The use of local chemical stimulation of the brain to induce behavioral changes has an extensive history. As long ago as 1887, Landois demonstrated that the application of creatine and other substances to the frontal cortex of one side evoked convulsive movements of the opposite side of the body.28 Since then, a wide variety of chemicals, including calcium-precipitating salts, convulsants, and choline derivatives, have been used for the purpose of stimulation. Masserman employed a method that allowed the comparison of the effects of electrical and chemical stimulation of the same locus in the brain.43 2. In the strict sense, the terms cholinergic and adrenergic apply only to classes of nerves. As Goodman and Gilman point out, however, it has become common practice to use them for other adjectival purposes.18 3. E. I. du Pont deNemours & Co., Inc., supplied this paint, which has the code number 828-014. 4. This question bears on a number of fundamental neurological problems, such as the variation in the excitability and seizure threshold of various cortical areas, the failure to elicit responses from so-called silent areas, etc.

Journal

A.M.A. Archives of Neurology & PsychiatryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Aug 1, 1957

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