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Changes of the Permeability of Round Window Membrane in Otitis Media

Changes of the Permeability of Round Window Membrane in Otitis Media Abstract • The effects of endotoxin, exotoxin, and otitis media on the permeability of the round window membrane (RWM) in chinchillas was investigated by detecting tetraethylammonium chloride, applied to the RWM, using a potassium-selective microelectrode in the scala tympani. The RWM, 48 hours following the application of endotoxin or exotoxin, became significantly more permeable to tetraethylammonium chloride than the normal RWM. Two weeks after the obstruction of the eustachian tube, the permeability of the RWM was decreased. These results suggest that bacterial toxins and the consequential migration of chemical inflammatory mediators act as promotive factors of RWM permeability, and that a pathologic thickness of the RWM and the presence of effusion induced by the obstruction of the eustachian tube acts as an inhibitory factor. In the clinical role of RWM permeability in human otitis media, these two factors must be taken into consideration. (Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1988;114:895-897) References 1. Paparella MM, Morizono T, Le CT, et al: Sensorineural hearing loss in otitis media . Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1984;93:623-629. 2. Hamaguchi Y, Morizono T, Juhn SK: Round window membrane permeability to human serum albumin in antigen-induced otitis media . Am J Otolaryngol 1988;8:34-40.Crossref 3. Morizono T, Hamaguchi Y, Junh SK: Sensorineural hearing loss in antigen-induced otitis media . Acta Otolaryngol , in press. 4. Smith BM, Meyers MG: The penetration of gentamicin and neomycin into perilymph across the round window membrane . Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1979;87:888-891. 5. Goycoolea MV, Paparella MM, Goldberg B, et al: Permeability of the middle ear to staphylococcal pyogenic exotoxin in otitis media . Int J Pediatr Otolaryngol 1980;1:301-308.Crossref 6. Goycoolea MV, Paparella MM, Goldberg B, et al: Permeability of the round window membrane in otitis media . Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1980;106:430-433.Crossref 7. Tanaka K, Motomura S: Permeability of the labyrinthine windows in guinea pigs . Arch Otorhinolaryngol 1981;233:67-75.Crossref 8. Goldberg B, Goycoolea MV, Schleivert PM, et al: Passage of albumin from the middle ear to the inner ear in otitis media in the chinchilla . Am J Otolaryngol 1981;2:211-214.Crossref 9. Schachern PA, Paparella MM, Goycoolea MV, et al: The round window membrane following application of staphylococcal exotoxin: An electron microscopic study . Laryngoscope 1981; 233:67-75. 10. Morizono T, Sikora M: Compound action potential input-output decruitment: Effect of topically applied antiseptics . Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1983;109:677-681.Crossref 11. Okuno T, Nomura Y: Permeability of the round window membrane . Arch Otorhinolaryngol 1984;240:103-106. 12. Saijo S, Kimura RS: Distribution of HRP in the inner ear after injection into middle ear cavity . Acta Otolaryngol 1984;97:593-610.Crossref 13. Schachern PA, Paparella MM, Goycoolea MV, et al: The permeability of the round window membrane during otitis media . Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1987;113:625-629.Crossref 14. Salt AN, Thalmann R, Marcus DC, et al: Direct measurement of longitudinal endolymph flow rate in the guinea pig cochlea . Hear Res 1986;23:141-151.Crossref 15. Sykova E, Syka J, Johnstone BM, et al: Longitudinal flow of endolymph measured by distribution of tetraethylammonium and choline in scala media . Hear Res 1987;28:161-171.Crossref 16. Morizono T, Hoehmann D: Oxygen concentration in the inner ear fluids with otitis media . Proceedings of the Internal Conference on Acute and Secretory Otitis Media . Amsterdam, Kugler Publications, 1987, (pt 2) , pp 99-105. 17. Ikeda K, Kusakari J, Takasaka T, et al: The Ca2+ activity of cochlear endolymph of the guinea pig and the effect of inhibitors . Hear Res 1987;26:117-125.Crossref 18. Ikeda K, Kusakari J, Takasaka T: The effect of the cationic composition in perilymph upon the N1, latency of the guinea pig . Acta Otolaryngol 1987;103:43-49.Crossref 19. Ikeda K, Kusakari J, Kobayashi T, et al: The effect of vitamin D deficiency on the cochlear potentials and the perilymphatic ionized calcium concentration of rats . Acta Otolaryngol 1987;435( (suppl 435) ):64-72.Crossref 20. Ikeda K, Kusakari J, Takasaka T, et al: Early effects of acetazolamide on anionic activities of the guinea pig endolymph: Evidence for active function of carbonic anhydrase in the cochlea . Hear Res , in press. 21. Ikeda K, Kusakari J, Takasaka T: Ionic changes in cochlear endolymph of the guinea pig induced by acoustic injury . Hear Res 1988;32:103-110.Crossref 22. Ikeda K, Kusakari J, Takasaka T, et al: Effects of nitrogen mustard-N-oxide on ionic activities of inner ear fluid and ionic permeabilities of the cochlear partition in the guinea pig . Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol , in press. 23. Crank J: The Mathematics of Diffusion . Oxford, England, Clarendon Press, 1975, pp 42-98. 24. Nakai Y, Morimoto A, Chang K-C, et al: Inner ear damage induced by bacterial endotoxin . Arch Otorhinolaryngol 1980;229:209-220.Crossref 25. Iino Y, Yuasa R, Kaneko Y, et al: Endotoxin in middle ear effusions tested with Limulus assay . Acta Otolaryngol 1985;100:42-50.Crossref 26. Nonomura N, Nakano Y, Satoh Y, et al: Otitis media with effusion following inoculation of Haemophilus influenzae type b endotoxin . Arch Otorhinolaryngol 1986;243:31-35.Crossref 27. Nonomura N, Nakano Y, Fujioka O, et al: Experimentally induced otitis media with effusion following inoculation with outer cell wall of nontypable Haemophilus influenzae . Arch Otorhinolaryngol 1987;244:253-257.Crossref 28. Ohashi Y, Nakai Y, Ikeoka H, et al: Effects of bacterial endotoxin on the ciliary activity in the in vitro eustachian tube . Arch Otorhinolaryngol 1987;244:88-90.Crossref 29. Jeljaszewicz J, Wadström T: Bacterial Toxins and Cell Membranes . Orlando, Fla, Academic Press Inc, 1978. 30. Hinshaw LB, Vick JA, Jordan MM, et al: Vascular changes associated with development of irreversible endotoxin shock . Am J Physiol 1962; 202:103-110. 31. Anderson FL, Jubiz W, Tsagaris T, et al: Endotoxin-induced prostaglandin E and F release in dogs . Am J Physiol 1975;228:410-414. 32. Nowotny A: In search of the active sites in endotoxins , in Nowotny A (ed): Beneficial Effects of Endotoxins . New York, Plenum Press, 1983, pp 1-55. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery American Medical Association

Changes of the Permeability of Round Window Membrane in Otitis Media

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1988 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0886-4470
eISSN
1538-361X
DOI
10.1001/archotol.1988.01860200079023
Publisher site
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Abstract

Abstract • The effects of endotoxin, exotoxin, and otitis media on the permeability of the round window membrane (RWM) in chinchillas was investigated by detecting tetraethylammonium chloride, applied to the RWM, using a potassium-selective microelectrode in the scala tympani. The RWM, 48 hours following the application of endotoxin or exotoxin, became significantly more permeable to tetraethylammonium chloride than the normal RWM. Two weeks after the obstruction of the eustachian tube, the permeability of the RWM was decreased. These results suggest that bacterial toxins and the consequential migration of chemical inflammatory mediators act as promotive factors of RWM permeability, and that a pathologic thickness of the RWM and the presence of effusion induced by the obstruction of the eustachian tube acts as an inhibitory factor. In the clinical role of RWM permeability in human otitis media, these two factors must be taken into consideration. (Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1988;114:895-897) References 1. Paparella MM, Morizono T, Le CT, et al: Sensorineural hearing loss in otitis media . Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1984;93:623-629. 2. Hamaguchi Y, Morizono T, Juhn SK: Round window membrane permeability to human serum albumin in antigen-induced otitis media . Am J Otolaryngol 1988;8:34-40.Crossref 3. Morizono T, Hamaguchi Y, Junh SK: Sensorineural hearing loss in antigen-induced otitis media . Acta Otolaryngol , in press. 4. Smith BM, Meyers MG: The penetration of gentamicin and neomycin into perilymph across the round window membrane . Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1979;87:888-891. 5. Goycoolea MV, Paparella MM, Goldberg B, et al: Permeability of the middle ear to staphylococcal pyogenic exotoxin in otitis media . Int J Pediatr Otolaryngol 1980;1:301-308.Crossref 6. Goycoolea MV, Paparella MM, Goldberg B, et al: Permeability of the round window membrane in otitis media . Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1980;106:430-433.Crossref 7. Tanaka K, Motomura S: Permeability of the labyrinthine windows in guinea pigs . Arch Otorhinolaryngol 1981;233:67-75.Crossref 8. Goldberg B, Goycoolea MV, Schleivert PM, et al: Passage of albumin from the middle ear to the inner ear in otitis media in the chinchilla . Am J Otolaryngol 1981;2:211-214.Crossref 9. Schachern PA, Paparella MM, Goycoolea MV, et al: The round window membrane following application of staphylococcal exotoxin: An electron microscopic study . Laryngoscope 1981; 233:67-75. 10. Morizono T, Sikora M: Compound action potential input-output decruitment: Effect of topically applied antiseptics . Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1983;109:677-681.Crossref 11. Okuno T, Nomura Y: Permeability of the round window membrane . Arch Otorhinolaryngol 1984;240:103-106. 12. Saijo S, Kimura RS: Distribution of HRP in the inner ear after injection into middle ear cavity . Acta Otolaryngol 1984;97:593-610.Crossref 13. Schachern PA, Paparella MM, Goycoolea MV, et al: The permeability of the round window membrane during otitis media . Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1987;113:625-629.Crossref 14. Salt AN, Thalmann R, Marcus DC, et al: Direct measurement of longitudinal endolymph flow rate in the guinea pig cochlea . Hear Res 1986;23:141-151.Crossref 15. Sykova E, Syka J, Johnstone BM, et al: Longitudinal flow of endolymph measured by distribution of tetraethylammonium and choline in scala media . Hear Res 1987;28:161-171.Crossref 16. Morizono T, Hoehmann D: Oxygen concentration in the inner ear fluids with otitis media . Proceedings of the Internal Conference on Acute and Secretory Otitis Media . Amsterdam, Kugler Publications, 1987, (pt 2) , pp 99-105. 17. Ikeda K, Kusakari J, Takasaka T, et al: The Ca2+ activity of cochlear endolymph of the guinea pig and the effect of inhibitors . Hear Res 1987;26:117-125.Crossref 18. Ikeda K, Kusakari J, Takasaka T: The effect of the cationic composition in perilymph upon the N1, latency of the guinea pig . Acta Otolaryngol 1987;103:43-49.Crossref 19. Ikeda K, Kusakari J, Kobayashi T, et al: The effect of vitamin D deficiency on the cochlear potentials and the perilymphatic ionized calcium concentration of rats . Acta Otolaryngol 1987;435( (suppl 435) ):64-72.Crossref 20. Ikeda K, Kusakari J, Takasaka T, et al: Early effects of acetazolamide on anionic activities of the guinea pig endolymph: Evidence for active function of carbonic anhydrase in the cochlea . Hear Res , in press. 21. Ikeda K, Kusakari J, Takasaka T: Ionic changes in cochlear endolymph of the guinea pig induced by acoustic injury . Hear Res 1988;32:103-110.Crossref 22. Ikeda K, Kusakari J, Takasaka T, et al: Effects of nitrogen mustard-N-oxide on ionic activities of inner ear fluid and ionic permeabilities of the cochlear partition in the guinea pig . Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol , in press. 23. Crank J: The Mathematics of Diffusion . Oxford, England, Clarendon Press, 1975, pp 42-98. 24. Nakai Y, Morimoto A, Chang K-C, et al: Inner ear damage induced by bacterial endotoxin . Arch Otorhinolaryngol 1980;229:209-220.Crossref 25. Iino Y, Yuasa R, Kaneko Y, et al: Endotoxin in middle ear effusions tested with Limulus assay . Acta Otolaryngol 1985;100:42-50.Crossref 26. Nonomura N, Nakano Y, Satoh Y, et al: Otitis media with effusion following inoculation of Haemophilus influenzae type b endotoxin . Arch Otorhinolaryngol 1986;243:31-35.Crossref 27. Nonomura N, Nakano Y, Fujioka O, et al: Experimentally induced otitis media with effusion following inoculation with outer cell wall of nontypable Haemophilus influenzae . Arch Otorhinolaryngol 1987;244:253-257.Crossref 28. Ohashi Y, Nakai Y, Ikeoka H, et al: Effects of bacterial endotoxin on the ciliary activity in the in vitro eustachian tube . Arch Otorhinolaryngol 1987;244:88-90.Crossref 29. Jeljaszewicz J, Wadström T: Bacterial Toxins and Cell Membranes . Orlando, Fla, Academic Press Inc, 1978. 30. Hinshaw LB, Vick JA, Jordan MM, et al: Vascular changes associated with development of irreversible endotoxin shock . Am J Physiol 1962; 202:103-110. 31. Anderson FL, Jubiz W, Tsagaris T, et al: Endotoxin-induced prostaglandin E and F release in dogs . Am J Physiol 1975;228:410-414. 32. Nowotny A: In search of the active sites in endotoxins , in Nowotny A (ed): Beneficial Effects of Endotoxins . New York, Plenum Press, 1983, pp 1-55.

Journal

Archives of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck SurgeryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Aug 1, 1988

References