Abstract The most important immediate source of energy in cardiac muscle is that imparted from phosphate bonds. Previous studies using human myocardium indicated that a number of nucleotides may provide this chemical reservoir of energy and that the adenosine nucleotides represent the greatest contribution.7 Changes in these compounds (adenosine monophosphate [AMP], adenosine diphosphate [ADP], and adenosine triphosphate [ATP]) have been followed in the canine myocardium during induced cardiac arrest, with special attention being given to the recovery phase following arrest. Method The heart of one animal was isolated and perfused by connecting it to the circulatory system of another animal, passing blood from the right femoral artery to the brachiocephalic artery of the isolated heart and returning it to the left femoral vein.15 Heparin was used to prevent clotting, coronary flow was maintained at 5 ml. per kilogram body weight per minute, and temperature was carefully controlled by means References 1. All values represent the mean of 5 determinations expressed as M × 10-4 per gram of dry weight. 2. Berne, R. M.; Jones, R. D., and Cross, L. F. S.: Myocardial Hypothermia in Elective Cardiac Arrest , J. Appi. Physiol. 12:431, 1958. 3. Bigelow, W. G.; Lindsay, W. K.; Harrison, R. C.; Gordon, R. A., and Greenwood, W. F.: Oxygen Transport and Utilization in Dogs at Low Body Temperatures , Amer. J. Physiol. 160:125, 1950. 4. Botts, J.: Triggering of Contraction in Skeletal Muscle , in Physiological Triggers and Discontinuous Rate Processes , Edited by T. H. Bullock, Washington, D.C., American Physiological Society, 1957, p. 85. 5. Buckley, N. M.; Tsuboi, K. K., and Zeig, N. J.: Inotropic Effects of Purines and Pyrimidines on the Isolated Heart , Circulat. Res. 9:242, 1961.Crossref 6. Burdette, W. J.: Discussion , Ann. Surg. 142: 459, 1955. 7. Burdette, W. J.: Adenosine Nucleotide Levels in Cardiac Arrest , Amer. Heart J. 52:193, 1956.Crossref 8. Burdette, W. J.: Nucleotide Levels in Human Cardiac Muscle , Amer. Heart J. 54:746, 1957.Crossref 9. Clouss, G. H. A., Jr.; Neville, W. E.; Saliga, G., and Shibota, Y.: Relationship to Oxygen Consumption, Perfusion Rate, and Temperature to the Acidosis Associated with Cardiopulmonary Circulatory Bypass , Surgery 44:220, 1958. 10. Depocas, F.: Biochemical Changes in Exposure and Acclimation to Cold Environments , Brit. Med. Bull. 17:25, 1961. 11. Gollan, F., and Nelson, I. A.: Anoxia Tolerance of Beating and Resting Heart During Perfusion at Various Temperatures , Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 95:485, 1957.Crossref 12. Goodall, M. C., and Szent-Györgyi, A. G.: Relaxing Factors in Muscle , Nature 172:84, 1953.Crossref 13. Gott, V. L.; Bartlett, M.; Johnson, J. A.; Long, D. M., and Lillehei, C. W.: High Energy Phosphate Levels in the Human Heart During Potassium Citrate Arrest and Selective Hypothermic Arrest , Surg. Forum 10:544, 1960. 14. Hall, D. P.; Singla, S. A.; Moretz, W. H.; Brackney, E. L.; Butler, W. F.; Maloy, W. C.; Bernstein, V., and Ellison, R. G.: Myocardial Metabolism Determined by Biochemical Analysis of Multiple Cardiac Biopsies , Surg. Forum 10:540, 1960. 15. Hurlbert, R. B.; Schmitz, H.; Brumm, A. F., and Potter, V. R.: Nucleotide Metabolism: II. Chromatographic Separation of Acid-Soluble Nucleotides , J. Biol. Chem. 209:23, 1954. 16. Jessoph, J. E.; Herron, P. W.; Winterscheid, L. C.; Vetto, R. R., and Merendino, K. A.: Studies in Carbohydrate Metabolism of the Isolated Dog Heart While Beating and During Induced Arrest , in Extracorporeal Circulation , edited by J. G. Allen, Springfield, Ill., Charles C Thomas, Publisher, 1959. 17. Kaltenback, J. P., and Jennings, R. B.: Metabolism of Ischemic Cardiac Muscle , Circulat. Res. 8:207, 1960.Crossref 18. Melrose, D. G.; Dreyer, B.; Bentall, H. H., and Baker, J. B. E.: Elective Cardiac Arrest , Lancet 2:21, 1955.Crossref 19. Mommaerts, W. F. H. M.: Contractile Protein System of Heart Muscle , Mod. Conc. Cardiov. Dis. 29:581, 1960. 20. Mommaerts, W. F. H. M.: Muscular Contraction, a Topic in Molecular Physiology , New York, Interscience Publishers, Inc., 1950. 21. Morales, M. F.; Botts, J.; Blum, J. J., and Hill, T. J.: Elementary Processes in Muscle Action: Examination of Current Concepts , Physiol. Rev. 35:475, 1955.
Archives of Surgery – American Medical Association
Published: Jul 1, 1962