Get 20M+ Full-Text Papers For Less Than $1.50/day. Start a 14-Day Trial for You or Your Team.

Learn More →

Cerebral Lateralization: Biological Mechanisms, Associations, and Pathology: I. A Hypothesis and a Program for Research

Cerebral Lateralization: Biological Mechanisms, Associations, and Pathology: I. A Hypothesis and... Abstract We present a set of hypotheses about the biologic mechanisms of lateralization, ie, the processes which lead to an asymmetrical nervous system. It would have been difficult even 20 years ago to formulate such a theory in the face of the prevalent belief that cerebral dominance lacked an anatomic correlate. It is proposed that cerebral dominance is based in most instances on asymmetries of structure. Although genetic factors are important we will lay stress on sever See also pp 427 and 500. al factors that, in the course of development, both prenatal and postnatal, modify the direction and extent of these structural differences. Special attention will be directed to the intrauterine environment as a determinant of the pattern of asymmetries, and in particular sex hormones, eg, testosterone or related factors. We will discuss the associations of anomalous cerebral dominance which include not only developmental disorders such as dyslexia and certain References 1. Geschwind N, Levitsky W: Human brain: Left-right asymmetries in temporal speech region . Science 1968;161:186-187.Crossref 2. LeMay M, Culebras A: Human brain: Morphologic differences in the hemispheres demonstrable by carotid arteriography . N Engl J Med 1972;287:168-170.Crossref 3. Galaburda AM, LeMay M, Kemper TL, et al: Right-left asymmetries in the brain . Science 1978;199:852-856.Crossref 4. Galaburda AM, Sanides F, Geschwind N: Human brain: Cytoarchitectonic left-right asymmetries in the temporal speech region . Arch Neurol 1978;35:812-817.Crossref 5. Wada JA, Clarke R, Hamm A: Cerebral hemispheric asymmetry in humans . Arch Neurol 1975;32:239-246.Crossref 6. Witelson SF, Pallie W: Left hemisphere specialization for language in the newborn: Neuroanatomical evidence of asymmetry . Brain 1973;96:641-646.Crossref 7. Chi JG, Dooling EC, Gilles FH: Left-right asymmetries of the temporal speech areas of the human fetus . Arch Neurol 1977;34:346-348.Crossref 8. Oldfield RC: The assessment and analysis of handedness: The Edinburgh Inventory . Neuropsychologia 1971;9:97-113.Crossref 9. Maccoby EM, Jacklin CN: The Psychology of Sex Differences . Stanford, Calif, Stanford University Press, 1974. 10. Wittig MA, Petersen AC (eds): Sex-related Differences in Cognitive Function . New York, Academic Press Inc, 1979. 11. Benbow CP, Stanley JC: Sex differences in mathematical ability: Fact or artifact? Science 1980;210:1262-1264.Crossref 12. Taylor DC: The influence of sexual differentiation on growth, development, and disease , in Davis JA, Dobbing J (eds): Scientific Foundations of Paediatrics . Philadelphia, WB Saunders Co, 1974, pp 29-44. 13. Hecaen H: Les Gauchers . Paris, Presses Universitaires de France, 1984. 14. Geschwind N, Behan P: Left-handedness: Association with immune disease, migraine, and developmental learning disorder . Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1982;79:5097-5100.Crossref 15. Geschwind N, Behan PO: Laterality, hormones, and immunity , in Geschwind N, Galaburda AM (eds): Cerebral Dominance: The Biological Foundations . Cambridge, Mass, Harvard University Press, 1984, pp 211-224. 16. Galaburda AM, Kemper TL: Cytoarchitectonic abnormalities in developmental dyslexia: A case study . Ann Neurol 1979;6:94-100.Crossref 17. Galaburda AM: Developmental dyslexia: Current anatomical research . Ann Dyslexia 1983; 33:41-53.Crossref 18. Kemper TL: Asymmetrical lesions in dyslexia , in Geschwind N, Galaburda AM (eds): Cerebral Dominance: The Biological Foundations . Cambridge, Mass, Harvard University Press, 1984, pp 75-89. 19. Taylor DC: Differential rates of cerebral maturation between sexes and between hemispheres . Lancet 1969;2:140-142.Crossref 20. Fontes V: Morfologia do Cortex Cerebral (Desenvolvimento) . Lisbon, Instituto Antonio Aurelio da Costa Ferreira, 1944. 21. Scheibel AM: A dendritic correlate of human speech , in Geschwind N, Galaburda AM (eds): Cerebral Dominance: The Biological Foundations . Cambridge, Mass, Harvard University Press, 1984, pp 43-52. 22. Hamburger V, Oppenheim RW: Naturally occurring neuronal death in vertebrates . Neurosci Commentaries 1982;1:39-55. 23. Goldman PS: Neuronal plasticity in primate telencephalon: Anomalous projections induced by prenatal removal of frontal cortex . Science 1978;202:768-770.Crossref 24. Goldman-Rakic P, Rakic P: Experimental modification of gyral patterns , in Geschwind N, Galaburda AM (eds): Cerebral Dominance: The Biological Foundations . Cambridge, Mass, Harvard University Press, 1984, pp 179-192. 25. Dorner G: Sexual differentiation of the brain . Vitam Harm 1980;38:325-381. 26. Gorski RA, Harlan RE, Jacobson CD, et al: Evidence for the existence of a sexually dimorphic nucleus in the preoptic area of the rat . J Comp Neurol 1980;193:529-539.Crossref 27. Pfaff DW: Morphological changes in the brains of adult male rats after neonatal castration . J Endocrinol 1966;36:415-416.Crossref 28. Raisman G, Field PM: Sexual dimorphism in the neuropil of the preoptic area of the rat and its dependence on neonatal androgen . Brain Res 1973;54:1-29.Crossref 29. MacLusky NJ, Naftolin F: Sexual differentiation of the central nervous system . Science 1981;211:1294-1303.Crossref 30. McEwen BS: Neural gonadal steroid actions . Science 1981;211:1303-1311.Crossref 31. Netley C: Dichotic listening of callosal agenesis and Turner's syndrome patients , in Segalowitz SJ, Gruber FA (eds): Language Development and Neurological Theory . New York, Academic Press Inc, 1977. 32. Hier D, Crowley WF Jr: Spatial ability in androgen-deficient men . N Engl J Med 1982; 306:1202-1205.Crossref 33. Annett M: Genetic and non-genetic differences on handedness . Behav Genet 1978;8:227-249.Crossref 34. Corballis MC, Morgan MJ: On the biological basis of human laterality . Behav Brain Sci 1978;2:261-336.Crossref 35. Boklage CE: On the distribution of non-righthandedness among twins and their families . Acta Genet Med Gemellol 1981;30:167-187. 36. Nottebohm F, Nottebohm M: Left hypoglossal dominance in the control of canary and white-crowned sparrow song . J Comp Physiol 1976;108:171-192.Crossref 37. Sherman GF, Garbanati JA, Rosen GD, et al: Brain and behavioral asymmetries for spatial preference in rats . Brain Res 1980;192:61-67.Crossref 38. Diamond MC, Dowling GA, Johnson RE: Morphological cerebral cortical asymmetry in male and female rats . Exp Neurol 1981;71:261-268.Crossref 39. Serafetinides EA: The significance of the temporal lobes and of hemispheric dominance in the production of LSD-25 symptomatology in man . Neuropsychologia 1965;3:69-79.Crossref 40. Glick SD, Meibach RC, Cox RD, et al: Multiple and interrelated functional asymmetries in rat brain . Life Sci 1979;25:395-400.Crossref 41. Holloway RJ, de Lacoste C: Brain endocast asymmetry in pongids and hominids: The paleontology of cerebral hemisphere dominance . Am J Phys Anthropol 1982;58:101-110.Crossref 42. Kolata G: Math genius may have hormonal basis . Science 1983;222:1312.Crossref 43. Tisserand M: Dominance laterale et becde-lievre . Arch Fr Pediatr 1944;2:166-167. 44. Gordon HW: Cognitive asymmetry in dyslexic families . Neuropsychologia 1980;18:645-656.Crossref 45. Gordon HW: Learning disabled are cognitively right , in Kinsbourne M (ed): Topics in Learning Disabilities . Gaithersburg, Md, Aspen Systems, 1983, vol 3, pp 29-39. 46. Peterson JM, Lansky LM: Left-handedness among architects: Some facts and speculation . Percept Mot Skills 1974;38:547-550.Crossref 47. Broca P: Remarques sur le siege de la faculte du langage articule, suivies d'une observation d'aphemie . Bull Soc Anat 1861;6:398-407. 48. Goodglass H, Quadfasel FA: Language laterality in left-handed aphasics . Brain 1954; 77:521-548.Crossref 49. Zangwill O: Cerebral Dominance and Its Relation to Psychological Function . Springfield, Ill, Charles C Thomas, Publisher 1960. 50. Gloning I, Gloning K, Haub G, et al: Comparison of verbal behavior in right-handed and nonright-handed patients with anatomically verified lesion of one hemisphere . Cortex 1969;5: 43-52.Crossref 51. Satz P: Incidence of aphasia in lefthanders: A test of some hypothetical models of cerebral speech organization , in Herron J (ed): Neuropsychology of Lefthandedness . New York, Academic Press Inc, 1980, pp 189-198. 52. Milner B: Hemispheric specialization: Scope and limits , in Schmitt FO, Worden FG (eds): The Neurosciences: Third Study Program . Boston, MIT Press, 1973, pp 75-89. 53. Benton AL: Visuoperceptive, visuospatial, and visuoconstructive disorders , in Heilman K, Valenstein E (eds): Clinical Neuropsychology . New York, Oxford University Press, 1979, pp 186-223. 54. Levy J: Psychobiological implications of bilateral asymmetry , in Dimond SJ, Beaumont JG (eds): Hemisphere Function in the Human Brain . London, P Elek, 1974, pp 121-183. 55. Larrabee AP: The optic chiasm of teleosts: A study of inheritance . Proc Am Acad Arts Sci 1906;12:217-231.Crossref 56. Kappers CVA, Huber GC, Crosby EC: The Comparative Anatomy of the Nervous System of Vertebrates Including Man . New York, Macmillan Publishing Co Inc, 1936, vol 2, pp 874-876. 57. LeMay M, Geschwind N: Hemispheric differences in the brains of great apes . Brain Behav Evol 1975;11:48-52.Crossref 58. Kemali M, Guilielmotti V, Gioffre D: Neuroanatomical identification of the frog habenular connections using peroxidase (HRP) . Exp Brain Res 1980;38:341-347.Crossref 59. Diamond MC: Age, sex, and environmental influences , in Geschwind N, Galaburda AM (eds): Cerebral Dominance: The Biological Foundations . Cambridge, Mass, Harvard University Press, 1984, chap 9, pp 134-146. 60. Glick SD, Jerussi TP, Fleisher LN: Turning in circles: The neuropharmacology of rotation . Life Sci 1976;18:889-896.Crossref 61. Penfield W, Roberts L: Speech and Brain Mechanisms . Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press, 1959. 62. Ojemann GA, Ward AA: Speech representation in ventrolateral thalamus . Brain 1971; 94:669-680.Crossref 63. Ciemins VA: Localized thalamic hemorrhage: A cause of aphasia . Neurology 1970; 20:776-782.Crossref 64. Naeser M, Alexander MA, Helm-Estabrooks N, et al: Aphasia with predominantly subcortical lesion sites . Arch Neurol 1982; 39:2-14.Crossref 65. Cappa SF, Vignolo LA: 'Transcortical' features of aphasia following left thalamic hemorrhage . Cortex 1979;15:121-130.Crossref 66. Faden AI, Jacobs TP, Woods M, et al: Zona intermedia pressor sites in the cat spinal cord: Right-left asymmetry . Exp Neurol 1978;61:571-582.Crossref 67. Luria AR: Traumatic Aphasia . The Hague, Monton, 1970. 68. Geschwind N, Galaburda AM (eds): Cerebral Dominance: The Biological Foundations . Cambridge, Mass, Harvard University Press, 1984. 69. Glick SD (ed): Cerebral Lateralization in Nonhuman Species. New York, Academic Press Inc, in press. 70. Drake WE: Clinical and pathological findings in a child with a developmental learning disability Clinical and pathological findings in a child with a developmental learning disability. J Learn Disabil 1968;1:9-25.Crossref 71. Galaburda AM: Anatomical asymmetries , in Geschwind N, Galaburda AM (eds): Cerebral Dominance: The Biological Foundations . Cambridge, Mass, Harvard University Press, 1984, pp 11-25. 72. Diehl CF: A Compendium of Research and Theory On Stuttering . Springfield, Ill, Charles C Thomas, 1958. 73. Porac C, Coren S: Lateral Preferences and Human Behavior . New York, Springer Publishing Co Inc, 1981. 74. Teszner D, Tzavaras A, Gruner J, et al: L'asymetrie droite gauche du planum temporale; á propos de l'étude anatomique de 100 cerveaux . Rev Neurol 1972;146:444-449. 75. Meyer-Bahlburg HFL, Erhardt AA: Sex hormone administration during pregnancy: Behavioral sequelae in the offspring , in Youngs DD, Erhardt AA (eds): Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology . New York, Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1980. 76. Stumpf WE, Sar M, Keefer DA, et al: The anatomical substrate of neuroendocrine regulation as defined by autoradiography with 3H-estradiol, 3H-testosterone, 3H-dihydrotestosterone, and 3H-progesterone , in: Neuroendocrine Regulation of Fertility . Basel, S Karger AG, 1976. 77. MacLusky NJ, Naftolin F, Goldman-Rakic PS: Oestrogen formation and binding in the cerebral cortex and diencephalon of the newborn rhesus monkey. Submitted. 78. Huttenlocher PR: Synaptic density in the human frontal cortex: Developmental changes and effects of aging . Brain Res 1979;163:195-205.Crossref 79. Warner NL, Szenberg A, Burnet FM: Theimmunological role of different lymphoid organs in the chicken . Aust J Exp Biol Med Sci 1962; 40:373-388.Crossref 80. Frey-Wettstein M, Craddock CG: Testosterone-induced depletion of thymus and marrow lymphocytes as related to lymphopoiesis and hematopoiesis . Blood 1970;35:257-271. 81. Wasi P, Block M: The histopathological study of the development of the irradiationinduced leukemia in C57BL mice and of its inhibition by testosterone . Cancer Res 1961; 21:463-473. 82. Talal N: Immunologic and viral factors in autoimmune diseases . Med Clin North Am 1977; 61:205-215. 83. Crawford WA, Beldham CG: The changing demographic pattern in asthma related to sex and age . Med J Aust 1976;1:430-434. 84. Ivanyi P: Some aspects of the H-2 system, the major histocompatibility system in the mouse . Proc R Soc Lond 1978;202:117-158.Crossref 85. Saxen L, Toivonen S: Primary Embryonic Induction . London, Logos, 1962. 86. Jacobson CO: The localization of the presumptive cerebral regions in the neural plate of the axolate larva . J Embryol Exp Morphol 1959; 7:1-21. 87. Karfunkel P: The mechanisms of neural tube formation . Int Rev Cytol 1974;38:245-271. 88. Weston JA: The migration and differentiation of neural crest cells . Adv Morphol 1970;8:41-114. 89. LeDouarin N: The Neural Crest . Cambridge, England, Cambridge University Press, 1982. 90. Jacobson M: Developmental Neurobiology . New York, Plenum Press Inc, 1978, pp 27-55, 115-217. 91. Marin-Padilla M: Prenatal and early postnatal ontogenesis of the human motor cortex: A Golgi study: I. The sequential development of the cortical layers . Brain Res 1970;23:167-183.Crossref 92. Cowan WM: Neuronal death as a regulative mechanism in the control of cell numbers in the nervous system , in Rockstein M (ed): Development and Aging in the Nervous System . New York, Academic Press Inc, 1973, pp 19-41. 93. Heim LM, Timiras PS: Gonad-brain relationship: Precocious brain maturation after estradiol in rats . Endocrinology 1963;72:598-606.Crossref 94. Curry J, Heim LM: Brain myelination after neonatal administration of oestradiol . Nature 1966;209:915-916.Crossref 95. Toran-Allerand CD: Gonadal hormones and brain development: Cellular aspects of sexual differentiation . Am Zool 1978;18:553-565. 96. Goldman PS, Galkin TW: Prenatal removal of frontal association cortex in the fetal rhesus monkey: Anatomical and functional consequences in postnatal life . Brain Res 1978;152:451-485.Crossref 97. Innocenti GM: Growth and reshaping of axons in the establishment of visual callosal connections . Science 1981;212:824-827.Crossref 98. Schneider GE: Early lesions and abnormal neuronal connections: Developmental rules can lead axons astray, with functional consequences . TINS 1981;4:187-192. 99. Goldman PS: Contralateral projections to the dorsal thalamus from frontal association cortex in the rhesus monkey . Brain Res 1979; 166:166-171.Crossref 100. Nottebohm F, Arnold AP: Sexual dimorphism in vocal control areas of the songbird brain . Science 1976;194:211-213.Crossref 101. Rey P: Du poids des lobes cerebraux (frontaux, occipitaux, et parietotemporaux) d'apres le registre de Broca . Rev Anthropol 1885;8:385-396. 102. Pfeifer RA: Pathologie der Horstrahlung und der corticaler Horsphare , in Bumke O, Forster O (eds): Handbuch der Neurologie . Berlin, Springer Verlag, 1936, vol 6, pp 534-626. 103. Economo C, Horn L: Über Windungsre-lief, Masse, und Rindenarchitektonik der Supratemporalflache, ihre individuellen und ihre Seitenunterschiede . Z Neurol Psychiatrie 1930; 130:678-757.Crossref 104. Fukui T: Transverse gyri of temporal lobe in the Japanese brain, fifth report . Hokuetsu Igaku Zasshi 1934;49:1025-1050. 105. Kakeshita T: Zur Anatomie der operkularen Temporal-Region: Vergleichende Untersuchungen der rechten und linken Seite . Arb Neurol Inst Wien 1925;27:292. 106. Von Bonin G: Anatomical asymmetries of the cerebral hemispheres , in Mountcastle VB (ed): Interhemispheric Relations and Cerebral Dominance . Baltimore, The Johns Hopkins Press, 1962, pp 1-6. 107. Cunningham DJ: Contribution to the Surface Anatomy of the Cerebral Hemispheres . Dublin, Royal Irish Academy, 1892. 108. Eberstaller O: Zur oberflachen Anatomie des Grosshirn Hemispharen . Wien Med Blatt 1884;7:479, 642, 644. 109. Hochberg FM, LeMay M: Arteriographic correlates of handedness . Neurology 1975;25:218-222. 110. Kopp N, Michel F, Carrier H, et al: Étude de certaines asymetries hemispheriques du cerveau humain . J Neurol Sci 1977;34:349-363.Crossref 111. Meyer A: The Collected Papers of Adolph Meyer . Baltimore, The Johns Hopkins Press, 1950, pp 358-369. 112. Beck E: Typologie des Gehirns am Beispiel des dorsalen menschlichen Schlafenappens nebst weiteren Beitrage zur Frage der Links-Rechtshirnigkeit . Dtsch Z Nervenheilk 1955; 173:267-308.Crossref 113. Campain R, Minckler J: A note on the gross configurations of the human auditory cortex . Brain Lang 1976;3:318-323.Crossref 114. Broca P: Localisation des fonctions, cerebrales, siége de la faculté de langage articule . Bull Soc Anteropol Paris 1863;4:200-204. 115. Falzi G, Perrone P, Vignolo LA: Right-left asymmetry in anterior speech region . Arch Neurol 1982;39:239-240.Crossref 116. McRae DL, Branch CL, Milner B: The occipital horns and cerebral dominance . Neurology 1968;18:95-98.Crossref 117. LeMay M: Asymmetries of the skull and handedness . J Neurol Sci 1977;32:243-253.Crossref 118. Gundara N, Zivanovic B: Asymmetry in East African skulls . Am J Phys Anthropol 1968;28:331-338.Crossref 119. Satz P, Achenbach K, Fennel E: Correlations between assessed manual laterality and predicted speech laterality in a normal population . Neuropsychologia 1967;5:295-310.Crossref 120. Flechsig P: Die Leitungsbahnen in Gehirn und Ruckenmark des Menschen auf Grundentwicklungs geschlichticher Untersuchungen . Leipzig, W. Engelmann, 1876. 121. Yakovlev PI, Rakic P: Patterns of decussation of bulbar pyramids and distribution of pyramidal tracts on two sides of the spinal cord . Trans Am Neurol Assoc 1966;91:366-367. 122. Kertesz A, Geschwind N: Patterns of pyramidal decussation and their relationship to handedness . Arch Neurol 1971;24:326-332.Crossref 123. Smith GE: A preliminary note on an aberrant circumolivary bundle springing from the left pyramidal tract . Rev Neurol Psychiatry 1904;2:377-383. 124. Galaburda AM, Sanides F: Cytoarchitectonic organization of the human auditory cortex . J Comp Neurol 1980;190:597-610.Crossref 125. Galaburda AM: La region de Broca: Observations anatomiques faites un siécle aprés de mort de son decouvreur . Rev Neurol 1980; 10:609-616. 126. Eidelberg D, Galaburda AM: Inferior parietal lobule: Divergent architectonic asymmetries in the human brain . Arch Neurol 1984; 41:843-852.Crossref 127. Luria AR: On quasi-aphasic speech disturbances in lesions of the deep structures of the brain . Brain Lang 1977;4:432-459.Crossref 128. Mohr JP, Watters WC, Duncan GW: Thalamic hemorrhage and aphasia . Brain Lang 1975;2:3-17.Crossref 129. Samarel A, Wright TL, Sergay F, et al: Thalamic hemorrhage with speech disorder . Trans Am Neurol Assoc 1976;101:283-285. 130. Graff-Radford NR, Eslinger PJ, Damasio AR, et al: Nonhemorrhagic infarction of the thalamus: Behavioral, anatomic, and physiologic correlates . Neurology 1984;34:14-23.Crossref 131. Eidelberg D, Galaburda AM: Symmetry and asymmetry in the human posterior thalamus: I. Cytoarchitectonic analysis in normal persons . Arch Neurol 1982;39:325-332.Crossref 132. Glick SD, Jerussi TP, Waters PH, et al: Amphetamine-induced changes in striatal dopamine and acetylcholine levels and relationship to rotation (circling behavior) in rats . Biochem Pharmacol 1974;23:3223-3225.Crossref 133. Glick SD, Cox RD: Nocturnal rotation in normal rats: Correlation with amphetamineinduced rotation and effects of nigrostriatal lesions . Brain Res 1978;150:149-161.Crossref 134. Oke A, Keller R, Mefford I, et al: Lateralization of norepinephrine in human thalamus . Science 1978;200:1411-1413.Crossref 135. Amaducci L, Sorbi S, Albanese A, et al: Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity differs in right and left human temporal lobes . Neurology 1981;31:799-805.Crossref 136. Glick SD, Ross DA, Hough LB: Lateral asymmetry of neurotransmitters in human brain . Brain Res 1982;234:53-63.Crossref 137. Szara S: The comparison of the psychotic effect of tryptamine derivates with the effects of mescaline and LSD-25 in self experiments , in Garattini SA, Ghetti V (eds): Psychotropic Drugs . Amsterdam, Elsevier Publishing Co, 1957, p 460. 138. Sai-Halasz A, Brunecker G, Szara ST: Dymethyltryptamin: ein neues Psychoticum . Psychiatry Neurol 1958;135:285-301.Crossref 139. Gentili C, Tiberi F: Rilievi clinicosperimentali sull'azione neuropsicodislettica della N-N-dietiltriptamina. Atti del 2nd Colloquio Internazionale sull'Espressione Plastica, Bologna, 1963. 140. Mandell AJ, Knapp S: Asymmetry and mood, emergent properties of serotonin regulation . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1979;36:909-916.Crossref 141. Brumback RA, Staton RD: Learning disability and childhood depression . Am J Orthopsychiatry 1983;53:269-281.Crossref 142. Freeman RL, Galaburda AM, Diaz-Cabal R, et al: The neurology of depression: Cognitive and behavioral deficits with focal findings in depression and resolution after electroconvulsive therapy . Arch Neurol 1985;42:289-291.Crossref 143. Waziri R: Lateralization of neurolepticinduced dyskinesia indicates pharmacological asymmetry in the brain . Psychopharmacology 1980;68:51-53.Crossref 144. LeMay M: Morphological cerebral asymmetries of modern man, fossil man, and non-human primate . Ann NY Acad Sci 1976;280:349-366.Crossref 145. Strauss E, Fitz C: Occipital horn asymmetry in children . Ann Neurol 1980;8:437-439.Crossref 146. Herve G: La Circonvolution de Broca . Paris, Delahage et Lecrosnier, 1888. 147. Wada JA, Davies AE: Fundamental nature of human infant's brain asymmetry . Can J Neurol Sci 1977;4:203-207. 148. Bracco L, Tiezzi A, Ginanneschi A, et al: Lateralization of choline acetyltransferase (CHAT) activity in fetus and adult human brain . Neurosci Lett 1984;50:301-305.Crossref 149. DeBassio WA, Kemper TL, Galaburda AM: Asymmetric olfactory migratory stream growth in the rat . Soc Neurosci Abstr 1982; 8:326. 150. Narang HK: Right-left asymmetry of myelin development in epiretinal portion of the rabbit optic nerve . Nature 1977;266:28-29.Crossref 151. Manz HJ, Phillips TM, Rowden G, et al: Unilateral megalencephaly, cerebral cortical dysplasia, neuronal hypertrophy, and heterotopia: Cytomorphometric, fluorometric, cytochemical, and biochemical analysis . Acta Neuropathol 1979;45:97-103.Crossref 152. Woo TL: On the asymmetry of the human skull . Biometrika 1931;22:324-352.Crossref 153. Mesulam MM: A cortical network for directed attention and unilateral neglect . Ann Neurol 1981;10:309-325.Crossref 154. Heilman KM, Schwartz H, Watson RT: Hypoarousal in patients with the neglect syndrome and emotional indifference . Neurology 1977;28:229-232.Crossref 155. Hecaen H, de Ajuriaguerra J: Left-Handedness . New York, Grune & Stratton Inc, 1964. 156. Rogers LJ: Light experience and asymmetry of brain function in chickens . Nature 1982;297:223-225.Crossref 157. Dewson JH III: Toward an animal model of auditory cognitive function, in Ludlow CL, Doran-Quine ME (eds): The Neurological Bases of Language Disorders in Children: Methods and Directions for Research. NINCDS Monograph No 22, Government Printing Office, 1979, pp 19-24. 158. Yeni-Komshian GH, Benson DA: Anatomical study of cerebral asymmetry in the temporal lobe of humans, chimpanzees, and rhesus monkeys . Science 1976;192:387-389.Crossref 159. Cain DP, Wada JA: An anatomical asymmetry in the baboon brain . Brain Behav Evol 1979;16:222-226.Crossref 160. Webster WG, Webster IH: Anatomical asymmetry of the cerebral hemispheres of the cat brain . Physiol Behav 1975;4:867-869.Crossref 161. Kolb B, Sutherland RJ, Nonneman AJ, et al: Asymmetry in the cerebral hemispheres of the rat, mouse, rabbit, and cat: The right hemisphere is larger . Exp Neurol 1982;78:348-359.Crossref 162. Diamond MC, Johnson RE, Ingham CA: Morphological changes in the young, adult and aging rat cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and diencephalon . Behav Biol 1975;14:163-174.Crossref 163. Sherman GF, Galaburda AM: Neocortical asymmetry and open-field behavior in the rat . Exp Neurol 1984;86:473-482.Crossref 164. Diamond MC, Murphy GM Jr, Akiama K, et al: Morphologic hippocampal asymmetry in male and female rats . Exp Neurol 1982;76:553-565.Crossref 165. Braitenberg V, Kemali M: Exceptions to bilateral symmetry in the epithalamus of lower vertebrates . J Comp Neurol 1970;138:137-146.Crossref 166. Engbretson GA, Reiner A, Brecha N: Habenular asymmetry and the central connections of the parietal eye of the lizard . J Comp Neurol 1981;198:155-165.Crossref 167. Petersen MR, Beecher MD, Zoloth SR, et al: Neural lateralization of species-specific vocalizations by Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) . Science 1978;202:324-327.Crossref 168. Denenberg VH: Hemispheric laterality in animals and the effects of early experience . Behav Brain Sci 1981;4:1-49.Crossref 169. Nottebohm F: Brain pathways for vocal learning in birds: A review of the first ten years . Prog Psychobiol Physiol Psychol 1980;9:85-124. 170. Rogers LJ: Lateralization in the avian brain . Bird Behav 1980;2:1-12.Crossref 171. Zimmerberg B, Glick SD, Jerussi TP: Neurochemical correlate of a spatial preference in rats . Science 1974;185:623-625.Crossref 172. Schneider LH, Murphy RB, Coons EE: Lateralization of striatal dopamine (D2) receptors in normal rats . Neurosci Lett 1982;33:281-284.Crossref 173. Jerussi TP, Glick SD: Drug-induced rotation in rats without lesions: Behavioral and neurochemical indices of a normal asymmetry in nigro-striatal function . Psychopharmacology 1976;47:249-260.Crossref 174. Robinson TE, Becker JB, Ramirez VD: Sex differences in amphetamine-elicited rotational behavior and lateralization of striatal dopamine in rats . Brain Res Bull 1980;5:539-545.Crossref 175. Starr MS, Kilpatrick K: Bilateral asymmetry in brain GABA function? Neurosci Lett 1981;25:167-172.Crossref 176. Zimmerberg B, Strumpf AJ, Glick SD: Cerebral asymmetry and left-right discrimination . Brain Res 1978;140:194-196.Crossref 177. Cynader M, Lepore F, Guillemot JP: Interhemispheric competition during postnatal development . Nature 1981;290:139-140.Crossref 178. Glick SD: Heritable determinants of leftright bias in the rat . Life Sci 1983;32:2215-2221.Crossref 179. Mellon DeF: Nerves and the transformation of claw type in snapping shrimps . TINS 1981;4:245-248. 180. Govind CK, Kent KS: Transformation of fast fibres to slow prevented by lack of activity in developing lobster muscle . Nature 1982;298:755-757.Crossref 181. Alderman AL: The determination of the eye in the anuran Hyla regilla . J Exp Zool 1935;70:205-232.Crossref 182. Kallen B: Teratology, The Science of Malformations . Stockholm, Almqvist & Wiksell, 1967, p 239. 183. Galaburda AM, Sherman GF, Rosen GD, et al: Developmental dyslexia: Four consecutive cases with cortical anomalies. Ann Neurol, in press. 184. Galaburda AM, Eidelberg D: Symmetry and asymmetry in the human posterior thalamus: II. Thalamic lesions in a case of developmental dyslexia . Arch Neurol 1982;39:333-336.Crossref 185. Levine DN, Hier DB, Calvanio R: Acquired learning disability for reading after left temporal lobe damage in childhood . Neurology 1981;31:257-264.Crossref 186. Caron JP, Colin H, Comoy J, et al: Resultats de l'exeoese chirurgicale des aneurysmes arterio-veneux (AAV) des zones rolandique, parietale, occipital, et du pli courbe de l'hemisphere dominant: propos deÁ vingt cas . Neurochirurgie 1982;28:295-307. 187. Mori K, Murata T, Hashimoto N, et al: Clinical analysis of arteriovenous malformations in children . Childs Brain 1980;6:13-25. 188. Hier DB, LeMay M, Rosenberger PB, et al: Developmental dyslexia: Evidence for a subgroup with reversed cerebral asymmetry . Arch Neurol 1978;35:90-92.Crossref 189. Hier DB, LeMay M, Rosenberger PB: Developmental dyslexia and unfavorable leftright asymmetries of the brain . J Autism Dev Disord 1979;9:153-159.Crossref 190. Rosenberger PB, Hier DB: Cerebral asymmetry and verbal intellectual deficits . Ann Neurol 1980;8:300-304.Crossref 191. Veith G, Schwindt W: Pathologisch-anatomischer Beitrag zum Problem 'Nichtsesshaftigkeit.' Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 1976;44:1-21. 192. Balthasar K: Über das anatomische Substrat der generalisierten Tic-Krankheit (Maladie des Tics, Gilles de la Tourette): Entwicklungshemmung des Corpus striatum . Arch Psychiatrie 1957;195:531-549.Crossref 193. Sano F: James Henry Pullen, The Genius of Earlswood . J Mental Sci 1918;64:251-267. 194. Rimland B: Infantile Autism . New York, Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1964. 195. Rimland B: The autistic savant . Psychol Today 1978;12:69-80. 196. Layton WM Jr: Random determination of a developmental process . J Hered 1976;67:336-338. 197. Afzelius BA, Camner P, Eliasson R, et al: Kartagener's syndrome does exist . Lancet 1978; 2:950.Crossref 198. Dahlberg G: Genotypic asymmetries . Proc R Soc Edin 1944-1947;62:20-31. 199. Bakan P: Handedness and birth order . Nature 1971;229:195.Crossref 200. Bakan P: Left-handedness and birth order revisited . Neuropsychologia 1977;15:837-839.Crossref 201. Benton AL, Meyers R, Polder GJ: Some aspects of handedness . Psychiatr Neurol 1962; 144:321-337.Crossref 202. Wada J, Rasmussen T: Intracarotid injection of sodium amytal for the lateralization of cerebral speech dominance . J Neurosurg 1960; 17:266-282.Crossref 203. Rasmussen T, Milner B: The role of early left-brain injury in determining lateralization of cerebral speech functions . Ann NY Acad Sci 1977;299:355-369.Crossref 204. Provins KA, Milner AD, Kerr P: Asymmetry of mammal preference and performance . Percept Mot Skills 1982;54:179-194.Crossref 205. Annett M: A classification of hand preference by association analysis . Br J Psychol 1970; 61:303-321.Crossref 206. Nasrallah HA, Keelor K, McCalley-Whitters M: Laterality shift in alcoholic males . Biol Psychol 1983;18:1065-1067. 207. Schachter SC, Ransil BJ, Geschwind N: Associations of handedness with hair color and learning disabilities. Neuropsychologia, in press. 208. Liepmann H: Drei Aufsätze aus dem Apraxiegebiet . Berlin, S Karger AG, 1908. 209. Kimura D, Archibald Y: Motor functions of the left hemisphere . Brain 1974;97:337-350.Crossref 210. Geschwind N: The apraxias: Neural mechanisms of disorders of learned movement . Am Sci 1975;63:188-195. 211. Gesell A, Ames LB: The development of handedness . J Genet Psychol 1947;70:155-175. 212. Keller R: Two famous left-handers . Ciba Symposia 1942;3:1143-1145. 213. Kilshaw D, Annett M: Right- and lefthand skill: I. Effects of age, sex, and hand preference showing superior skill in left-handers . Br J Psychol 1983;74:253-268.Crossref 214. Taylor DC: Ontogenesis of chronic epileptic psychoses: A reanalysis . Psychol Med 1975; 1:247-253.Crossref 215. Swinson CM, Slavin G, Coles EC, et al: Coeliac disease and malignancy . Lancet 1983; 1:111-115.Crossref 216. Seltzer B, Sherwin I: A comparison of clinical features in early- and late-onset primary degenerative dementia . Arch Neurol 1983;40:143-146.Crossref 217. Marsh DG, Meyers DA, Bias WB: The epidemiology and genetics of atopic allergy . N Engl J Med 1981;305:1551-1559.Crossref 218. Weintraub S, Mesulam MM: Developmental learning disabilities of the right hemisphere . Arch Neurol 1983;40:463-468.Crossref 219. Folstein S, Rutter M: Genetic influences and infantile autism . Nature 1977;265:726-728.Crossref 220. Orton ST: 'Word-blindness' in school children . Arch Neurol Psychiatry 1925;14:581-615.Crossref 221. Ludlow CL, Polinsky RJ, Caine ED, et al: Language and speech abnormalities in Tourette syndrome , in Friedhoff HJ, Chase TN (eds): Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome . New York, Raven Press, 1982, pp 351-361. 222. Boucher J: Hand preference in autistic children and their parents . J Autism Childhood Schiz 1977;7:177-187.Crossref 223. Colby KM, Parkinson C: Handedness in autistic children . J Autism Childhood Schiz 1977;7:3-9.Crossref 224. Bishop DVM: How sinister is sinistrality? J R Coll Physicians Lond 1983;17:161-172. 225. Oswald I: Sleep and its disorders , in Vinken PJ, Bruyn GW (eds): Handbook of Clinical Neurology . New York, Elsevier North Holland Inc, 1969, vol 3, Disorders of Higher Nervous Activity, pp 80-111. 226. Carpenter S, Yassa R, Ochs R: A pathologic basis for Kleine-Levin syndrome . Arch Neurol 1982;39:25-28.Crossref 227. Vandenberg SG, Kuse AR: Spatial ability: A critical review of the sex-linked major gene hypothesis , in Wittig MA and Peterson AC (eds): Sex-Related Differences in Cognitive Functioning . New York, Academic Press Inc, 1979, pp 67-94. 228. Benbow CP, Stanley JC: Math talent, in press. 229. Carter CO: Sex-linkage and sex-limitation , in Ounsted C, Taylor DC (eds): Gender Differences: Their Ontogeny and Significance . New York, Churchill Livingstone Inc, 1972. 230. Kidd KK, Heimbuch RC, Records MA: Vertical transmission of susceptibility to stuttering with sex-modified expression . Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1981;78:606-610.Crossref 231. Edwards DA: Mice: Fighting by neonatally androgenized females . Science 1964;161:1027-1028.Crossref 232. Bronson FH, Desjardins C: Aggression in adult mice: Modification by neonatal injections of gonadal hormones . Science 1968;161:705-706.Crossref 233. Wood LC: Presentation , American Thyroid Association , New Orleans, 1983. 234. Thonnard-Neumann E: Some interrelationships of vasoactive substances and basophilic leukocytes in migraine headache . Headache 1969; 9:130-140.Crossref 235. Egger J, Carter CM, Wilson J, et al: Is migraine food allergy? Lancet 1983;2:865-870.Crossref 236. Szondi L: Konstitutionsanalyse von 100 Stotterern . Wien Med Wochenschr 1932;82:922-928. 237. Coleman M (ed): The Autistic Syndromes . New York, Elsevier North Holland Publishing Co, 1976. 238. Beer AE, Billingham RE: The Immunobiology of Mammalian Reproduction . Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice-Hall Inc, 1976. 239. Faulk WP: Human trophoblast antigens: Role in normal and abnormal pregnancies . Bull Mem Acad Roy Med Belg 1981;136:379-388. 240. Taylor C, Faulk WP: Prevention of recurrent abortions with leucocyte transfusions . Lancet 1981;2:68-69.Crossref 241. Tryphonas H, Trites R: Food allergy in children with hyperactivity, learning disabilities, and/or minimal brain dysfunction . Ann Allergy 1979;42:22-27. 242. Fialkow PJ: Autoimmunity: A predisposing factor to chromosomal aberrations? Lancet 1964;1:474-475.Crossref 243. Fialkow PJ: Thyroid autoimmunity and Down's syndrome . Ann NY Acad Sci 1970; 171:500-511.Crossref 244. Greenfield JG, Blackwood W, McMenemy WH, et al (eds): Neuropathology . London, Edward Arnold, 1958, p 353. 245. Chui HC, Demasio AR: Human cerebral asymmetries evaluated by computed tomography . J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1980;43:873-878.Crossref 246. Holloway RL: Indonesian 'Solo' (Ngadong) endocranial reconstructions: Some preliminary observations and comparisons with Neanderthal and Homo erectus groups . Am J Phys Anthropol 1980;53:285-295.Crossref 247. Weinberger DR, Luchins DJ, Morihisa J, et al: Asymmetrical volumes of the right and left frontal and occipital regions of the human brain . Ann Neurol 1982;11:97-100.Crossref 248. Nikkuni S, Yashima Y, Kishige K, et al: Left-right hemispheric asymmetry of cortical speech zones in the Japanese brain . Brain Nerve 1981;33:77-84. 249. Rubens AB, Mahowald MW, Hutton JT: Asymmetry of the lateral sylvian fissures in man . Neurology 1976;26:620-624.Crossref 250. Ratcliff G, Dila C, Taylor L, et al: The morphological asymmetry of the hemispheres and cerebral dominance for speech: A possible relationship . Brain Lang 1980;11:87-98.Crossref 251. Henschen SE: On the function of the right hemisphere of the brain in relation to the left in speech, music, and calculation . Brain 1926; 49:110-123.Crossref 252. Groves CP, Humphrey NK: Asymmetry in gorilla skulls: Evidence of lateralized brain function? Nature 1973;244:53-54.Crossref 253. Fischer E: Über die Variationen der Hirnfurchen des Schimpansen . Verh Anat Ges 1921; 30:48-54. 254. Ingalls NW: The parietal region in the primate brain . J Comp Neurol 1914;28:291-341.Crossref 255. Diamond MC, Johnson RE, Young D, et al: Age-related morphologic differences in the rat cerebral cortex and hippocampus: Male-female; right-left . Exp Neurol 1983;81:1-13.Crossref 256. Sherman GF, Galaburda AM: Cortical volume asymmetry and behavior in the albino rat . Soc Neurosci Abstr 1982;8:627. 257. Kolb B, McIntosh A, Whishaw IQ, et al: Evidence for anatomical but not functional asymmetry in the hemidecorticate rat . Behav Neurosci 1984;98:44-58.Crossref 258. Valdes JJ, Mactatus C, Cory RN, et al: Lateralization of norepinephrine, serotonin, and choline uptake into hippcampal synaptosomes of sinistral rats . Physiol Behav 1981;27:381-383.Crossref 259. Robinson TE, Becker JB, Camp DM, et al: Variation in the pattern of behavioral and brain asymmetries due to sex differences, in Glick SD (ed): Cerebral Lateralization in Nonhuman Species. New York, Academic Press Inc, in press. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Neurology American Medical Association

Cerebral Lateralization: Biological Mechanisms, Associations, and Pathology: I. A Hypothesis and a Program for Research

Loading next page...
 
/lp/american-medical-association/cerebral-lateralization-biological-mechanisms-associations-and-uE5We9P2ui
Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1985 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-9942
eISSN
1538-3687
DOI
10.1001/archneur.1985.04060050026008
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract We present a set of hypotheses about the biologic mechanisms of lateralization, ie, the processes which lead to an asymmetrical nervous system. It would have been difficult even 20 years ago to formulate such a theory in the face of the prevalent belief that cerebral dominance lacked an anatomic correlate. It is proposed that cerebral dominance is based in most instances on asymmetries of structure. Although genetic factors are important we will lay stress on sever See also pp 427 and 500. al factors that, in the course of development, both prenatal and postnatal, modify the direction and extent of these structural differences. Special attention will be directed to the intrauterine environment as a determinant of the pattern of asymmetries, and in particular sex hormones, eg, testosterone or related factors. We will discuss the associations of anomalous cerebral dominance which include not only developmental disorders such as dyslexia and certain References 1. Geschwind N, Levitsky W: Human brain: Left-right asymmetries in temporal speech region . Science 1968;161:186-187.Crossref 2. LeMay M, Culebras A: Human brain: Morphologic differences in the hemispheres demonstrable by carotid arteriography . N Engl J Med 1972;287:168-170.Crossref 3. Galaburda AM, LeMay M, Kemper TL, et al: Right-left asymmetries in the brain . Science 1978;199:852-856.Crossref 4. Galaburda AM, Sanides F, Geschwind N: Human brain: Cytoarchitectonic left-right asymmetries in the temporal speech region . Arch Neurol 1978;35:812-817.Crossref 5. Wada JA, Clarke R, Hamm A: Cerebral hemispheric asymmetry in humans . Arch Neurol 1975;32:239-246.Crossref 6. Witelson SF, Pallie W: Left hemisphere specialization for language in the newborn: Neuroanatomical evidence of asymmetry . Brain 1973;96:641-646.Crossref 7. Chi JG, Dooling EC, Gilles FH: Left-right asymmetries of the temporal speech areas of the human fetus . Arch Neurol 1977;34:346-348.Crossref 8. Oldfield RC: The assessment and analysis of handedness: The Edinburgh Inventory . Neuropsychologia 1971;9:97-113.Crossref 9. Maccoby EM, Jacklin CN: The Psychology of Sex Differences . Stanford, Calif, Stanford University Press, 1974. 10. Wittig MA, Petersen AC (eds): Sex-related Differences in Cognitive Function . New York, Academic Press Inc, 1979. 11. Benbow CP, Stanley JC: Sex differences in mathematical ability: Fact or artifact? Science 1980;210:1262-1264.Crossref 12. Taylor DC: The influence of sexual differentiation on growth, development, and disease , in Davis JA, Dobbing J (eds): Scientific Foundations of Paediatrics . Philadelphia, WB Saunders Co, 1974, pp 29-44. 13. Hecaen H: Les Gauchers . Paris, Presses Universitaires de France, 1984. 14. Geschwind N, Behan P: Left-handedness: Association with immune disease, migraine, and developmental learning disorder . Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1982;79:5097-5100.Crossref 15. Geschwind N, Behan PO: Laterality, hormones, and immunity , in Geschwind N, Galaburda AM (eds): Cerebral Dominance: The Biological Foundations . Cambridge, Mass, Harvard University Press, 1984, pp 211-224. 16. Galaburda AM, Kemper TL: Cytoarchitectonic abnormalities in developmental dyslexia: A case study . Ann Neurol 1979;6:94-100.Crossref 17. Galaburda AM: Developmental dyslexia: Current anatomical research . Ann Dyslexia 1983; 33:41-53.Crossref 18. Kemper TL: Asymmetrical lesions in dyslexia , in Geschwind N, Galaburda AM (eds): Cerebral Dominance: The Biological Foundations . Cambridge, Mass, Harvard University Press, 1984, pp 75-89. 19. Taylor DC: Differential rates of cerebral maturation between sexes and between hemispheres . Lancet 1969;2:140-142.Crossref 20. Fontes V: Morfologia do Cortex Cerebral (Desenvolvimento) . Lisbon, Instituto Antonio Aurelio da Costa Ferreira, 1944. 21. Scheibel AM: A dendritic correlate of human speech , in Geschwind N, Galaburda AM (eds): Cerebral Dominance: The Biological Foundations . Cambridge, Mass, Harvard University Press, 1984, pp 43-52. 22. Hamburger V, Oppenheim RW: Naturally occurring neuronal death in vertebrates . Neurosci Commentaries 1982;1:39-55. 23. Goldman PS: Neuronal plasticity in primate telencephalon: Anomalous projections induced by prenatal removal of frontal cortex . Science 1978;202:768-770.Crossref 24. Goldman-Rakic P, Rakic P: Experimental modification of gyral patterns , in Geschwind N, Galaburda AM (eds): Cerebral Dominance: The Biological Foundations . Cambridge, Mass, Harvard University Press, 1984, pp 179-192. 25. Dorner G: Sexual differentiation of the brain . Vitam Harm 1980;38:325-381. 26. Gorski RA, Harlan RE, Jacobson CD, et al: Evidence for the existence of a sexually dimorphic nucleus in the preoptic area of the rat . J Comp Neurol 1980;193:529-539.Crossref 27. Pfaff DW: Morphological changes in the brains of adult male rats after neonatal castration . J Endocrinol 1966;36:415-416.Crossref 28. Raisman G, Field PM: Sexual dimorphism in the neuropil of the preoptic area of the rat and its dependence on neonatal androgen . Brain Res 1973;54:1-29.Crossref 29. MacLusky NJ, Naftolin F: Sexual differentiation of the central nervous system . Science 1981;211:1294-1303.Crossref 30. McEwen BS: Neural gonadal steroid actions . Science 1981;211:1303-1311.Crossref 31. Netley C: Dichotic listening of callosal agenesis and Turner's syndrome patients , in Segalowitz SJ, Gruber FA (eds): Language Development and Neurological Theory . New York, Academic Press Inc, 1977. 32. Hier D, Crowley WF Jr: Spatial ability in androgen-deficient men . N Engl J Med 1982; 306:1202-1205.Crossref 33. Annett M: Genetic and non-genetic differences on handedness . Behav Genet 1978;8:227-249.Crossref 34. Corballis MC, Morgan MJ: On the biological basis of human laterality . Behav Brain Sci 1978;2:261-336.Crossref 35. Boklage CE: On the distribution of non-righthandedness among twins and their families . Acta Genet Med Gemellol 1981;30:167-187. 36. Nottebohm F, Nottebohm M: Left hypoglossal dominance in the control of canary and white-crowned sparrow song . J Comp Physiol 1976;108:171-192.Crossref 37. Sherman GF, Garbanati JA, Rosen GD, et al: Brain and behavioral asymmetries for spatial preference in rats . Brain Res 1980;192:61-67.Crossref 38. Diamond MC, Dowling GA, Johnson RE: Morphological cerebral cortical asymmetry in male and female rats . Exp Neurol 1981;71:261-268.Crossref 39. Serafetinides EA: The significance of the temporal lobes and of hemispheric dominance in the production of LSD-25 symptomatology in man . Neuropsychologia 1965;3:69-79.Crossref 40. Glick SD, Meibach RC, Cox RD, et al: Multiple and interrelated functional asymmetries in rat brain . Life Sci 1979;25:395-400.Crossref 41. Holloway RJ, de Lacoste C: Brain endocast asymmetry in pongids and hominids: The paleontology of cerebral hemisphere dominance . Am J Phys Anthropol 1982;58:101-110.Crossref 42. Kolata G: Math genius may have hormonal basis . Science 1983;222:1312.Crossref 43. Tisserand M: Dominance laterale et becde-lievre . Arch Fr Pediatr 1944;2:166-167. 44. Gordon HW: Cognitive asymmetry in dyslexic families . Neuropsychologia 1980;18:645-656.Crossref 45. Gordon HW: Learning disabled are cognitively right , in Kinsbourne M (ed): Topics in Learning Disabilities . Gaithersburg, Md, Aspen Systems, 1983, vol 3, pp 29-39. 46. Peterson JM, Lansky LM: Left-handedness among architects: Some facts and speculation . Percept Mot Skills 1974;38:547-550.Crossref 47. Broca P: Remarques sur le siege de la faculte du langage articule, suivies d'une observation d'aphemie . Bull Soc Anat 1861;6:398-407. 48. Goodglass H, Quadfasel FA: Language laterality in left-handed aphasics . Brain 1954; 77:521-548.Crossref 49. Zangwill O: Cerebral Dominance and Its Relation to Psychological Function . Springfield, Ill, Charles C Thomas, Publisher 1960. 50. Gloning I, Gloning K, Haub G, et al: Comparison of verbal behavior in right-handed and nonright-handed patients with anatomically verified lesion of one hemisphere . Cortex 1969;5: 43-52.Crossref 51. Satz P: Incidence of aphasia in lefthanders: A test of some hypothetical models of cerebral speech organization , in Herron J (ed): Neuropsychology of Lefthandedness . New York, Academic Press Inc, 1980, pp 189-198. 52. Milner B: Hemispheric specialization: Scope and limits , in Schmitt FO, Worden FG (eds): The Neurosciences: Third Study Program . Boston, MIT Press, 1973, pp 75-89. 53. Benton AL: Visuoperceptive, visuospatial, and visuoconstructive disorders , in Heilman K, Valenstein E (eds): Clinical Neuropsychology . New York, Oxford University Press, 1979, pp 186-223. 54. Levy J: Psychobiological implications of bilateral asymmetry , in Dimond SJ, Beaumont JG (eds): Hemisphere Function in the Human Brain . London, P Elek, 1974, pp 121-183. 55. Larrabee AP: The optic chiasm of teleosts: A study of inheritance . Proc Am Acad Arts Sci 1906;12:217-231.Crossref 56. Kappers CVA, Huber GC, Crosby EC: The Comparative Anatomy of the Nervous System of Vertebrates Including Man . New York, Macmillan Publishing Co Inc, 1936, vol 2, pp 874-876. 57. LeMay M, Geschwind N: Hemispheric differences in the brains of great apes . Brain Behav Evol 1975;11:48-52.Crossref 58. Kemali M, Guilielmotti V, Gioffre D: Neuroanatomical identification of the frog habenular connections using peroxidase (HRP) . Exp Brain Res 1980;38:341-347.Crossref 59. Diamond MC: Age, sex, and environmental influences , in Geschwind N, Galaburda AM (eds): Cerebral Dominance: The Biological Foundations . Cambridge, Mass, Harvard University Press, 1984, chap 9, pp 134-146. 60. Glick SD, Jerussi TP, Fleisher LN: Turning in circles: The neuropharmacology of rotation . Life Sci 1976;18:889-896.Crossref 61. Penfield W, Roberts L: Speech and Brain Mechanisms . Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press, 1959. 62. Ojemann GA, Ward AA: Speech representation in ventrolateral thalamus . Brain 1971; 94:669-680.Crossref 63. Ciemins VA: Localized thalamic hemorrhage: A cause of aphasia . Neurology 1970; 20:776-782.Crossref 64. Naeser M, Alexander MA, Helm-Estabrooks N, et al: Aphasia with predominantly subcortical lesion sites . Arch Neurol 1982; 39:2-14.Crossref 65. Cappa SF, Vignolo LA: 'Transcortical' features of aphasia following left thalamic hemorrhage . Cortex 1979;15:121-130.Crossref 66. Faden AI, Jacobs TP, Woods M, et al: Zona intermedia pressor sites in the cat spinal cord: Right-left asymmetry . Exp Neurol 1978;61:571-582.Crossref 67. Luria AR: Traumatic Aphasia . The Hague, Monton, 1970. 68. Geschwind N, Galaburda AM (eds): Cerebral Dominance: The Biological Foundations . Cambridge, Mass, Harvard University Press, 1984. 69. Glick SD (ed): Cerebral Lateralization in Nonhuman Species. New York, Academic Press Inc, in press. 70. Drake WE: Clinical and pathological findings in a child with a developmental learning disability Clinical and pathological findings in a child with a developmental learning disability. J Learn Disabil 1968;1:9-25.Crossref 71. Galaburda AM: Anatomical asymmetries , in Geschwind N, Galaburda AM (eds): Cerebral Dominance: The Biological Foundations . Cambridge, Mass, Harvard University Press, 1984, pp 11-25. 72. Diehl CF: A Compendium of Research and Theory On Stuttering . Springfield, Ill, Charles C Thomas, 1958. 73. Porac C, Coren S: Lateral Preferences and Human Behavior . New York, Springer Publishing Co Inc, 1981. 74. Teszner D, Tzavaras A, Gruner J, et al: L'asymetrie droite gauche du planum temporale; á propos de l'étude anatomique de 100 cerveaux . Rev Neurol 1972;146:444-449. 75. Meyer-Bahlburg HFL, Erhardt AA: Sex hormone administration during pregnancy: Behavioral sequelae in the offspring , in Youngs DD, Erhardt AA (eds): Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology . New York, Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1980. 76. Stumpf WE, Sar M, Keefer DA, et al: The anatomical substrate of neuroendocrine regulation as defined by autoradiography with 3H-estradiol, 3H-testosterone, 3H-dihydrotestosterone, and 3H-progesterone , in: Neuroendocrine Regulation of Fertility . Basel, S Karger AG, 1976. 77. MacLusky NJ, Naftolin F, Goldman-Rakic PS: Oestrogen formation and binding in the cerebral cortex and diencephalon of the newborn rhesus monkey. Submitted. 78. Huttenlocher PR: Synaptic density in the human frontal cortex: Developmental changes and effects of aging . Brain Res 1979;163:195-205.Crossref 79. Warner NL, Szenberg A, Burnet FM: Theimmunological role of different lymphoid organs in the chicken . Aust J Exp Biol Med Sci 1962; 40:373-388.Crossref 80. Frey-Wettstein M, Craddock CG: Testosterone-induced depletion of thymus and marrow lymphocytes as related to lymphopoiesis and hematopoiesis . Blood 1970;35:257-271. 81. Wasi P, Block M: The histopathological study of the development of the irradiationinduced leukemia in C57BL mice and of its inhibition by testosterone . Cancer Res 1961; 21:463-473. 82. Talal N: Immunologic and viral factors in autoimmune diseases . Med Clin North Am 1977; 61:205-215. 83. Crawford WA, Beldham CG: The changing demographic pattern in asthma related to sex and age . Med J Aust 1976;1:430-434. 84. Ivanyi P: Some aspects of the H-2 system, the major histocompatibility system in the mouse . Proc R Soc Lond 1978;202:117-158.Crossref 85. Saxen L, Toivonen S: Primary Embryonic Induction . London, Logos, 1962. 86. Jacobson CO: The localization of the presumptive cerebral regions in the neural plate of the axolate larva . J Embryol Exp Morphol 1959; 7:1-21. 87. Karfunkel P: The mechanisms of neural tube formation . Int Rev Cytol 1974;38:245-271. 88. Weston JA: The migration and differentiation of neural crest cells . Adv Morphol 1970;8:41-114. 89. LeDouarin N: The Neural Crest . Cambridge, England, Cambridge University Press, 1982. 90. Jacobson M: Developmental Neurobiology . New York, Plenum Press Inc, 1978, pp 27-55, 115-217. 91. Marin-Padilla M: Prenatal and early postnatal ontogenesis of the human motor cortex: A Golgi study: I. The sequential development of the cortical layers . Brain Res 1970;23:167-183.Crossref 92. Cowan WM: Neuronal death as a regulative mechanism in the control of cell numbers in the nervous system , in Rockstein M (ed): Development and Aging in the Nervous System . New York, Academic Press Inc, 1973, pp 19-41. 93. Heim LM, Timiras PS: Gonad-brain relationship: Precocious brain maturation after estradiol in rats . Endocrinology 1963;72:598-606.Crossref 94. Curry J, Heim LM: Brain myelination after neonatal administration of oestradiol . Nature 1966;209:915-916.Crossref 95. Toran-Allerand CD: Gonadal hormones and brain development: Cellular aspects of sexual differentiation . Am Zool 1978;18:553-565. 96. Goldman PS, Galkin TW: Prenatal removal of frontal association cortex in the fetal rhesus monkey: Anatomical and functional consequences in postnatal life . Brain Res 1978;152:451-485.Crossref 97. Innocenti GM: Growth and reshaping of axons in the establishment of visual callosal connections . Science 1981;212:824-827.Crossref 98. Schneider GE: Early lesions and abnormal neuronal connections: Developmental rules can lead axons astray, with functional consequences . TINS 1981;4:187-192. 99. Goldman PS: Contralateral projections to the dorsal thalamus from frontal association cortex in the rhesus monkey . Brain Res 1979; 166:166-171.Crossref 100. Nottebohm F, Arnold AP: Sexual dimorphism in vocal control areas of the songbird brain . Science 1976;194:211-213.Crossref 101. Rey P: Du poids des lobes cerebraux (frontaux, occipitaux, et parietotemporaux) d'apres le registre de Broca . Rev Anthropol 1885;8:385-396. 102. Pfeifer RA: Pathologie der Horstrahlung und der corticaler Horsphare , in Bumke O, Forster O (eds): Handbuch der Neurologie . Berlin, Springer Verlag, 1936, vol 6, pp 534-626. 103. Economo C, Horn L: Über Windungsre-lief, Masse, und Rindenarchitektonik der Supratemporalflache, ihre individuellen und ihre Seitenunterschiede . Z Neurol Psychiatrie 1930; 130:678-757.Crossref 104. Fukui T: Transverse gyri of temporal lobe in the Japanese brain, fifth report . Hokuetsu Igaku Zasshi 1934;49:1025-1050. 105. Kakeshita T: Zur Anatomie der operkularen Temporal-Region: Vergleichende Untersuchungen der rechten und linken Seite . Arb Neurol Inst Wien 1925;27:292. 106. Von Bonin G: Anatomical asymmetries of the cerebral hemispheres , in Mountcastle VB (ed): Interhemispheric Relations and Cerebral Dominance . Baltimore, The Johns Hopkins Press, 1962, pp 1-6. 107. Cunningham DJ: Contribution to the Surface Anatomy of the Cerebral Hemispheres . Dublin, Royal Irish Academy, 1892. 108. Eberstaller O: Zur oberflachen Anatomie des Grosshirn Hemispharen . Wien Med Blatt 1884;7:479, 642, 644. 109. Hochberg FM, LeMay M: Arteriographic correlates of handedness . Neurology 1975;25:218-222. 110. Kopp N, Michel F, Carrier H, et al: Étude de certaines asymetries hemispheriques du cerveau humain . J Neurol Sci 1977;34:349-363.Crossref 111. Meyer A: The Collected Papers of Adolph Meyer . Baltimore, The Johns Hopkins Press, 1950, pp 358-369. 112. Beck E: Typologie des Gehirns am Beispiel des dorsalen menschlichen Schlafenappens nebst weiteren Beitrage zur Frage der Links-Rechtshirnigkeit . Dtsch Z Nervenheilk 1955; 173:267-308.Crossref 113. Campain R, Minckler J: A note on the gross configurations of the human auditory cortex . Brain Lang 1976;3:318-323.Crossref 114. Broca P: Localisation des fonctions, cerebrales, siége de la faculté de langage articule . Bull Soc Anteropol Paris 1863;4:200-204. 115. Falzi G, Perrone P, Vignolo LA: Right-left asymmetry in anterior speech region . Arch Neurol 1982;39:239-240.Crossref 116. McRae DL, Branch CL, Milner B: The occipital horns and cerebral dominance . Neurology 1968;18:95-98.Crossref 117. LeMay M: Asymmetries of the skull and handedness . J Neurol Sci 1977;32:243-253.Crossref 118. Gundara N, Zivanovic B: Asymmetry in East African skulls . Am J Phys Anthropol 1968;28:331-338.Crossref 119. Satz P, Achenbach K, Fennel E: Correlations between assessed manual laterality and predicted speech laterality in a normal population . Neuropsychologia 1967;5:295-310.Crossref 120. Flechsig P: Die Leitungsbahnen in Gehirn und Ruckenmark des Menschen auf Grundentwicklungs geschlichticher Untersuchungen . Leipzig, W. Engelmann, 1876. 121. Yakovlev PI, Rakic P: Patterns of decussation of bulbar pyramids and distribution of pyramidal tracts on two sides of the spinal cord . Trans Am Neurol Assoc 1966;91:366-367. 122. Kertesz A, Geschwind N: Patterns of pyramidal decussation and their relationship to handedness . Arch Neurol 1971;24:326-332.Crossref 123. Smith GE: A preliminary note on an aberrant circumolivary bundle springing from the left pyramidal tract . Rev Neurol Psychiatry 1904;2:377-383. 124. Galaburda AM, Sanides F: Cytoarchitectonic organization of the human auditory cortex . J Comp Neurol 1980;190:597-610.Crossref 125. Galaburda AM: La region de Broca: Observations anatomiques faites un siécle aprés de mort de son decouvreur . Rev Neurol 1980; 10:609-616. 126. Eidelberg D, Galaburda AM: Inferior parietal lobule: Divergent architectonic asymmetries in the human brain . Arch Neurol 1984; 41:843-852.Crossref 127. Luria AR: On quasi-aphasic speech disturbances in lesions of the deep structures of the brain . Brain Lang 1977;4:432-459.Crossref 128. Mohr JP, Watters WC, Duncan GW: Thalamic hemorrhage and aphasia . Brain Lang 1975;2:3-17.Crossref 129. Samarel A, Wright TL, Sergay F, et al: Thalamic hemorrhage with speech disorder . Trans Am Neurol Assoc 1976;101:283-285. 130. Graff-Radford NR, Eslinger PJ, Damasio AR, et al: Nonhemorrhagic infarction of the thalamus: Behavioral, anatomic, and physiologic correlates . Neurology 1984;34:14-23.Crossref 131. Eidelberg D, Galaburda AM: Symmetry and asymmetry in the human posterior thalamus: I. Cytoarchitectonic analysis in normal persons . Arch Neurol 1982;39:325-332.Crossref 132. Glick SD, Jerussi TP, Waters PH, et al: Amphetamine-induced changes in striatal dopamine and acetylcholine levels and relationship to rotation (circling behavior) in rats . Biochem Pharmacol 1974;23:3223-3225.Crossref 133. Glick SD, Cox RD: Nocturnal rotation in normal rats: Correlation with amphetamineinduced rotation and effects of nigrostriatal lesions . Brain Res 1978;150:149-161.Crossref 134. Oke A, Keller R, Mefford I, et al: Lateralization of norepinephrine in human thalamus . Science 1978;200:1411-1413.Crossref 135. Amaducci L, Sorbi S, Albanese A, et al: Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity differs in right and left human temporal lobes . Neurology 1981;31:799-805.Crossref 136. Glick SD, Ross DA, Hough LB: Lateral asymmetry of neurotransmitters in human brain . Brain Res 1982;234:53-63.Crossref 137. Szara S: The comparison of the psychotic effect of tryptamine derivates with the effects of mescaline and LSD-25 in self experiments , in Garattini SA, Ghetti V (eds): Psychotropic Drugs . Amsterdam, Elsevier Publishing Co, 1957, p 460. 138. Sai-Halasz A, Brunecker G, Szara ST: Dymethyltryptamin: ein neues Psychoticum . Psychiatry Neurol 1958;135:285-301.Crossref 139. Gentili C, Tiberi F: Rilievi clinicosperimentali sull'azione neuropsicodislettica della N-N-dietiltriptamina. Atti del 2nd Colloquio Internazionale sull'Espressione Plastica, Bologna, 1963. 140. Mandell AJ, Knapp S: Asymmetry and mood, emergent properties of serotonin regulation . Arch Gen Psychiatry 1979;36:909-916.Crossref 141. Brumback RA, Staton RD: Learning disability and childhood depression . Am J Orthopsychiatry 1983;53:269-281.Crossref 142. Freeman RL, Galaburda AM, Diaz-Cabal R, et al: The neurology of depression: Cognitive and behavioral deficits with focal findings in depression and resolution after electroconvulsive therapy . Arch Neurol 1985;42:289-291.Crossref 143. Waziri R: Lateralization of neurolepticinduced dyskinesia indicates pharmacological asymmetry in the brain . Psychopharmacology 1980;68:51-53.Crossref 144. LeMay M: Morphological cerebral asymmetries of modern man, fossil man, and non-human primate . Ann NY Acad Sci 1976;280:349-366.Crossref 145. Strauss E, Fitz C: Occipital horn asymmetry in children . Ann Neurol 1980;8:437-439.Crossref 146. Herve G: La Circonvolution de Broca . Paris, Delahage et Lecrosnier, 1888. 147. Wada JA, Davies AE: Fundamental nature of human infant's brain asymmetry . Can J Neurol Sci 1977;4:203-207. 148. Bracco L, Tiezzi A, Ginanneschi A, et al: Lateralization of choline acetyltransferase (CHAT) activity in fetus and adult human brain . Neurosci Lett 1984;50:301-305.Crossref 149. DeBassio WA, Kemper TL, Galaburda AM: Asymmetric olfactory migratory stream growth in the rat . Soc Neurosci Abstr 1982; 8:326. 150. Narang HK: Right-left asymmetry of myelin development in epiretinal portion of the rabbit optic nerve . Nature 1977;266:28-29.Crossref 151. Manz HJ, Phillips TM, Rowden G, et al: Unilateral megalencephaly, cerebral cortical dysplasia, neuronal hypertrophy, and heterotopia: Cytomorphometric, fluorometric, cytochemical, and biochemical analysis . Acta Neuropathol 1979;45:97-103.Crossref 152. Woo TL: On the asymmetry of the human skull . Biometrika 1931;22:324-352.Crossref 153. Mesulam MM: A cortical network for directed attention and unilateral neglect . Ann Neurol 1981;10:309-325.Crossref 154. Heilman KM, Schwartz H, Watson RT: Hypoarousal in patients with the neglect syndrome and emotional indifference . Neurology 1977;28:229-232.Crossref 155. Hecaen H, de Ajuriaguerra J: Left-Handedness . New York, Grune & Stratton Inc, 1964. 156. Rogers LJ: Light experience and asymmetry of brain function in chickens . Nature 1982;297:223-225.Crossref 157. Dewson JH III: Toward an animal model of auditory cognitive function, in Ludlow CL, Doran-Quine ME (eds): The Neurological Bases of Language Disorders in Children: Methods and Directions for Research. NINCDS Monograph No 22, Government Printing Office, 1979, pp 19-24. 158. Yeni-Komshian GH, Benson DA: Anatomical study of cerebral asymmetry in the temporal lobe of humans, chimpanzees, and rhesus monkeys . Science 1976;192:387-389.Crossref 159. Cain DP, Wada JA: An anatomical asymmetry in the baboon brain . Brain Behav Evol 1979;16:222-226.Crossref 160. Webster WG, Webster IH: Anatomical asymmetry of the cerebral hemispheres of the cat brain . Physiol Behav 1975;4:867-869.Crossref 161. Kolb B, Sutherland RJ, Nonneman AJ, et al: Asymmetry in the cerebral hemispheres of the rat, mouse, rabbit, and cat: The right hemisphere is larger . Exp Neurol 1982;78:348-359.Crossref 162. Diamond MC, Johnson RE, Ingham CA: Morphological changes in the young, adult and aging rat cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and diencephalon . Behav Biol 1975;14:163-174.Crossref 163. Sherman GF, Galaburda AM: Neocortical asymmetry and open-field behavior in the rat . Exp Neurol 1984;86:473-482.Crossref 164. Diamond MC, Murphy GM Jr, Akiama K, et al: Morphologic hippocampal asymmetry in male and female rats . Exp Neurol 1982;76:553-565.Crossref 165. Braitenberg V, Kemali M: Exceptions to bilateral symmetry in the epithalamus of lower vertebrates . J Comp Neurol 1970;138:137-146.Crossref 166. Engbretson GA, Reiner A, Brecha N: Habenular asymmetry and the central connections of the parietal eye of the lizard . J Comp Neurol 1981;198:155-165.Crossref 167. Petersen MR, Beecher MD, Zoloth SR, et al: Neural lateralization of species-specific vocalizations by Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) . Science 1978;202:324-327.Crossref 168. Denenberg VH: Hemispheric laterality in animals and the effects of early experience . Behav Brain Sci 1981;4:1-49.Crossref 169. Nottebohm F: Brain pathways for vocal learning in birds: A review of the first ten years . Prog Psychobiol Physiol Psychol 1980;9:85-124. 170. Rogers LJ: Lateralization in the avian brain . Bird Behav 1980;2:1-12.Crossref 171. Zimmerberg B, Glick SD, Jerussi TP: Neurochemical correlate of a spatial preference in rats . Science 1974;185:623-625.Crossref 172. Schneider LH, Murphy RB, Coons EE: Lateralization of striatal dopamine (D2) receptors in normal rats . Neurosci Lett 1982;33:281-284.Crossref 173. Jerussi TP, Glick SD: Drug-induced rotation in rats without lesions: Behavioral and neurochemical indices of a normal asymmetry in nigro-striatal function . Psychopharmacology 1976;47:249-260.Crossref 174. Robinson TE, Becker JB, Ramirez VD: Sex differences in amphetamine-elicited rotational behavior and lateralization of striatal dopamine in rats . Brain Res Bull 1980;5:539-545.Crossref 175. Starr MS, Kilpatrick K: Bilateral asymmetry in brain GABA function? Neurosci Lett 1981;25:167-172.Crossref 176. Zimmerberg B, Strumpf AJ, Glick SD: Cerebral asymmetry and left-right discrimination . Brain Res 1978;140:194-196.Crossref 177. Cynader M, Lepore F, Guillemot JP: Interhemispheric competition during postnatal development . Nature 1981;290:139-140.Crossref 178. Glick SD: Heritable determinants of leftright bias in the rat . Life Sci 1983;32:2215-2221.Crossref 179. Mellon DeF: Nerves and the transformation of claw type in snapping shrimps . TINS 1981;4:245-248. 180. Govind CK, Kent KS: Transformation of fast fibres to slow prevented by lack of activity in developing lobster muscle . Nature 1982;298:755-757.Crossref 181. Alderman AL: The determination of the eye in the anuran Hyla regilla . J Exp Zool 1935;70:205-232.Crossref 182. Kallen B: Teratology, The Science of Malformations . Stockholm, Almqvist & Wiksell, 1967, p 239. 183. Galaburda AM, Sherman GF, Rosen GD, et al: Developmental dyslexia: Four consecutive cases with cortical anomalies. Ann Neurol, in press. 184. Galaburda AM, Eidelberg D: Symmetry and asymmetry in the human posterior thalamus: II. Thalamic lesions in a case of developmental dyslexia . Arch Neurol 1982;39:333-336.Crossref 185. Levine DN, Hier DB, Calvanio R: Acquired learning disability for reading after left temporal lobe damage in childhood . Neurology 1981;31:257-264.Crossref 186. Caron JP, Colin H, Comoy J, et al: Resultats de l'exeoese chirurgicale des aneurysmes arterio-veneux (AAV) des zones rolandique, parietale, occipital, et du pli courbe de l'hemisphere dominant: propos deÁ vingt cas . Neurochirurgie 1982;28:295-307. 187. Mori K, Murata T, Hashimoto N, et al: Clinical analysis of arteriovenous malformations in children . Childs Brain 1980;6:13-25. 188. Hier DB, LeMay M, Rosenberger PB, et al: Developmental dyslexia: Evidence for a subgroup with reversed cerebral asymmetry . Arch Neurol 1978;35:90-92.Crossref 189. Hier DB, LeMay M, Rosenberger PB: Developmental dyslexia and unfavorable leftright asymmetries of the brain . J Autism Dev Disord 1979;9:153-159.Crossref 190. Rosenberger PB, Hier DB: Cerebral asymmetry and verbal intellectual deficits . Ann Neurol 1980;8:300-304.Crossref 191. Veith G, Schwindt W: Pathologisch-anatomischer Beitrag zum Problem 'Nichtsesshaftigkeit.' Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 1976;44:1-21. 192. Balthasar K: Über das anatomische Substrat der generalisierten Tic-Krankheit (Maladie des Tics, Gilles de la Tourette): Entwicklungshemmung des Corpus striatum . Arch Psychiatrie 1957;195:531-549.Crossref 193. Sano F: James Henry Pullen, The Genius of Earlswood . J Mental Sci 1918;64:251-267. 194. Rimland B: Infantile Autism . New York, Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1964. 195. Rimland B: The autistic savant . Psychol Today 1978;12:69-80. 196. Layton WM Jr: Random determination of a developmental process . J Hered 1976;67:336-338. 197. Afzelius BA, Camner P, Eliasson R, et al: Kartagener's syndrome does exist . Lancet 1978; 2:950.Crossref 198. Dahlberg G: Genotypic asymmetries . Proc R Soc Edin 1944-1947;62:20-31. 199. Bakan P: Handedness and birth order . Nature 1971;229:195.Crossref 200. Bakan P: Left-handedness and birth order revisited . Neuropsychologia 1977;15:837-839.Crossref 201. Benton AL, Meyers R, Polder GJ: Some aspects of handedness . Psychiatr Neurol 1962; 144:321-337.Crossref 202. Wada J, Rasmussen T: Intracarotid injection of sodium amytal for the lateralization of cerebral speech dominance . J Neurosurg 1960; 17:266-282.Crossref 203. Rasmussen T, Milner B: The role of early left-brain injury in determining lateralization of cerebral speech functions . Ann NY Acad Sci 1977;299:355-369.Crossref 204. Provins KA, Milner AD, Kerr P: Asymmetry of mammal preference and performance . Percept Mot Skills 1982;54:179-194.Crossref 205. Annett M: A classification of hand preference by association analysis . Br J Psychol 1970; 61:303-321.Crossref 206. Nasrallah HA, Keelor K, McCalley-Whitters M: Laterality shift in alcoholic males . Biol Psychol 1983;18:1065-1067. 207. Schachter SC, Ransil BJ, Geschwind N: Associations of handedness with hair color and learning disabilities. Neuropsychologia, in press. 208. Liepmann H: Drei Aufsätze aus dem Apraxiegebiet . Berlin, S Karger AG, 1908. 209. Kimura D, Archibald Y: Motor functions of the left hemisphere . Brain 1974;97:337-350.Crossref 210. Geschwind N: The apraxias: Neural mechanisms of disorders of learned movement . Am Sci 1975;63:188-195. 211. Gesell A, Ames LB: The development of handedness . J Genet Psychol 1947;70:155-175. 212. Keller R: Two famous left-handers . Ciba Symposia 1942;3:1143-1145. 213. Kilshaw D, Annett M: Right- and lefthand skill: I. Effects of age, sex, and hand preference showing superior skill in left-handers . Br J Psychol 1983;74:253-268.Crossref 214. Taylor DC: Ontogenesis of chronic epileptic psychoses: A reanalysis . Psychol Med 1975; 1:247-253.Crossref 215. Swinson CM, Slavin G, Coles EC, et al: Coeliac disease and malignancy . Lancet 1983; 1:111-115.Crossref 216. Seltzer B, Sherwin I: A comparison of clinical features in early- and late-onset primary degenerative dementia . Arch Neurol 1983;40:143-146.Crossref 217. Marsh DG, Meyers DA, Bias WB: The epidemiology and genetics of atopic allergy . N Engl J Med 1981;305:1551-1559.Crossref 218. Weintraub S, Mesulam MM: Developmental learning disabilities of the right hemisphere . Arch Neurol 1983;40:463-468.Crossref 219. Folstein S, Rutter M: Genetic influences and infantile autism . Nature 1977;265:726-728.Crossref 220. Orton ST: 'Word-blindness' in school children . Arch Neurol Psychiatry 1925;14:581-615.Crossref 221. Ludlow CL, Polinsky RJ, Caine ED, et al: Language and speech abnormalities in Tourette syndrome , in Friedhoff HJ, Chase TN (eds): Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome . New York, Raven Press, 1982, pp 351-361. 222. Boucher J: Hand preference in autistic children and their parents . J Autism Childhood Schiz 1977;7:177-187.Crossref 223. Colby KM, Parkinson C: Handedness in autistic children . J Autism Childhood Schiz 1977;7:3-9.Crossref 224. Bishop DVM: How sinister is sinistrality? J R Coll Physicians Lond 1983;17:161-172. 225. Oswald I: Sleep and its disorders , in Vinken PJ, Bruyn GW (eds): Handbook of Clinical Neurology . New York, Elsevier North Holland Inc, 1969, vol 3, Disorders of Higher Nervous Activity, pp 80-111. 226. Carpenter S, Yassa R, Ochs R: A pathologic basis for Kleine-Levin syndrome . Arch Neurol 1982;39:25-28.Crossref 227. Vandenberg SG, Kuse AR: Spatial ability: A critical review of the sex-linked major gene hypothesis , in Wittig MA and Peterson AC (eds): Sex-Related Differences in Cognitive Functioning . New York, Academic Press Inc, 1979, pp 67-94. 228. Benbow CP, Stanley JC: Math talent, in press. 229. Carter CO: Sex-linkage and sex-limitation , in Ounsted C, Taylor DC (eds): Gender Differences: Their Ontogeny and Significance . New York, Churchill Livingstone Inc, 1972. 230. Kidd KK, Heimbuch RC, Records MA: Vertical transmission of susceptibility to stuttering with sex-modified expression . Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1981;78:606-610.Crossref 231. Edwards DA: Mice: Fighting by neonatally androgenized females . Science 1964;161:1027-1028.Crossref 232. Bronson FH, Desjardins C: Aggression in adult mice: Modification by neonatal injections of gonadal hormones . Science 1968;161:705-706.Crossref 233. Wood LC: Presentation , American Thyroid Association , New Orleans, 1983. 234. Thonnard-Neumann E: Some interrelationships of vasoactive substances and basophilic leukocytes in migraine headache . Headache 1969; 9:130-140.Crossref 235. Egger J, Carter CM, Wilson J, et al: Is migraine food allergy? Lancet 1983;2:865-870.Crossref 236. Szondi L: Konstitutionsanalyse von 100 Stotterern . Wien Med Wochenschr 1932;82:922-928. 237. Coleman M (ed): The Autistic Syndromes . New York, Elsevier North Holland Publishing Co, 1976. 238. Beer AE, Billingham RE: The Immunobiology of Mammalian Reproduction . Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice-Hall Inc, 1976. 239. Faulk WP: Human trophoblast antigens: Role in normal and abnormal pregnancies . Bull Mem Acad Roy Med Belg 1981;136:379-388. 240. Taylor C, Faulk WP: Prevention of recurrent abortions with leucocyte transfusions . Lancet 1981;2:68-69.Crossref 241. Tryphonas H, Trites R: Food allergy in children with hyperactivity, learning disabilities, and/or minimal brain dysfunction . Ann Allergy 1979;42:22-27. 242. Fialkow PJ: Autoimmunity: A predisposing factor to chromosomal aberrations? Lancet 1964;1:474-475.Crossref 243. Fialkow PJ: Thyroid autoimmunity and Down's syndrome . Ann NY Acad Sci 1970; 171:500-511.Crossref 244. Greenfield JG, Blackwood W, McMenemy WH, et al (eds): Neuropathology . London, Edward Arnold, 1958, p 353. 245. Chui HC, Demasio AR: Human cerebral asymmetries evaluated by computed tomography . J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1980;43:873-878.Crossref 246. Holloway RL: Indonesian 'Solo' (Ngadong) endocranial reconstructions: Some preliminary observations and comparisons with Neanderthal and Homo erectus groups . Am J Phys Anthropol 1980;53:285-295.Crossref 247. Weinberger DR, Luchins DJ, Morihisa J, et al: Asymmetrical volumes of the right and left frontal and occipital regions of the human brain . Ann Neurol 1982;11:97-100.Crossref 248. Nikkuni S, Yashima Y, Kishige K, et al: Left-right hemispheric asymmetry of cortical speech zones in the Japanese brain . Brain Nerve 1981;33:77-84. 249. Rubens AB, Mahowald MW, Hutton JT: Asymmetry of the lateral sylvian fissures in man . Neurology 1976;26:620-624.Crossref 250. Ratcliff G, Dila C, Taylor L, et al: The morphological asymmetry of the hemispheres and cerebral dominance for speech: A possible relationship . Brain Lang 1980;11:87-98.Crossref 251. Henschen SE: On the function of the right hemisphere of the brain in relation to the left in speech, music, and calculation . Brain 1926; 49:110-123.Crossref 252. Groves CP, Humphrey NK: Asymmetry in gorilla skulls: Evidence of lateralized brain function? Nature 1973;244:53-54.Crossref 253. Fischer E: Über die Variationen der Hirnfurchen des Schimpansen . Verh Anat Ges 1921; 30:48-54. 254. Ingalls NW: The parietal region in the primate brain . J Comp Neurol 1914;28:291-341.Crossref 255. Diamond MC, Johnson RE, Young D, et al: Age-related morphologic differences in the rat cerebral cortex and hippocampus: Male-female; right-left . Exp Neurol 1983;81:1-13.Crossref 256. Sherman GF, Galaburda AM: Cortical volume asymmetry and behavior in the albino rat . Soc Neurosci Abstr 1982;8:627. 257. Kolb B, McIntosh A, Whishaw IQ, et al: Evidence for anatomical but not functional asymmetry in the hemidecorticate rat . Behav Neurosci 1984;98:44-58.Crossref 258. Valdes JJ, Mactatus C, Cory RN, et al: Lateralization of norepinephrine, serotonin, and choline uptake into hippcampal synaptosomes of sinistral rats . Physiol Behav 1981;27:381-383.Crossref 259. Robinson TE, Becker JB, Camp DM, et al: Variation in the pattern of behavioral and brain asymmetries due to sex differences, in Glick SD (ed): Cerebral Lateralization in Nonhuman Species. New York, Academic Press Inc, in press.

Journal

Archives of NeurologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: May 1, 1985

References