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Cerebral Edema in Water Intoxication: II. An Ultrastructural Study

Cerebral Edema in Water Intoxication: II. An Ultrastructural Study Abstract PREVIOUS morphological studies of cerebral edema in water intoxication have been concerned exclusively when gray matter,1-5 although it has been well established that the greatest chemical swelling occurs in white matter.6 Most observers have found an increase in water content of the brain6-10 and swelling of glial cells1,7 in water intoxication, but Gerschenfeld et al have claimed that no chemical or morphological change occurs in the brain in the presence of severe water intoxication.7 In view of this controversy, and because of the often-noted differences in the behavior of white and gray matter in other types of brain swelling,11-16 we undertook this morphological study of white matter edema in water intoxication. It was hoped that such a work, in addition to complementing our chemical data on water intoxication,17 might provide useful information regarding fluid pathways in the brain. Material and Methods Thirty References 1. Luse, S.A.: The Ultrastructure of Normal and Abnormal Oligodendroglia , Anat Rec 138:461-469 ( (Aug) ) 1960.Crossref 2. Luse, S.A., and Harris, B.: Electron Microscopy of the Brain in Experimental Edema , J Neurosurg 17:439-446 ( (May) ) 1960.Crossref 3. Luse, S.A., and Harris, B.: Brain Ultrastructure in Hydration and Dehydration , Arch Neurol 4:139-153 ( (Feb) ) 1961.Crossref 4. Van Harreveld, A.; Collewyn, H.; and Malhotra, S.K.: Water, Electrolytes, and Extracellular Space in Hydrated and Dehydrated Brains , Amer J Physiol 210:251-256 ( (Feb) ) 1966. 5. Rosomoff, H.L., and Zugibe, F.T.: Distribution of Intracranial Contents in Experimental Edema , Arch Neurol 9:26-34 ( (July) ) 1963.Crossref 6. Herschkowitz, N.; McGillivray, B.B.; and Cumings, T.N.: Biochemical and Electrophysiological Studies in Experimental Cerebral Oedema , Brain 88:557-584 ( (Sept) ) 1965.Crossref 7. Gerschenfeld, H.M., et al: Function of Astroglia in the Water-Ion Metabolism of the Central Nervous System: An Electron Microscope Study , Neurology 9:412-425 ( (June) ) 1959.Crossref 8. Dodge, P.R.; Crawford, J.D.; and Probst, J.H.: Studies in Experimental Water Intoxication , Arch Neurol 3:513-529 ( (Nov) ) 1960.Crossref 9. Stern, W.E., and Coxon, R.V.: Osmolality of Brain Tissue and Its Relation to Brain Bulk , Amer J Physiol 206:1-7 ( (Jan) ) 1964. 10. Agnew, W.F.: Effects of Plasma Tonicity on the Distribution of Water and Solutes in Brain and Muscle , Exp Neurol 13:58-70 ( (Sept) ) 1965.Crossref 11. Bakay, L., and Haque, I.U.: Morphological and Chemical Studies in Cerebral Edema: I. Cold Induced Edema , J Neuropath Exp Neurol 23:393-418 ( (July) ) 1964.Crossref 12. Gonatas, N.K.; Zimmerman, H.M.; and Levine, S.: Ultra-Structure of Inflammation With Edema in the Rat Brain , Amer J Path 42:455-469 ( (April) ) 1963. 13. Katzman, R.; Aleu, R.; and Wilson, C.: Further Observations on Triethyl Tin Edema , Arch Neurol 9:178-187 ( (Aug) ) 1963.Crossref 14. Tower, D.B., and Bourke, R.S.: Fluid Compartmentation and Electrolytes of Cat Cerebral Cortex in Vitro: III. Ontogenic and Comparative Aspects , J Neurochem 13:1119-1137 ( (Nov) ) 1966.Crossref 15. Aleu, F.P.; Katzman, R.; and Terry, R.D.: Fine Structure and Electrolyte Analyses of Cerebral Edema Induced by Alkly Tin Intoxication , J Neuropath Exp Neurol 22:403-413 ( (July) ) 1963.Crossref 16. Herzog, I.; Levy, W.A.; and Scheinberg, L.C.: Biochemical and Morphologic Studies of Cerebral Edema Associated With Intracerebral Tumors in Rabbits , J Neuropath Exp Neurol 24:244-255 ( (April) ) 1965.Crossref 17. Wasterlain, C., and Posner, A.: Cerebral Edema in Water Intoxication: I. Chemical Aspects , Arch Neurol , this issue. 18. Wachstein, M., and Meisel, E.: Histochemistry of Hepatic Phosphatases at a Physiologic pH With Special Reference to the Demonstration of Bile Canaliculi , Amer J Clin Path 27:13-23 ( (Jan) ) 1957. 19. Torack, R.M.: Adenosine Triphosphatase Activity in Rat Brain Following Differential Fixation with Formaldehyde, Glutaraldehyde and Hydroxyadipaldehyde , J Histochem Cytochem 13:191-205 ( (March) ) 1964.Crossref 20. Torack, R.M.: The Extracellular Space of Rat Brain Following Perfusion Fixation With Glutaraldehyde and Hydroxyadipaldehyde , Z Zellforsch 66:352-364, ( (May 6) ) 1965.Crossref 21. Torack, R.M.; Terry, R.D.; and Zimmerman, H.M.: The Fine Structure of Cerebral Fluid Accumulation: II. Swelling Produced by Triethyl Tin Poisoning and Its Comparison With That in the Human Brain , Amer J Path 36:273-287 ( (March) ) 1960. 22. Lee, J.C., and Bakay, L.: Ultrastructural Changes in the Edematous Central Nervous System: I. Triethyltin Edema , Arch Neurol 13:48-57 ( (July) ) 1965.Crossref 23. Torack, R.M.; Terry, R.D.; and Zimmerman, H.M.: The Fine Structure of Cerebral Fluid Accumulation: I. Swelling Secondary to Cold Injury , Amer J Path 35:1135-1147 ( (Dec) ) 1959. 24. Lee, J.C., and Bakay, L.: Ultrastructural Changes in the Edematous Central Nervous System: II. Cold Induced Edema , Arch Neurol 14:36-49 ( (Jan) ) 1966.Crossref 25. Gonatas, N.K.; Levine, S.; and Shoulson, R.: Phagocytosis and Regeneration of Myelin in an Experimental Leukoencephalopathy , Amer J Path 44:565-583 ( (April) ) 1964. 26. Hirano, A.; Zimmerman, H.M.; and Levine, S.: The Fine Structure of Cerebral Fluid Accumulation: III. Extracellular Spread of Cryptococcal Polysaccharide in the Acute State , Amer J Path 45:1-19 ( (July) ) 1964. 27. Hirano, A.; Zimmerman, H.M.; and Levine, S.: Fine Structure of Cerebral Fluid Accumulation: VI. Intracellular Accumulation of Fluid and Cryptococcal Polysaccharide in Oligodendroglia , Arch Neurol 12:189-196 ( (Feb) ) 1965.Crossref 28. Hirano, A.; Zimmerman, H.M.; and Levine, S.: The Fine Structure of Cerebral Fluid Accumulation: VII. Reactions of Astrocytes to Cryptococcal Polysaccharide Implantation , J Neuropath Exp Neurol 24:386-397 ( (July) ) 1965.Crossref 29. Levine, S., et al: Experimental Leukoencephalopathies Due to Implantation of Foreign Substances , Amer J Path 42:97-117 ( (Jan) ) 1963. 30. Aleu, F.P., et al: Ultrastructural and Biochemical Analysis in Cerebral Edema Associated With Experimental Mouse Gliomas , J Neuropath Exp Neurol 23:253-263 ( (April) ) 1964.Crossref 31. Torack, R.M.: The Relationship Between Adenosinetriphosphatase Activity and Triethyltin Toxicity in the Production of Cerebral Edema of the Rat , Amer J Path 46:245-262 ( (Feb) ) 1965. 32. Brightman, M.W.: The Distribution Within the Brain of Ferritin Injected Into Cerebrospinal Fluid Compartments: I. Ependymal Distribution , J Cell Biol 26:99-123 ( (July) ) 1965.Crossref 33. Villegas, G.M., and Fernandez, J.: Permeability to Thorium Dioxide of the Intercellular Spaces of the Frog Cerebral Hemisphere , Exp Neurol 15:18-36 ( (May) ) 1966.Crossref 34. Lampert, P., and Carpenter, S.: Electron Microscopic Studies on the Vascular Permeability and the Mechanism of Demyelination in Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis , J Neuropath Exper Neurol 24:11-24 ( (Jan) ) 1965.Crossref 35. Crawford, J.D., and Dodge, P.R.: Complications of Fluid Therapy in Patients With Neurologic Disease: With Special Emphasis on Water Intoxication and Hypertonic Dehydration , Pediat Clin N Amer 6:257-279 ( (Feb) ) 1959. 36. Funk-Brentano, J.L.; Lossky-Nekhorocheff, I.; and Altman, J.: Etude experimentale des manifestations cerebrales de l'intoxication par l'eau , Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 12:185-191 ( (Feb) ) 1960.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Neurology American Medical Association

Cerebral Edema in Water Intoxication: II. An Ultrastructural Study

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American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1968 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-9942
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1538-3687
DOI
10.1001/archneur.1968.00480010097008
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Abstract

Abstract PREVIOUS morphological studies of cerebral edema in water intoxication have been concerned exclusively when gray matter,1-5 although it has been well established that the greatest chemical swelling occurs in white matter.6 Most observers have found an increase in water content of the brain6-10 and swelling of glial cells1,7 in water intoxication, but Gerschenfeld et al have claimed that no chemical or morphological change occurs in the brain in the presence of severe water intoxication.7 In view of this controversy, and because of the often-noted differences in the behavior of white and gray matter in other types of brain swelling,11-16 we undertook this morphological study of white matter edema in water intoxication. It was hoped that such a work, in addition to complementing our chemical data on water intoxication,17 might provide useful information regarding fluid pathways in the brain. Material and Methods Thirty References 1. Luse, S.A.: The Ultrastructure of Normal and Abnormal Oligodendroglia , Anat Rec 138:461-469 ( (Aug) ) 1960.Crossref 2. Luse, S.A., and Harris, B.: Electron Microscopy of the Brain in Experimental Edema , J Neurosurg 17:439-446 ( (May) ) 1960.Crossref 3. Luse, S.A., and Harris, B.: Brain Ultrastructure in Hydration and Dehydration , Arch Neurol 4:139-153 ( (Feb) ) 1961.Crossref 4. Van Harreveld, A.; Collewyn, H.; and Malhotra, S.K.: Water, Electrolytes, and Extracellular Space in Hydrated and Dehydrated Brains , Amer J Physiol 210:251-256 ( (Feb) ) 1966. 5. Rosomoff, H.L., and Zugibe, F.T.: Distribution of Intracranial Contents in Experimental Edema , Arch Neurol 9:26-34 ( (July) ) 1963.Crossref 6. Herschkowitz, N.; McGillivray, B.B.; and Cumings, T.N.: Biochemical and Electrophysiological Studies in Experimental Cerebral Oedema , Brain 88:557-584 ( (Sept) ) 1965.Crossref 7. Gerschenfeld, H.M., et al: Function of Astroglia in the Water-Ion Metabolism of the Central Nervous System: An Electron Microscope Study , Neurology 9:412-425 ( (June) ) 1959.Crossref 8. Dodge, P.R.; Crawford, J.D.; and Probst, J.H.: Studies in Experimental Water Intoxication , Arch Neurol 3:513-529 ( (Nov) ) 1960.Crossref 9. Stern, W.E., and Coxon, R.V.: Osmolality of Brain Tissue and Its Relation to Brain Bulk , Amer J Physiol 206:1-7 ( (Jan) ) 1964. 10. Agnew, W.F.: Effects of Plasma Tonicity on the Distribution of Water and Solutes in Brain and Muscle , Exp Neurol 13:58-70 ( (Sept) ) 1965.Crossref 11. Bakay, L., and Haque, I.U.: Morphological and Chemical Studies in Cerebral Edema: I. Cold Induced Edema , J Neuropath Exp Neurol 23:393-418 ( (July) ) 1964.Crossref 12. Gonatas, N.K.; Zimmerman, H.M.; and Levine, S.: Ultra-Structure of Inflammation With Edema in the Rat Brain , Amer J Path 42:455-469 ( (April) ) 1963. 13. Katzman, R.; Aleu, R.; and Wilson, C.: Further Observations on Triethyl Tin Edema , Arch Neurol 9:178-187 ( (Aug) ) 1963.Crossref 14. Tower, D.B., and Bourke, R.S.: Fluid Compartmentation and Electrolytes of Cat Cerebral Cortex in Vitro: III. Ontogenic and Comparative Aspects , J Neurochem 13:1119-1137 ( (Nov) ) 1966.Crossref 15. Aleu, F.P.; Katzman, R.; and Terry, R.D.: Fine Structure and Electrolyte Analyses of Cerebral Edema Induced by Alkly Tin Intoxication , J Neuropath Exp Neurol 22:403-413 ( (July) ) 1963.Crossref 16. Herzog, I.; Levy, W.A.; and Scheinberg, L.C.: Biochemical and Morphologic Studies of Cerebral Edema Associated With Intracerebral Tumors in Rabbits , J Neuropath Exp Neurol 24:244-255 ( (April) ) 1965.Crossref 17. Wasterlain, C., and Posner, A.: Cerebral Edema in Water Intoxication: I. Chemical Aspects , Arch Neurol , this issue. 18. Wachstein, M., and Meisel, E.: Histochemistry of Hepatic Phosphatases at a Physiologic pH With Special Reference to the Demonstration of Bile Canaliculi , Amer J Clin Path 27:13-23 ( (Jan) ) 1957. 19. Torack, R.M.: Adenosine Triphosphatase Activity in Rat Brain Following Differential Fixation with Formaldehyde, Glutaraldehyde and Hydroxyadipaldehyde , J Histochem Cytochem 13:191-205 ( (March) ) 1964.Crossref 20. Torack, R.M.: The Extracellular Space of Rat Brain Following Perfusion Fixation With Glutaraldehyde and Hydroxyadipaldehyde , Z Zellforsch 66:352-364, ( (May 6) ) 1965.Crossref 21. Torack, R.M.; Terry, R.D.; and Zimmerman, H.M.: The Fine Structure of Cerebral Fluid Accumulation: II. Swelling Produced by Triethyl Tin Poisoning and Its Comparison With That in the Human Brain , Amer J Path 36:273-287 ( (March) ) 1960. 22. Lee, J.C., and Bakay, L.: Ultrastructural Changes in the Edematous Central Nervous System: I. Triethyltin Edema , Arch Neurol 13:48-57 ( (July) ) 1965.Crossref 23. Torack, R.M.; Terry, R.D.; and Zimmerman, H.M.: The Fine Structure of Cerebral Fluid Accumulation: I. Swelling Secondary to Cold Injury , Amer J Path 35:1135-1147 ( (Dec) ) 1959. 24. Lee, J.C., and Bakay, L.: Ultrastructural Changes in the Edematous Central Nervous System: II. Cold Induced Edema , Arch Neurol 14:36-49 ( (Jan) ) 1966.Crossref 25. Gonatas, N.K.; Levine, S.; and Shoulson, R.: Phagocytosis and Regeneration of Myelin in an Experimental Leukoencephalopathy , Amer J Path 44:565-583 ( (April) ) 1964. 26. Hirano, A.; Zimmerman, H.M.; and Levine, S.: The Fine Structure of Cerebral Fluid Accumulation: III. Extracellular Spread of Cryptococcal Polysaccharide in the Acute State , Amer J Path 45:1-19 ( (July) ) 1964. 27. Hirano, A.; Zimmerman, H.M.; and Levine, S.: Fine Structure of Cerebral Fluid Accumulation: VI. Intracellular Accumulation of Fluid and Cryptococcal Polysaccharide in Oligodendroglia , Arch Neurol 12:189-196 ( (Feb) ) 1965.Crossref 28. Hirano, A.; Zimmerman, H.M.; and Levine, S.: The Fine Structure of Cerebral Fluid Accumulation: VII. Reactions of Astrocytes to Cryptococcal Polysaccharide Implantation , J Neuropath Exp Neurol 24:386-397 ( (July) ) 1965.Crossref 29. Levine, S., et al: Experimental Leukoencephalopathies Due to Implantation of Foreign Substances , Amer J Path 42:97-117 ( (Jan) ) 1963. 30. Aleu, F.P., et al: Ultrastructural and Biochemical Analysis in Cerebral Edema Associated With Experimental Mouse Gliomas , J Neuropath Exp Neurol 23:253-263 ( (April) ) 1964.Crossref 31. Torack, R.M.: The Relationship Between Adenosinetriphosphatase Activity and Triethyltin Toxicity in the Production of Cerebral Edema of the Rat , Amer J Path 46:245-262 ( (Feb) ) 1965. 32. Brightman, M.W.: The Distribution Within the Brain of Ferritin Injected Into Cerebrospinal Fluid Compartments: I. Ependymal Distribution , J Cell Biol 26:99-123 ( (July) ) 1965.Crossref 33. Villegas, G.M., and Fernandez, J.: Permeability to Thorium Dioxide of the Intercellular Spaces of the Frog Cerebral Hemisphere , Exp Neurol 15:18-36 ( (May) ) 1966.Crossref 34. Lampert, P., and Carpenter, S.: Electron Microscopic Studies on the Vascular Permeability and the Mechanism of Demyelination in Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis , J Neuropath Exper Neurol 24:11-24 ( (Jan) ) 1965.Crossref 35. Crawford, J.D., and Dodge, P.R.: Complications of Fluid Therapy in Patients With Neurologic Disease: With Special Emphasis on Water Intoxication and Hypertonic Dehydration , Pediat Clin N Amer 6:257-279 ( (Feb) ) 1959. 36. Funk-Brentano, J.L.; Lossky-Nekhorocheff, I.; and Altman, J.: Etude experimentale des manifestations cerebrales de l'intoxication par l'eau , Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 12:185-191 ( (Feb) ) 1960.Crossref

Journal

Archives of NeurologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Jul 1, 1968

References